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Environmental Policy Change in Emerging Market Democracies

Environmental Policy Change in Emerging Market Democracies: Eastern Europe and Latin America Compared

Copyright Date: 2013
Pages: 272
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  • Book Info
    Environmental Policy Change in Emerging Market Democracies
    Book Description:

    Environmental Policy Change in Emerging Market Democraciesdemonstrates that, although political and economic transformations have positively affected environmental policy in both regions, the extent of policy change varies considerably across Central and Eastern Europe and Latin America.

    eISBN: 978-1-4426-9919-9
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. List of Illustrations
    (pp. vii-viii)
  4. Preface
    (pp. ix-x)
    Jale Tosun
  5. List of Abbreviations
    (pp. xi-2)
  6. 1 Introduction
    (pp. 3-16)

    The last four decades have been characterized by two central changes in the political and economic systems of industrializing countries. First, an ever-growing number of them have introduced democratic polities. This “third wave” of democratization (Huntington 1991) started in Southern Europe in the mid-1970s, before spreading to Latin America, Central and Eastern Europe, Asia, and Africa (see Haerpfer et al. 2009). Second, several industrializing countries introduced market economic structures and participated in an unprecedented “rush to free trade” (Rodrik 1992). The launch of multilateral trade regimes such as the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the World Trade...

  7. 2 Theories of Policy and Institutional Change
    (pp. 17-37)

    This book investigates the patterns and determinants of policy and institutional change in emerging market democracies. To this end, it adopts the approach of comparative policy analysis, which is based on the combination of separate explanatory factors originating from independent theories(Roller 2005). Accordingly, a theoretical framework will be elaborated that is composed of specific empirical elements of the political and economic transformation processes experienced by these countries serving as explanatory variables. However, there also exist various theoretical approaches that explicitly address phenomena of policy and institutional change (for an overview, see John 2003; Héritier 2007; Capano 2009; Mahoney and Thelen...

  8. 3 Explaining Changes in Environmental Policies and Institutions in Emerging Market Democracies
    (pp. 38-65)

    This chapter introduces possible explanations for why governments in emerging market democracies may change environmental policies and enforcement institutions. To this end, it focuses on the consequences of transformation processes for the CEE and LA countries’ political and economic systems. These primarily consist of economic integration with international markets, increased party competition, and participation of environmental groups, as well as integration with international institutions and an enhanced responsiveness to public demand. Each of these major explanatory factors is part of an independent theory on the basis of which hypotheses will be deducted (see Roller 2005: 81).

    As concerns the impact...

  9. 4 Research Design and the Measurement of Change
    (pp. 66-88)

    The previous chapter concluded that in terms of theory, the emergence of globally integrated market economies and democratic polities are likely to trigger an increase in the stringency of environmental protection standards and governments’ commitment to enforce them. The following chapters consider these theoretical arguments empirically. To this end, they shed light on the development of environmental regulations and the decisions of governments to strengthen their enforcement in twenty-eight CEE and LA countries over a period of two decades. Before turning to the main empirical analysis, though, this chapter gives a number of conceptual and methodological clarifications. In what follows,...

  10. 5 Descriptive Analysis of Policy and Institutional Change
    (pp. 89-118)

    This chapter explores the characteristics of environmental policy and institutional change in CEE and LA between 1990 and 2010. In doing so, it poses three questions: Have environmental regulatory standards become stricter over time? Have the countries established environmental procuracies? Are there notable differences between the two regions? To address these questions effectively, this chapter outlines the legislative history of five environmental policy items and examines the diffusion of environmental procuracies throughout the two regions.

    The empirical information is presented in two different ways. As explained in chapter 4, the items on air, soil, and water pollution are measured on...

  11. 6 Economy, Politics, Institutions, or Demand? A Causal Analysis of Change
    (pp. 119-153)

    The descriptive empirical analysis conducted in chapter 5 demonstrated that in the last two decades most of the emerging market democracies under study noticeably strengthened their environmental policy arrangements. In this context, a central finding was that the CEE countries tend to outperform the LA countries in the strictness of their environmental policies. In addition, the CEE countries were shown to be generally more prone to policy change than their LA counterparts. One tentative explanation for this finding is that the CEE countries’ accession to the EU triggered major environmental policy reforms. However, without a more systematic causal analysis, it...

  12. 7 Case Studies on Changing Regulation of Genetically Modified Maize
    (pp. 154-177)

    The quantitative analysis carried out in the preceding chapter has shown that the theoretical model guiding this study possesses a limited explanatory power in the case of the regulation of GM maize. Consequently, this chapter re-examines the patterns and determinants of policy change in this particular case by means of a different methodological approach, namely, by conducting case studies. Since by 2010 only a few countries had restricted the commercial cultivation of GM maize, the in-depth studies primarily focus on these cases. To make sure that the empirical findings are not subject to a bias stemming from the selection of...

  13. 8 Stability and Change in Emerging Market Democracies: Concluding Remarks
    (pp. 178-194)

    The central objective of this book was to examine policy and institutional change in the field of environmental policy in the emerging market democracies of Central and Eastern Europe and Latin America. To this end, it described in detail changes in the regulation of air, soil, and water pollution and sketched the adoption of restrictions on the commercial cultivation of GM maize and the SFM principle in the period between 1990 and 2010. In a next step, the study illustrated the diffusion of institutions possessing the competence to prosecute environmental offences. In this way, the book sought to address the...

  14. Appendices
    (pp. 195-198)
  15. Notes
    (pp. 199-202)
  16. References
    (pp. 203-236)
  17. Index
    (pp. 237-250)
  18. Back Matter
    (pp. 251-253)