The Politics of Canadian Public Policy

The Politics of Canadian Public Policy

MICHAEL M. ATKINSON
MARSHA A. CHANDLER
Copyright Date: 1983
Pages: 286
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.3138/j.ctt2tv4vx
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  • Book Info
    The Politics of Canadian Public Policy
    Book Description:

    Each of the essays commissioned for this book addresses one or more themes of policy determinants, policy type, policy, instruments, and impact.

    eISBN: 978-1-4426-8206-1
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. Acknowledgments
    (pp. vii-2)
    M.M.A and M.A.C
  4. 1 Strategies for Policy Analysis
    (pp. 3-20)
    MICHAEL M. ATKINSON and MARSHA A. CHANDLER

    The study of public policy in political science is no longer restricted to describing what governments do. Analysis has come to centre on a search for patterns and relationships that explain as well as describe the actions of governments. Central to this concern has been the view that political authorities are not simply receptors of political demands and the state not simply a mechanism for sorting out and pronouncing on them. Rather, it is held that governments reach out into their environments, moulding and shaping demands and often relying on non-governmental institutions and actors to administer decisions. Accompanying the more...

  5. 2 A Comparative Study of Language Policy in Quebec: A Political Economy Approach
    (pp. 21-42)
    WILLIAM D. COLEMAN

    In the study of public policy in advanced capitalist states, it has become increasingly difficult to assess the policy impact of political parties and the specific ideologies they espouse. This difficulty arises from the fact that the usual lines of cleavage dividing parties along socialist and non-socialist lines in capitalist democracies often become blurred when one turns to assess the performance of those parties in office. When those socialist parties that had committed themselves to achieving reform within the liberal democratic system first came to power in the late 1920s and early 1930s, they hardly fomented substantial change. ‘Socialists behaved...

  6. 3 The Politics of Provincial Resource Policy
    (pp. 43-68)
    MARSHA A. CHANDLER

    The impact of political parties on public policy has been a long-standing controversy in political science. Does it matter which party is in office? Do the ideological characteristics of the party in power account for differences in policy-making? Although early empirical studies in the U.S. and Canada found little evidence of a relationship between party and policy,¹ subsequent research has pointed to a number of serious methodological and conceptual flaws in the studies.² As these problems have been dealt with and the political and policy variables have been refined, partisanship has been found to be of considerable utility in explaining...

  7. 4 Determinants of Legal Aid in Canada: Actors, Policies, Programs, and Futures
    (pp. 69-92)
    DALE H. POEL

    Of the examples given, the availability of legal aid services was possibly least important to George. Because he was charged with murder, he would have received a court-appointed lawyer if he so wished. In most provinces the private lawyer would have received some remuneration for his legal services. He may or may not have had the years of criminal courtroom experience of George’s legal aid lawyer.

    In the absence of legal aid, Hattie and Paul might well have experienced quite different developments in their lives. Without a free ‘legal aid divorce’ and without funds to pay a private lawyer, Hattie...

  8. 5 Technological Innovation and Industrial Policy: Canada in an International Context
    (pp. 93-126)
    ARPAD ABONYI and MICHAEL M. ATKINSON

    The term ‘industrial policy’ covers a wide range of government measures aimed at altering the structure of an economy – that is, the manner in which resources are used and the resulting patterns of production and trade.¹ A variety of discrete measures, including tariffs and competition legislation, contribute to an industrial policy, although these programs may not be comprehensive or coordinated to achieve designated objectives. A particularly important aspect of industrial policy is the programs and measures aimed at enhancing technological innovation. The contribution of innovation to economic growth has been appreciated for many years;² this paper examines recent additions to...

  9. 6 Institutions, Constitutions, and Public Policies: A Public-Choice Overview
    (pp. 127-150)
    MARK SPROULE-JONES

    Public choice is a comparative approach to the study of public policies. It is centrally concerned with comparing different ways of providing public policies to individual citizens. It is also an economic approach to the study of public policies. Public choice uses the relatively recently devised concepts of public goods, externalities, and common pools to compare how and why public policies differ. One of the objectives of this essay is to outline and illustrate the public-choice approach to comparative policy analysis.

