Cdn Annual Review 1969

Cdn Annual Review 1969

EDITED BY JOHN SAYWELL
Assistant Editor Donald Forster
Copyright Date: 1970
Pages: 540
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.3138/j.ctt2ttvsz
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  • Book Info
    Cdn Annual Review 1969
    Book Description:

    The Review contains reports by well-known contributors on events of the year in Parliament and politics (with essays on each of the provinces), external affairs and defense, the national economy, and Canadian life and leisure activities.

    eISBN: 978-1-4426-7183-6
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-x)
  3. Contributors
    (pp. xi-xii)
  4. Canadian Calendar
    (pp. xiii-xviii)
  5. PARLIAMENT AND POLITICS

    • Parliament and Politics
      (pp. 3-74)
      PAUL STEVENS and JOHN SAYWELL

      It was a quiet year on Parliament Hill. After a decade of politics dominated by personal rivalries and bitter confrontations, the politicians settled down to the business of running the country. The shelves were cleared of the backlog of work which had been allowed to accumulate during the previous years, while procedures were readied and the institutional framework set up to grapple with the problems of the 1970s. It was also a year for thought and reflection, for the beginnings of the process of considering the issues which would confront Canadians during the next few years. And if few of...

    • THE PROVINCES

      • ONTARIO
        (pp. 75-93)
        PETER OLIVER

        In ontario 1969 was a year of political turbulence and legislative achievement. Cabinet ministers were shouted down on the steps of Queen’s Park by delegations of labour unionists, farmers, and animal lovers. High costs and administrative snags provoked outraged screams from taxpayers and threatened the administration’s county school board and regional government programs. As the government pressed forward with its economy campaign and cut back on a number of major programs, unrest and resignations struck the civil service. Dissatisfied policemen staged protests of their own and threatened to run representatives in every riding at the next election. In bringing Ontario...

      • QUEBEC
        (pp. 93-108)
        JEAN-CHARLES BONENFANT

        La quatrième session de la vingt-huitième législature s’est ouverte le 25 février 1969 pour s’ajourner le 13 juin, reprendre le 7 octobre et être prorogée le 23 décembre. Pendant sa durée on a adopté cent trente-deux bills.

        Pour la première fois, par suite de la disparition du Conseil législatif le 31 décembre précédent, l’ouverture de la session a eu lieu à l’Assemblée nationale où s’est rendu le lieutenant-gouverneur, M. Hugues Lapointe. La cérémonie était volontairement dépouillée de tout le faste monarchique dont elle s’entourait autrefois et on s’est plu à parler du « discours inaugural » plutôt que du «...

      • NOVA SCOTIA
        (pp. 108-116)
        THOMAS SHEPPARD

        Charges of political mismanagement, the emergence of Halifax as an increasingly sophisticated urban centre, and continued industrial growth dominated the news from Nova Scotia during 1969.

        The pace of political activity increased early in the year as a more confident opposition leader, gaining support within his own party, mounted a systematic attack on the policies of Progressive Conservative Premier G. I. Smith. The Legislature, which opened on February 13, began on a sour note for the government as the opposition Liberals, led by former federal mp Gerald Regan, refused to participate in a government plan to bring the opposition into...

      • NEW BRUNSWICK
        (pp. 117-125)
        RICHARD WILBUR

        For New Brunswickers the decade closed on the same note they had heard throughout 1960: politics. That other theme which dominated the mid-1960s – economic development – was once again overshadowed by some of the most vicious political fighting that the province had known. In 1960 it had been the familiar foes, Liberals versus Conservatives; in 1969 it was the Liberals versus K. C. Irving. The Tories continued to be preoccupied with leadership problems and this opposition void or weakness was in many ways taken up by the province’s most powerful and most mysterious citizen, the industrialist K. C. Irving....

      • MANITOBA
        (pp. 125-135)
        TOM PETERSON

        The year began well for Conservative Premier Walter Weir. Prior to the February federal-provincial conference, his government issued a pamphlet entitled “What Tomorrow, Canada?” which spelled out its constitutional reform position: retention of the monarchy and parliamentary system, equal provincial representation in the Senate, rejection of any “special status” for Quebec, and a policy of “gradualism” on bilingualism. The latter was characterized by Maurice Gauthier, president of the Franco-Manitoban Society, as “extremely repulsive” and he warned that “It took 50 years to obtain a few crumbs of linguistic equality in Manitoba and the people are not prepared to wait another...

      • BRITISH COLUMBIA
        (pp. 135-150)
        MARTIN ROBIN and IAN MacALPINE

        The end of the 1960s in British Columbia was not unlike the beginning. In 1969, as in 1960, there was a general election and the Bennett government was easily returned. Similarly, the economy was booming and the echoes of the Premier’s boasts of how the good life had finally happened, were heard across the province. The year 1969 brought British Columbia’s first billion-dollar budget, an event which was loudly promoted by government salesmen. It witnessed, as well, a renewed surge of inflation – a trend which the Premier conveniently laid at the doorstep of the federal government. It was an...

      • PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND
        (pp. 150-158)
        FRANK MacKINNON

        The year 1969 was the two hundredth anniversary of the establishment of Prince Edward Island as a political unit. The occasion was not celebrated. There was little to celebrate because the year was one of the most difficult in the entire history of the province.

        Seldom had the fortunes of a province dropped so low as they did on the Island in 1969. The loss of effective responsible government, the spectre of bankruptcy, and an abrupt change in national public opinion respecting the Island, combined to depress both politics and the economy to the point where the Island’s very existence...

      • SASKATCHEWAN
        (pp. 158-168)
        NORMAN WARD

        Saskatchewan continued to learn during 1969 that affluence could not solve all its problems. In the first week the farmers were told that their incomes had dropped by $22 million during 1968, thanks to piles of unsold wheat contained not only in granaries but in sheds, empty shacks, and mounds dumped on the ground. At least sixteen million bushels of wheat were still in the fields in January, and the subsequent drying of that and other damp grain meant extra expense, at a time when falling grain prices and rising costs of living and farming found many agriculturalists in the...

      • ALBERTA
        (pp. 169-175)
        MARIAN McKENNA

        Alberta’s new Premier, Harry Strom, and his Social Credit colleagues set out to prove, in 1969, that their thirty-four-year-old government party could remain a powerhouse in provincial politics.

        The second session of the sixteenth Legislative Assembly, which turned out to be the longest in Alberta history, opened February 13 and closed May 7. The year’s legislative program really belonged to Ernest Manning, former premier, whose imprint on Alberta politics was indelible. The extensive cabinet rebuilding job and the new programs advocated by Mr Strom would not take shape until after the session.

        Fred Colborne served during the session as the...

      • NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR
        (pp. 175-182)
        LESLIE HARRIS

        Newfoundland’s twentieth year in Confederation and Joseph R. Smallwood’s twentieth year in power witnessed a marked reduction in the rate of material progress that had characterized the decade of the sixties and the first serious challenge to the leadership of the perennial Premier. Throughout the year the prevailing atmosphere was one of economic gloom and even the optimist would be hard pressed to find evidence that the quality of Newfoundland political life was appreciably superior to that of the “bad” old days.

        As early as January 21 the Minister of Finance announced the withdrawal from the market of a new...

      • THE YUKON AND THE NORTHWEST TERRITORIES
        (pp. 183-190)
        JIM LOTZ

        On April 5 the rcmp’s last dogteam patrol arrived back at Old Crow after twenty days hard travelling. In future, all police patrols in the north would be carried out by motor toboggans and aircraft. On May 2 the Canadian edition ofTimecarried on its front cover a picture of Duncan Pryde, a councillor from the Northwest Territories. The glowing story in the magazine told of the rich north and its fabulous future, and portrayed Mr Pryde as a sort of super-Eskimo. And on April 25 a letter signed by eleven Eskimos from Baker Lake appeared on the editorial...

  6. EXTERNAL AFFAIRS AND DEFENCE

    • External Affairs and Defence
      (pp. 193-272)
      J. L. GRANATSTEIN

      The foreign policy establishment lost its control of Canadian external affairs in 1969. This on balance is the key fact that stands out at year end. This was the year when the Prime Minister’s Office and the Privy Council Office – and the Prime Minister – seized the initiative away from the mandarins in the East Block. This was the year when professors testified at length before the House of Commons Standing Committee on External Affairs and Defence. This was the year when cabinet ministers seeking ammunition with which to resist the power of External Affairs’ briefs met secretly with...

  7. THE NATIONAL ECONOMY

    • The National Economy
      (pp. 275-360)
      DONALD FORSTER

      During 1969 the rate of growth of the Canadian economy virtually matched the 1968 pace. Strong first and fourth quarter advances brought gross national product to a level some 9.3 per cent above the previous year’s total, a 4.3 per cent increase after discounting for price changes. At the end of the year, most observers predicted a much smaller rise in gnp for 1970. Consumer spending continued to be a source of considerable strength in aggregate demand and labour income, reflecting a series of large wage settlements, increased substantially. The rate of increase in corporation profits slowed while farm income...

  8. LIFE AND LEISURE

    • Education
      (pp. 363-370)
      RALPH MITCHENER

      Costs climbed, governments grumbled, and students studied sometimes during the year. The non-university, post-secondary education sector expanded greatly. At the lower levels of education consolidation of school boards advanced. Appropriate summer jobs for university students were beginning to be scarce. Canadian teachers and graduate students at universities were, if one was to believe some claims, becoming if not scarce at least underrepresented. While the Canadian flag, by provincial government order, was not flown in the place of honour in front of Quebec schools, it was being stoutly waved elsewhere in the country.

      During the year much public discussion was generated...

    • Health
      (pp. 371-377)
      F. BURNS ROTH

      The decade of the sixties was one of the most dynamic in the history of health care in Canada. The year 1969 ended ten years in which highly significant new developments occurred in the basic science, in the treatment, and in the socio-economic aspects of health services. The explosion of new discoveries, the development of new tools and techniques of prevention, diagnosis, and treatment, and the increasing understanding about distribution of health services proceeded at an increasing rate during the decade. During 1969 there were some indications that the rapid pace of development and change was causing concern and steps...

