Crafting Peace

Crafting Peace: Power-Sharing Institutions and the Negotiated Settlement of Civil Wars

Caroline A. Hartzell
Matthew Hoddie
Copyright Date: 2007
Pages: 208
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5325/j.ctt7v5x0
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  • Book Info
    Crafting Peace
    Book Description:

    The recent efforts to reach a settlement of the enduring and tragic conflict in Darfur demonstrate how important it is to understand what factors contribute most to the success of such efforts. In this book, Caroline Hartzell and Matthew Hoddie review data from all negotiated civil war settlements between 1945 and 1999 in order to identify these factors. What they find is that settlements are more likely to produce an enduring peace if they involve construction of a diversity of power-sharing and power-dividing arrangements between former adversaries. The strongest negotiated settlements prove to be those in which former rivals agree to share or divide state power across its economic, military, political, and territorial dimensions. This finding is a significant addition to the existing literature, which tends to focus more on the role that third parties play in mediating and enforcing agreements. Beyond the quantitative analyses, the authors include a chapter comparing contrasting cases of successful and unsuccessful settlements in the Philippines and Angola, respectively.

    eISBN: 978-0-271-05474-2
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. LIST OF TABLES
    (pp. ix-x)
  4. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    (pp. xi-xii)
  5. LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS
    (pp. xiii-xiv)
  6. INTRODUCTION: INSTITUTIONS AND THE NEGOTIATED SETTLEMENT OF CIVIL WARS
    (pp. 1-20)

    Institutions can have a powerful influence on the shape of social conflict. South Africa, a country that endured a brutal civil war throughout the 1980s between its black majority and white minority, is a particularly telling example of the capacity of institutions to foster either conflict or cooperation among collectivities with distinct interests. Institutions that fostered violent conflict appeared in South Africa early in the twentieth century. Several pieces of legislation, including the Natives Land Act (No. 27) of 1913, marked the institutionalization of racial discrimination in that country.¹ The reaction of blacks to such measures was swift and included,...

  7. 1 AFTER THE FIGHTING STOPS: SECURITY CONCERNS, INSTITUTIONS, AND THE POST–CIVIL WAR ENVIRONMENT
    (pp. 21-42)

    Institutions play a critical role in civil war settlements. As Harvey Waterman observes, “civil wars [often] end in a deal and that … deal is about political institutions.”¹ Institutions, defined as rules regarding the manner in which competition among actors should take place, prohibit particular behaviors and require others. It is because institutions serve to reduce uncertainty regarding the regulation of human behavior that they can help facilitate peaceful social interactions. By clarifying the means by which social conflict is to be managed in the future, institutions enable groups to contemplate relying on methods other than violence to secure their...

  8. 2 CREATING POWER-SHARING AND POWER-DIVIDING INSTITUTIONS
    (pp. 43-63)

    That power-sharing and power-dividing institutions have the potential to encourage an enduring peace in states emerging from civil war provides no guarantee that adversaries will mutually agree to their construction at the end of hostilities. This is apparent in the analysis of the thirty-eight fully negotiated civil war settlements that were reached between 1945 and 1999. While only Angola’s 1989 Gbadolite Accord failed to include any provisions for power-sharing or power-dividing institutions, just three of these settlements (approximately 8 percent) included the requirement that adversaries share or divide influence across all four dimensions—military, political, territorial, and economic—of state...

  9. 3 INSTITUTIONALIZING AN ENDURING PEACE
    (pp. 64-85)

    Successfully negotiating a peace agreement to end civil war does not ensure that the peace former foes have constructed will prove enduring. Among the forty-nine negotiated civil war peace agreements established in the post–World War II era, eighteen eventually collapsed and experienced a reinitiation of hostilities. What accounts for the difference between peace agreements that last and those that fall apart? If most of these settlements have in common a call for the creation of power-sharing and-power dividing institutions, what explains why some stick and others break down? These questions are pressing ones in light of continuing efforts to...

  10. 4 IMPLEMENTING POWER-SHARING AND POWER-DIVIDING AGREEMENTS
    (pp. 86-108)

    Up to this point, we have been concerned with the process through which power-sharing and power-dividing mechanisms are established in the aftermath of civil war and how the development of these institutions enhances the prospects of an enduring postwar peace. In this chapter, we shift our attention from the postwar institutions themselves to focus on the behavior of former enemies operating under the constraints and expectations of a signed agreement. We seek to address the following question: How do the actions of competitors in the postwar state facilitate or hinder the continuing efforts to establish a lasting and self-enforcing peace?...

  11. 5 NEGOTIATING FOR PEACE IN ANGOLA AND THE PHILIPPINES: CASE STUDIES OF FAILURE AND SUCCESS
    (pp. 109-139)

    In the previous three chapters of this book, we used a cross-national approach to consider the role that power-sharing and power-dividing institutions play during the process of negotiating an end to civil war. Here, however, we move beyond analyzing civil war resolution through the columns and rows of data sets and instead offer detailed descriptions of both successful and unsuccessful efforts at ending domestic wars through bargaining. Specifically, we provide historical analyses of peace processes as they played out in Angola and the Philippines.

    These case studies are an opportunity to develop further claims first introduced in the earlier statistical...

  12. CONCLUSION
    (pp. 140-158)

    We began this book by describing the role power-sharing and power-dividing institutions played in facilitating the construction of an enduring peace in South Africa. Emerging from a war that had lasted nearly a decade, provisions for sharing multiple dimensions of state power fostered an environment in which people on both sides of the racial divide felt secure enough to allow the peace process to move forward. The success of this effort to negotiate the end of civil war is perhaps best symbolized by the 2004 dissolution of the white political party that had presided over the country’s racist apartheid system....

  13. APPENDIX
    (pp. 159-178)
  14. REFERENCES
    (pp. 179-186)
  15. INDEX
    (pp. 187-194)
  16. Back Matter
    (pp. 195-195)