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Patrician Liberal

Patrician Liberal: The Public and Private Life of Sir Henri-Gustave Joly de Lotbinière, 1829-1908

Copyright Date: 2013
Pages: 400
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  • Book Info
    Patrician Liberal
    Book Description:

    Joly's life serves as a prism through which author J.I. Little elucidates important themes in Quebec and Canadian society, economy, politics, and culture during the Victorian and Edwardian eras.

    eISBN: 978-1-4426-6698-6
    Subjects: History

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. List of Illustrations
    (pp. ix-x)
  4. Preface
    (pp. xi-xiv)
  5. Acknowledgments
    (pp. xv-xvi)
  6. Conversion Standards
    (pp. xvii-xviii)
  7. Canadian Genealogical Line
    (pp. xix-xx)
  8. Seigneuries and Townships in Lotbinière County
    (pp. xxi-2)
  9. Introduction
    (pp. 3-12)

    Early in 1908, the year of Quebec Cityʹs extravagant tercentenary celebration,¹ the municipal council announced that it would rename Haldimand Street, within the walls of the old city, in Sir Henri-Gustave Joly de Lotbinièreʹs honour. Rather ironically, given that he had dedicated much of his life to resolving conflicts between French-speaking and English-speaking Canadians, this announcement resulted in a controversy along those same lines, for it was greeted with protest by the cityʹs English-speaking elite. Although theDaily Telegraphagreed that ʺthe name of ʹDe Lotbiniereʹ is illustrious in the history of Canada and of Quebec, and none has worn...

  10. Chapter One Blood and Soil
    (pp. 13-40)

    Henri-Gustave Jolyʹs passport, issued in 1873, identified him as a ʺborn British subject,ʺ five feet eleven inches in height, with blue eyes, grey hair, pale complexion, and straight nose.¹ The fact that he had actually been born in his fatherʹs mother country of France reflects how thoroughly Joly had come to identify himself with the British empire by the 1870s. Contemporaries described his appearance and demeanour as that of the archetypal aristocrat. Thus, the French-born journalist and essayist Auguste Achintre wrote in 1871 that Joly reminded him of the portraits one found in galleries of eighteenth-century gentlemen, portraits that evoked...

  11. Chapter Two Family Man
    (pp. 41-69)

    Henri-Gustave Joly corresponded regularly with widely scattered relatives, responding to pleas for assistance in some cases and inviting even those in France to serve as godparents for his children.¹ He also appears to have had a close relationship with his mother and father, if not with his sister and brother, though most of his youth was spent apart from his parental family while he attended school in Paris. Both Jolyʹs siblings as well as his mother came into conflict with his rather strict and restless father, but he enjoyed warm and affectionate ties with his own wife and children, sons...

  12. Chapter Three Seigneur and Lumberman
    (pp. 70-99)

    In a pamphlet published during the 1878 election, Guillaume Amyot asked why his Lotbinière opponent Henri-Gustave Joly had failed to facilitate colonization in his own county, charging that his refusal to grant lands ʺaux enfants du peupleʺ was forcing them to migrate to the United States. In Amyotʹs decided opinion, the abolition of the seigneurial system in 1854 had not ended Jolyʹs obligation to develop his ancestral estate.¹ Amyot was referring in particular to the large tract that Jolyʹs father had set aside as a timber reserve, low-lying land that was actually of little agricultural value. But politically motivated though...

  13. Chapter Four Liberal Deputy
    (pp. 100-126)

    Although Pierre-Gustave Joly was a friend of Papineau and Lamennais and a champion of liberal causes – as we saw in chapter 1 – he was too tied to his property and business interests to be a true radical. He complained in a letter from Paris in 1848, for example, that no one dared express sympathy for King Louis-Philippe, who had been forced to abdicate, and that one of his nephews had been dragged in the mud simply for asking why lanterns were being broken in the streets.¹ It is rather doubtful, then, that the young Henri-Gustave was caught up...

  14. Chapter Five Quebec Premier
    (pp. 127-150)

    If the first seventeen years of Jolyʹs political career were rather uniform insofar as he spent them firmly ensconced within a weak parliamentary opposition, the following seven years were much more eventful. Following a brief tumultuous period as provincial premier, he would find himself back in the role of opposition leader before resigning that position in 1883 and giving up his seat in 1885. During these years, Joly was faced with hard political choices, choices that forced him to clarify some of the ambiguities in his liberal ideology, particularly when it came to the role that government should play. Although...

  15. Chapter Six Promoter of National Unity
    (pp. 151-176)

    Upon resigning from the Quebec legislature, Jolyʹs plan was to retreat to Lotbinière, concentrate on operating the family lumber business, and restrict his public service to the promotion of agricultural improvement and the North American forest conservation campaign. But the English-speaking minority of the province relied on Joly to intervene with the Mercier government on its behalf, and as the crisis in national unity deepened, he grew increasingly concerned about the backlash in English Canada against the Quebec governmentʹs nationalist policies. Despite his imperialist sympathies, therefore, Joly refused all pleas to support the imperial federation movement on the grounds that...

  16. Chapter Seven Forest Conservationist
    (pp. 177-200)

    If political involvement was a public duty that Joly sometimes found distasteful, the promotion of forest conservation was one that he embraced wholeheartedly. Inspired by his scientifically oriented father, who had been invited in 1860 to write a series of articles on the Canadian forest industry for a French audience,¹ Joly developed an interest in silviculture and forest conservation at an early age. He managed the familyʹs large forest reserve in a practical and responsible manner, as we have seen, and he was a persistent critic of the governmentʹs short-sighted forest policy. Furthermore, his retirement from provincial politics in 1885...

  17. Chapter Eight Laurier Cabinet Minister
    (pp. 201-212)

    Having long pressed Joly de Lotbinière to enter the federal arena, and having benefited from his national unity efforts during the Jesuitsʹ Estates and Manitoba Schools controversies, Laurier clearly had to offer the veteran politician a position in the new government in 1896.LʹÉlecteurpredicted that he would become minister of agriculture,¹ but Joly was appointed instead to the junior portfolio of inland revenue, which initially fell under the authority of the ministry of trade and commerce. Joly appears to have been satisfied with his assignment, for he was clearly aware that Laurier had more ambitious young followers to appease,...

  18. Chapter Nine Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia
    (pp. 213-242)

    In her classic history of British Columbia, Margaret Ormsby states that ʺa terriblemalaiseʺ had the provinceʹs population in its grip in 1903, largely caused by the industrial dispute that had brought the operations of the Canadian Pacific Railway to a standstill and caused sailors in Victoria as well as longshoremen in Vancouver to wage sympathy strikes. The federal royal commission investigating the labour situation warned that society on the west coast was threatened with a breakdown in morality: ʺBusiness men had been dejected; English investors had indicated that they would transfer their money elsewhere; and even the Canadian Manufacturersʹ...

  19. Conclusion
    (pp. 243-250)

    Following his death on November 16, 1908, Sir Henri-Gustave Joly de Lotbinière was buried in the Quebec City suburb of Silleryʹs Mount Hermon cemetery, overlooking the St Lawrence River. There was no state ceremony, and his grave is marked by a simple column on which the names of his wife and the children who predeceased him are also engraved. The inscription at the base of the column, as well as on the large wall plaque commemorating him in the Anglican Cathedral, reads ʺBlessed are the pure in heart.ʺ¹ In a similar vein, a contemporary article inSaturday Night– echoing...

  20. Notes
    (pp. 251-342)
  21. Bibliography
    (pp. 343-366)
  22. Index
    (pp. 367-376)