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European Foreign and Security Policy

European Foreign and Security Policy: States, Power, Institutions, and American Hegemony

Copyright Date: 2010
Pages: 256
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  • Book Info
    European Foreign and Security Policy
    Book Description:

    Three in-depth case studies of CFSP decision-making support Gegout's argument, as she examines the EU position on China's human rights record, EU sanctions against Serbia, and EU relations with NATO inEuropean Foreign and Security Policy.

    eISBN: 978-1-4426-8633-5
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-viii)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. ix-x)
  3. List of Tables and Figures
    (pp. xi-xii)
  4. Acknowledgments
    (pp. xiii-xiv)
  5. Abbreviations
    (pp. xv-2)
  6. Introduction: Deciding Foreign and Security Policy in the European Union: A Brief Account of CFSP
    (pp. 3-20)

    The framework of the European Union (EU) that was set up in 1992 with the signing of the Maastricht Treaty consists of three pillars: the first pillar relates to the European Community (EC), the second to Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), and the third to Police and Judicial Cooperation in Criminal Matters. Engagement with security and military matters takes place within the CFSP pillar.¹

    State diplomats, military personnel, foreign affairs ministers, defence ministers, and the High Representative meet on a regular basis in the Council of the EU in order to discuss foreign policy and associated highly sensitive political...


    • 1 Foundations for ‘Constrained Intergovernmentalism’: A New Theoretical Approach
      (pp. 23-41)

      This chapter sets out the bases for my theory of ‘constrained intergovernmentalism,’ which brings together aspects of intergovernmentalism, realism, and institutionalism in order to provide a more comprehensive explanation of how CFSP decisions are made.

      Intergovernmentalism is a theory which highlights the importance of relations among states, along with state sovereignty and interests, in negotiations within the European Community and European Union. Intergovernmentalism is part of European integration literature. It is regarded, together with neofunctionalism, as a grand theory, in the sense that it helps us understand the dynamics and the future of the EU, as opposed to middle range...

    • 2 CFSP: The Machinery of Decision-Making
      (pp. 42-72)

      This chapter aims to set out how CFSP works in practice: how the machinery in Brussels engages with Foreign Offices and Ministries of Defence in the capitals of Europe, how it works in tandem with institutional actors such as the Foreign Affairs Council, the Political and Security Committee and the High Representative, and how the military institutions of the EU and member states are called into play to carry out the policies it produces. The first section describes the status and function of CFSP within the policy-making structures of the EU. The second section highlights the difficult relations between states...


    • 3 A Pure CFSP Case: The Condemnation of China’s Human Rights Policy (1997–2005)
      (pp. 75-93)

      This chapter looks at the way member states succeeded or failed to agree on a common EU policy for presentation at the United Nations Commission on Human Rights (CHR), during the period 1997–2005. As intergovernmentalist theory would predict, states apparently only agreed to reach a common policy on condemning China’s human rights record when they had no motivation to prefer some unilateral policy of their own. However, this is not the whole story, since hostile U.S. foreign policy towards China seems to have been an underlying condition for states to reach agreement on an EU policy of condemnation. If...

    • 4 A CFSP–EC Case: Sanctions against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Spring 2000)
      (pp. 94-118)

      This chapter analyses the negotiation of CFSP decisions on sanctions against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) from January to April 2000. At the time, the EU was discussing the possible renewal or amendment of its three major types of sanctions targeting the FRY: an oil embargo, a flight ban, and financial sanctions. The procedure for establishing sanctions towards third parties remains unchanged under the Treaty of Lisbon (through article 188k, previously article 301). The findings of this chapter are therefore relevant for any future sanctions policy.

      After the war in Kosovo and the end of NATO bombing in June...

    • 5 A CFSP–ESDP Case: Institutional Relations with NATO (1998–2008)
      (pp. 119-140)

      This chapter concentrates on EU links with NATO since 1998. It seeks to understand the conditions under which member states accepted or refused certain links with NATO and succeeded in reaching EU common policies in the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP) field. Intergovermentalism by this showing is insufficient to explain the making of CFSP–ESDP policies, as the United States and past decisions both influenced the reaching of common policies.

      CFSP–ESDP issues are mainly decided by big EU states. The political directors of the three biggest EU states, Britain, France, and Germany, meet informally on a regular basis....


    • 6 The United States: Partial Bandwagoning
      (pp. 143-160)

      Zielonka (2000) wrote that CFSP has a marginal impact on transatlantic relations. What can we say, though, about the impact of transatlantic relations on CFSP outcomes? This chapter evaluates how and under what conditions the presence or absence of a CFSP decision is influenced by the United States, when an issue considered vital for EU states is at stake; and more generally, it observes the role of the United States in the CFSP system. The importance of the United States is never (see Carlsnaes and Smith 1994) or rarely discussed in the literature on the CFSP (Wallace 1983; Peterson 1997)....

    • 7 The European Commission: Modes of Intervention and Control in CFSP
      (pp. 161-175)

      The European Commission’s role seems a priori extremely limited in the CFSP system, as legally it only has an indirect right of initiative through the High Representative, in effect equivalent to the shared right of initiative it enjoyed before the ratification of the Lisbon Treaty in the CFSP field. Intergovernmentalist theory argues that control of the CFSP decision-making process lies with the member states; decisions are taken by unanimity, and states, through their embassies and intelligence operations, have more information than the Commission on highly sensitive issues (Pollack 2003, 53). The Commission can be absent from CFSP negotiations, or it...

  10. Conclusion: ‘Constrained Intergovernmentalism’: A More Complete Theorization of the CFSP System
    (pp. 176-196)

    Researchers such as Puchala (1972, 276–7) have warned that ‘attempts to juxtapose or combine conventional frameworks for analytical purposes by and large yield no more than artificial and untidy results.’ I would prefer to argue that theory-building is about enhancing existing theories to understand political processes and outcomes. It is through a synthesis of clearly defined theoretical hypotheses that we can best reach a proper understanding of the function of policy-making.

    This chapter seeks to realize this synthesis, and to answer the concerns of authors who have regretted the absence of any convincing theory in relation to the study...

  11. Appendix: Situating ‘Constrained Intergovernmentalism’ in the Literature on European Foreign Policy
    (pp. 197-198)
  12. Notes
    (pp. 199-210)
  13. Bibliography
    (pp. 211-256)
  14. Index
    (pp. 257-266)