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Canadian Woods

Canadian Woods: Their Properties and Uses

E.J. Mullins
T.S. McKnight
Copyright Date: 1981
Pages: 389
  • Book Info
    Canadian Woods
    Book Description:

    Lavishly illustrated with moer than 280 photographs and drawings, the newly revisedCanadian Woodsis an essential reference for students and practitioners in the forest professions and in primary and secondary forest industries.

    eISBN: 978-1-4426-7267-3
    Subjects: Technology

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-xv)
  3. [Illustration]
    (pp. xvi-xvi)
  4. Preface
    (pp. xvii-xviii)
    (pp. xviii-1)
  6. 1 Canada: A Forest Nation
    (pp. 3-8)

    Canada is known as a forest nation. The growing stock of Canadian forests, which is estimated at 19 billion m³ (681 billion cu ft), is about 7% of the total of the worldʹs forests. More than half of the land area in Canadaʹs ten provinces is covered with forests and there is additional forest land in the Yukon and Northwest Territories. Canada has the second largest forest reserves of softwood species in the world, after the ussr, and is the worldʹs major exporter of forest products.

    The forests of Canada are divided into eight regions as shown in Figure 1.2....

  7. 2 Commercial Woods
    (pp. 9-40)

    About 140 native tree species are described in the Canadian Forestry Service publicationNative Trees of Canada(Hosie 1969). Of these, 31 are coniferous species (or softwoods) and the others are deciduous species (or hardwoods). Many species are of limited commercial importance because they occur only locally in small quantities, or they are small in size. Nomenclature of the Canadian wood species used in this edition ofCanadian Woodsis generally the common tree and botanical name published inNative Trees of Canada. Additional vernacular names that are employed in the wood-using industries, which often vary according to locality, are...

  8. 3 The Structure of Wood
    (pp. 41-70)

    Wood is a material of beauty. Most people are attracted to its warmth, color, and shape. Beneath these surface attributes lies a structure of great diversity and complexity, which is seldom seen or appreciated. One cannot help but marvel at the beauty and intricacy revealed under magnification (Figure 3.1). But our interest goes far beyond the aesthetic, for the properties, and therefore the usefulness, of a wood depend on these details of structure and cell-wall composition. In order to use wood wisely, one must understand its biological origin, its structure and composition, its abnormalities, and its natural variability.

    Woods are...

  9. 4 Strength and Physical Properties of Wood
    (pp. 71-96)

    Today a wide selection of building materials is available. One of the preferred materials is wood, whose unique characteristics and versatility have long made it the natural choice for building homes and for manufacturing many other products.

    Data on the physical and mechanical properties of wood that make it so useful are presented in this chapter for the reference of architects, engineers, and others interested in the use of wood for structural and other applications.

    Wood is a porous, cellular material, and therefore the amount of solid wood substance in a given volume of wood is a good indicator of...

  10. 5 The Chemistry of Wood
    (pp. 97-127)

    In contrast to petroleum and other nonrenewable raw materials, wood is a constantly renewable resource. All wood is formed from carbon dioxide, which is taken from the air, and from water, which is taken from the soil along with small amounts of dissolved minerals. The element composition of dry wood is about 50% carbon, 6% hydrogen, 44% oxygen, and less than 0.1% nitrogen. There is little variation in these figures from one species of wood to another. During photosynthesis, cells containing chlorophyll in the leaves and needles absorb radiant energy from sunlight and use it to convert these simple compounds...

  11. 6 Lumber Production
    (pp. 129-145)

    From Canadaʹs early history, lumber has filled two important roles in the economy. First, it has provided a readily available source of building material for local use, and second, it has been the basis of a large and important export market, valued at $3901 million in 1979. It cannot be emphasized too strongly that this major permanent industry is based on a renewable resource.

    Canadaʹs role as an exporter of forest products began in the seventeenth century in eastern Canada when white and red pine were exported in the form of hewn and round timbers. On the west coast it...

  12. 7 The Drying of Wood
    (pp. 147-175)

    Green lumber, as it comes from the tree, contains a high proportion of water, ranging from 30% moisture content in the heartwood of some species to over 300% in the sapwood of some low-density species. The greater part of this moisture must be removed before the lumber is used or less than satisfactory service will result.

    Wood is a hygroscopic material, which means that it absorbs or gives off moisture in response to humidity changes in the surrounding atmosphere. It has a natural propensity to swell and shrink as its moisture content increases and decreases in the range from oven-dry...

  13. 8 Wood Protection
    (pp. 177-223)

    Wood is a versatile building material that can last indefinitely when used wisely. Dry wood specimens found in ancient Egyptian tombs and dated 2600–1000 bc were still sound when examined in modern times. Japanese temples contain samples of wood that has been in service for about 1300 years in both structural and decorative uses.

