Development Models in Muslim Contexts

Development Models in Muslim Contexts: Chinese, 'Islamic' and Neo-liberal Alternatives

Edited by Robert Springborg
Copyright Date: 2009
Pages: 272
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  • Book Info
    Development Models in Muslim Contexts
    Book Description:

    This book examines the characteristics of the Chinese economic development model and its reception in Africa and Latin America. It also investigates the current competition over governance models in the Muslim world and asks which model or models will guide development in Muslim countries.

    eISBN: 978-0-7486-4177-2
    Subjects: Religion

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. [i]-[iv])
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. [v]-[vi])
  3. Introduction: The Lure of Development Models
    (pp. 1-10)
    Robert Springborg

    The appeal and impact of development models track broader movements in world politics. For more than half a century the United States and the Soviet Union provided the political economy models of choice for much of the developing world. As the colonial era was brought to a close by rising nationalism and the Cold War intensified, the superpowers became locked into a competition to demonstrate the superiority of their own political economy, and hence its suitability for export. America’s democratic capitalist model was packaged as the “First New Nation”, and a wealthy one at that. Having risen in revolt against...

  4. Part One: The Chinese Model and its Global Reception
    • Chapter 1 A China Model or Just a Broken Mould?
      (pp. 13-25)
      William Hurst

      It has become fashionable in recent years to argue that China is following a “unique model” of rapid development – one that eschews democratisation or meaningful political opening while racking up world-beating economic growth rates. Leaving aside obvious parallels with the debates between Samuel Huntington and the modernisation theorists of the 1960s, it is useful to review the more recent East Asian developmental state paradigm before assessing specific arguments about the China model. Ideas about alternative Asian development paths that do not hue closely to European or North American experience have long enjoyed a ready audience in academic and policy circles....

    • Chapter 2 Latin America’s View of China: Interest, but Scepticism
      (pp. 26-46)
      Barbara Stallings

      China’s dramatic economic success over the past several decades has attracted worldwide attention. Its high growth rates, however, have caused different effects across regions, countries, sectors and firms. On the one hand, Chinese imports have provided important new markets for exporters throughout the world. Raw materials exporters have benefited disproportionately, but producers of high-tech industrial goods have also taken advantage. On the other hand, China’s export juggernaut has outperformed most of its trade partners – especially with respect to light consumer goods – and created large and growing trade deficits. Those deficits, in turn, have been offset by capital outflows of various...

    • Chapter 3 The China Model in Africa: A New Brand of Developmentalism
      (pp. 47-82)
      Catherine Boone

      This chapter asks if a China model defines or guides China’s economic and diplomatic offensive on the African continent, and whether there is any evidence that Africans themselves see deepening Africa–China ties in this light. We argue that it is indeed possible to speak of a China model in this context. It is possible to discern a China model in two different ways. First, Chinese leaders and many African leaders work deliberately to construct a vision or overarching idea of China’s growing involvement in Africa that stands in juxtaposition to the IFI model of economic-cum-political engagement that most countries...

  5. Part Two: The Chinese Model and its Competitors in the Muslim World
    • Chapter 4 Learning the Right Lessons from Beijing: A Model for the Arab World?
      (pp. 85-114)
      Emma Murphy

      It should not be surprising if Joshua Ramo’s “new physics of development and power” hold tremendous appeal for Arab regime elites. Ramo talks of the “electric power” of the Chinese example – its demonstration of an alternative path to development which challenges not only the US-led Washington Consensus for economic liberalism laced with political democratisation, but also offers the potential to translate an economic transformation into global power projection to rival that of America itself. For the authoritarian Arab regimes, with their lack-lustre exercises in structural adjustment, patchy records of economic growth, fragile human development performance and post-colonial resentments at external...

    • Chapter 5 Towards an Islamic Model for the Middle East and North Africa?
      (pp. 115-137)
      Clement M. Henry

      Muslim countries, virtually all of which were colonised or brought indirectly under Western non-Muslim domination in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, are naturally wary of foreign models of development. The process of globalisation, accelerated by late twentieth-century neo-liberal reforms, bore some resemblance to that earlier period of globalisation, 1870–1914, when virtually all of the territories of Dar al-Islam were consolidated under European flags. Although European gunboats no longer physically threatened debtor states in the 1980s and 1990s, many of these states were obliged to undergo IMF workouts, followed by structural reforms encouraged by World Bank loans, a process that...

    • Chapter 6 Democracy, Development and Political Islam: Comparing Iran and Turkey
      (pp. 138-150)
      Mohammed Ayoob

      At first glance, Iran and Turkey appear to be an unambiguous study in contrast in both the arenas of politics and economics. In the political sphere, in common parlance, Iran is referred to as a “theocracy” while Turkey is identified as a “secular republic”. However, the reality is far more complex than is assumed. Belying the view that Turkey is unequivocally secular in terms of the strict separation of religion and state is that the official Turkish definition of secularism subordinates religion to the state instead of separating the two spheres, thus deviating from the normally accepted meaning of the...

  6. Part Three: The Role of Governance in Development Models
    • Chapter 7 Can the East Asian Developmental State be Replicated? The Case of Malaysia
      (pp. 153-179)
      Jeff Tan

      This chapter seeks to explain Malaysia’s industrialisation in terms of the East Asian developmental state model. This “model” generally refers to a developmental state characterised by the capacity to manage the process of late industrialisation, specifically: 1) the transfer of resources to more productive groups and sectors; and 2) learning and “catching up”. In particular, the disciplinary capacity of the state to ensure that learning rents are not wasted is seen as central to successful late industrialisation.¹ However, this capacity was rooted in historically specific social relations that reduced the need of the state to accommodate political opposition, whether this...

    • Chapter 8 Governance and Development: A Case Study of Pakistan
      (pp. 180-194)
      Ishrat Husain

      Theoretical and empirical evidence from the past two decades shows that socioeconomic development is affected by the quality of governance and its institutions. Traditional factors of production (capital, skilled and unskilled labour, and intellectual human capital) obviously contribute to the growth process, but the residual or total factor productivity incorporates not only technical change, but also organisational and institutional change. Well-functioning and healthy institutions not only affect the rate of economic growth but, moreover, the distribution. If governance structures and supporting institutions are healthy, then the distribution of benefits of growth will be equitable. This chapter will argue that the...

    • Chapter 9 Is “Good Governance” an Appropriate Model for Governance Reforms? The Relevance of East Asia for Developing Muslim Countries
      (pp. 195-230)
      Mushtaq Khan

      Governance is what states do, and since states play a vital role in the development process, almost all economists can agree that governance must be important for development. The growing recognition within mainstream economics that governance is important, is simply a belated recognition within economic orthodoxy that the state plays a critical role even in a market-oriented society. The controversy and debate is about what the feasible governance capabilities are of a poor country attempting to develop in a global market with an essentially market-oriented economy. The answer to this is not as obvious as it may seem. The answer...

  7. Conclusion: Not Washington, Beijing nor Mecca: The Limitations of Development Models
    (pp. 231-256)
    Robert Springborg

    Preceding chapters have provided a wealth of data and analyses on the relevance of development models, especially that of China, for majority Muslim countries, with Latin America and Africa having been included to provide comparative context. The purpose of this conclusion is to draw out of these preceding chapters answers to the key questions about the transportability to Muslim countries of development models generally, and especially the Chinese one. Those questions turn on perceptions of the model at the sending and receiving ends; the viability and sustainability of the model itself; the economic, political and cultural bilateral and regional relations...

  8. About the Contributors
    (pp. 257-260)
  9. Index
    (pp. 261-266)