    • Welfare
      (pp. 378-389)
      DONALD BELLAMY

      Policies developed in the mid-1960s pushed National Health and Welfare Minister John Munro’s welfare estimates for 1969–70 up to $3.8 billion or 28.3 per cent of total federal expenditures. This represented an increase of $623 million, most of it for medical insurance grants but also including $179 million for old age security (an increase of 11.3 per cent) and $48 million owing to increased provincial spending under the Canada Assistance Plan. A preoccupation with the development of social goals and policies for Canada in the future touched upon many aspects of social welfare; debate in various forms took place...

    • Science
      (pp. 390-403)
      JOAN POWERS RICKERD

      For over a year and a half the Senate special committee on science policy conducted a detailed enquiry into science in Canada. Over nine thousand pages of evidence was collected, and some three thousand persons attended hearings. The committee noted that in spite of the spectacular rise in the Canadian science budget in recent years, it was one of the lowest in proportion to gnp as compared with other industrialized nations. Did this mean, asked committee Chairman Senator Maurice Lamontagne, that a technological gap was developing in Canada or that we tended to import more technology than other countries?

      In...

    • Mass Media
      (pp. 404-426)
      WILFRED KESTERTON

      Perhaps Christopher Young,Ottawa Citizeneditor, best described the central fact of the 1969 mass media situation:

      We have been placed in the unaccustomed and uncomfortable position of having to write about ourselves. The critics have been forced on stage, while the actors sit clapping or hissing in the audience. Sports writers carry the ball, while athletes praise or blame their performance. Politicians achieve their long-felt desire to sit in a metaphorical press gallery, while reporters sweat and wriggle under the strobe lights.

      It’s happening all over. Spiro Agnew vs. Huntley, Brinkley and Cronkite. Keith Davey and his senators vs....

    • Drama: English Canada
      (pp. 427-434)
      ERIC S. RUMP

      Ottawa’s much disputed National Arts Centre at last opened its doors in late May and the initial impact was, on the whole, one of delight. From the outside the building, if not inviting, looked at least interesting; the sight-lines and acoustics of the three theatres were excellent; the foyers and other public areas displayed not only opulence but also good taste. As the year wore on, however, the ugly question of money started to displace this initial euphoria. The resignation of the public relations director, Mary Joliffe – apparently on the grounds that her department was receiving insufficient funds –...

    • Le Théâtre de langue française
      (pp. 435-444)
      JACQUES VIGNEAULT

      « Les jeunes gens d’aujourd’hui sont sceptiques, curieux, irrévérencieux, humains. Ils sont une génération faite pour le théâtre, et ils sont en effet en train de le découvrir. » Léon Major, président du Centre canadien du théâtre, à l’occasion de la journée mondiale du théâtre, le 27 mars 1969.

      Pendant sa dix-neuvième saison, le Théâtre du Nouveau Monde a présenté au public québécois sept différentes productions. Avant d’analyser chacune d’elles, il convient de jeter un rapide coup d’œil sur les événements qui ont marqué l’année du tnm.

      Cette année, le directeur de la compagnie, M. Jean-Louis Roux, a reçu le...

    • Music
      (pp. 445-459)
      HELMUT KALLMANN

      The outstanding musical events of 1969 included the opening of the National Arts Centre in Ottawa, followed a few months later by the début of its orchestra under Mario Bernardi; the beginning of the Karel Ancerl era of the Toronto Symphony; the cbc’s television production of Harry Somers’ operaLouis Riel; and the publication of the essay volumeAspects of Music in Canada, edited by Arnold Walter for the Canadian Music Council. It was also a notable year for startling remarks about music. R. Murray Schafer’s phrase that “Beethoven did not, as is commonly supposed, lose his hearing, he lost...

    • Art
      (pp. 460-473)
      BARRY LORD

      In the late sixties the visual arts in the western world seemed to have come full circle. The progressive reduction of abstract forms in painting and sculpture had issued in a minimal art of primary or elemental shapes that finally suggested bringing natural structures into the gallery (“process art”) or moving out into the landscape itself for art (earth sculpture). So formalism came at last to environment, where it met the century’s continuing tradition of anti-art in its current nonperceptual anti-manifestation as “conceptual art,” and an incipient new realism, which simply took the existing environment objectively as subject. In Canada...

    • Sport
      (pp. 474-483)
      SUSAN M. MERRY

      Expansion was the keynote for most sports throughout the sixties. It was a decade that saw the foundations of the Olympic Games crack by the intrusion of commercialism and racism. In 1968 black power advocates effectively used their performance in sport and its massive coverage by television as a weapon and platform to further their cause. For Canada the decade began by the prying open of government coffers to aid amateur sport. However the initial amount of $5 million quickly dropped to $1 million when implementation year (1962) turned out to be an austerity period. By 1969 Canadians had become...

  9. Obituaries
    (pp. 484-489)
  10. Acknowledgments
    (pp. 490-490)
  11. Index
    (pp. 491-514)