    One of the major concepts used in public-choice analysis is that of ‘institutional arrangements,’ a term used to describe...

  10. 7 The Management of a Common Property Resource: Fisheries Policy in Atlantic Canada
    (pp. 151-172)
    SUSAN MCCORQUODALE

    The fishery is an activity that affects public policy outcomes and generates a distinctive type of politics. Fish in the sea are not owned: they are, like air, water, or wildlife, a common property resource. H. Scott Gordon and Anthony Scott were among the first to draw attention to the economic (and indeed biological) consequences of this.¹ Government policy, which first sought to deal with the conservation consequences of common property, has of late turned attention to the economic consequences. Some of these developments will be outlined below.

    It was in the field of evolving international law that the absence...

  11. 8 The Political Economy of Policy Instruments: Tax Expenditures and Subsidies in Canada
    (pp. 173-198)
    KENNETH WOODSIDE

    The rapid growth in the size of government since the Second World War has been accompanied by an explicit and widespread use of policy instruments to intervene in the operation and change the character of the economy. While intervention was already practised by Canadian governments prior to the war, the espousal of Keynesian economic doctrine by the political elites during and after the war resulted in an expanded use of interventionist techniques by politicians and officials. The growing intervention by governments has made analysts of all political persuasions aware of and interested in the actions of politicians and the institutions...

  12. 9 Crown Corporations in Canada: The Choice of Instrument
    (pp. 199-222)
    J. ROBERT S. PRICHARD and MICHAEL J. TREBILCOCK

    In this essay we will analyse public ownership as an instrument of intervention and examine the characteristics of public ownership that are likely to be influential in determining its substitutability for alternative policy instruments. In particular we will focus on the question of why a government might resort to public ownership instead of some other instrument-taxation, expenditure policy, regulation – to accomplish a particular interventionist objective.¹

    The puzzle of public enterprise is the patchwork pattern of its manifestations and substitutes across Canada. For example, in the last two decades most electric utilities have been taken over by provincial governments, but in...

  13. 10 The Development of Health Policy in Canada
    (pp. 223-246)
    GEOFFREY R. WELLER and PRANLAL MANGA

    This essay compares the impact of differing health policies over time. A major theme is that the nature of federal–provincial relations has been one of the main determinants of the changing nature of Canadian health policy. Health policy outputs are the result of a tremendous variety of shifting forces;¹ the nature of federal–provincial relations is one crucial factor, because health policy outputs and impacts are directly related to a staged chronology largely dictated by the oscillation of power between the two levels of government. A second major concern is the evaluation of the impacts of major policy outputs...

  14. 11 The Policy Consequences of Northern Development
    (pp. 247-266)
    SIMON MCINNES

    This study focuses on Canada’s policies regarding northern development in the Northwest Territories (NWT).¹ It will be demonstrated that the dominant concern in northern development is resource exploration and exploitation as it benefits Canada as a whole. Northern development policy in this regard is fairly coherent and consistent. However, the government has two other objectives: enhancing Northerners’ lives and protecting the environment. The consequence is that these two objectives are simply irreconcilable with the interests of Canadians as a whole. Although the Inuit Northerners have not been entirely successful in altering government and resource plans in the past decade, it...

  15. 12 Will Program Evaluation Be Used in Formulating Policy?
    (pp. 267-284)
    JOHN MAYNE and ROBERT S. MAYNE

    In recent years governments have increasingly come under attack for waste, inefficiency, and poor management. This criticism has often been directed at specific programs and in particular the inability of governments to demonstrate that their programs are effective. As a result, both governments and their critics have become more aware of and interested in the empirical study of the outcomes of government programs. This increased interest in the evaluation of programs also stems, in part from a realization that, given the growth and complexity of government intervention in society, it is no longer adequate to base the assessment of past...

  16. Note on Contributors
    (pp. 285-286)