    Although wood can have a long life if properly used and protected, it is subject to degradation by weathering, fire, and insect or fungal attack if adverse conditions prevail. Some species have only a moderate degree of resistance to degradation, but their durability can be...

  14. 9 Glues and Gluing
    (pp. 225-243)

    The volume of glued wood products manufactured in Canada each year is exceeded only by the volume of lumber. Glued wood products range from commodity products to speciality items. Commodity products include plywood, particleboard, waferboard, fiberboard, and finger-jointed lumber, which are manufactured in millions of cubic metres each year (see Chapter 10). Specialty items include laminated timbers, furniture, cabinetry, toys, sporting goods, and many types of glued woodenware, which use a lesser amount of wood but still represent a high annual dollar value.

    Gluing is one means by which the forest-products industries fill the gap between market needs and wood...

  15. 10 Panel Products
    (pp. 245-264)

    The art of building consists largely of enclosing space. In a house the living space is enclosed to provide protection against the elements. Inside the house individual rooms are formed to provide privacy. Within the rooms are built-in cabinets, clothes closets, linen closets, and various kinds of furniture, such as wardrobes, buffets, desks, and liquor cabinets. All provide a means of storing various household goods so that they are readily accessible but out of sight.

    The common structural feature of the house and its components is that they consist of a frame surrounded by skins, known as panel products, or...

  16. 11 Houses and Structures
    (pp. 265-284)
    R.J. PAYNE

    If one excludes pulp and paper, housing is the forest industryʹs largest market for wood products. About 200 000 housing units are built in Canada each year, and this volume is expected to be maintained or exceeded in the years to come. Over 80% of the houses in North America are timber-frame structures, and in 1970 an average residential house required 17.6 m³ (10 840 fbm [foot board measure]) of lumber and 4.7 m³ (5358 sq ft) of wood-based panel products (9.5 mm [3/8 in.] basis). Projections to the year 2000 show that although the quantity of lumber per house...

  17. 12 Other Uses and Processes
    (pp. 285-302)

    For practical and aesthetic reasons, wood is widely used throughout the world for a great variety of products. Its strength, durability, lightness, workability with hand tools, range of color and grain pattern, moderate cost, and other attributes make it the most important raw material on earth. Fortunately it is also a renewable resource, and trees make our environment beautiful as they grow into merchantable timber.

    In this chapter both the processes and the products of some of the most important secondary wood-using industries are discussed. A comparison of the value added by the primary forest-based industries and by the secondary...

  18. 13 Pulp and Paper
    (pp. 303-319)
    J.L. KEAYS

    Papermaking is one of the worldʹs oldest industries. Its origins may be traced to the Chinese philosopher Tsʹai Lun, who is credited with the invention of paper in 105 ad. The materials he used were the inner bark of the mulberry tree and, later, young bamboo. The art of manufacturing paper spread slowly; it was not until 650 years later that paper was produced outside of China, first in Samarkand in 751 ad and then in Baghdad in 795 ad.

    Papermaking traveled slowly to the West. The Arabs brought the art from Baghdad to Spain, where the Moors manufactured the...

  19. 14 Residues
    (pp. 321-334)

    Residues are generated in all stages of forest use from the harvesting of trees to the final manufacturing processes. Traditionally, in forest harvesting in Canada, those portions of the tree not considered merchantable have been left in the woods to decompose. Normally only the stem of the tree is considered worthy of harvest, and the proportion of the stem harvested depends on the standards applied.

    Residues like bark, sawdust, pulp chips or solid residue, shavings, plywood trims, and sander dust, which are produced in manufacturing lumber, plywood, and shingles and shakes, can provide raw material for other products. These products...

  20. 15 Codes and Standards
    (pp. 335-347)

    Standards are documents that set forth for the manufacturer, marketer, and consumer the required quality, physical characteristics, and strength properties of a material or product. In Canada standards are produced under the auspices of a number of standards-writing organizations. Voluntary committees that have a balance of interest between producers on the one hand and consumers and general-interest groups on the other hand do the actual preparation of the standards.

    Codes are legal documents – frequently bylaws – that specify how products manufactured to certain standards are to be used to provide a specified end result. For example, building codes are...

  21. 16 The Future of Wood
    (pp. 349-360)

    Wood is our major renewable resource, and its products are biodegradable. This advantage is becoming increasingly important in a society concerned more and more about the environment. In Canada and the United States we process annually a greater tonnage of wood than of steel, cement, plastics, aluminum, and all other metals combined (Brown 1970).

    Will wood products be able to maintain their leading position as we progress into the twenty-first century? Predictions for the future are based on assumptions regarding the socioeconomic structure of the nation and the world. Let us look ahead to perceive what conditions might be like....

  22. Glossary
    (pp. 361-378)
  23. Index
    (pp. 379-389)