Anarchist Immigrants in Spain and Argentina

Anarchist Immigrants in Spain and Argentina

JAMES A. BAER
Copyright Date: 2015
Pages: 272
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5406/j.ctt13x1kv5
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  • Book Info
    Anarchist Immigrants in Spain and Argentina
    Book Description:

    From 1868 through 1939, anarchists' migrations from Spain to Argentina and back again created a transnational ideology and influenced the movement's growth in each country. James A. Baer follows the lives, careers, and travels of Diego Abad de Santillán, Manuel Villar, and other migrating anarchists to highlight the ideological and interpersonal relationships that defined a vital era in anarchist history. Drawing on extensive interviews with Abad de Santillán, José Grunfeld, and Jacobo Maguid, along with unusual access to anarchist records and networks, Baer uncovers the ways anarchist migrants in pursuit of jobs and political goals formed a critical nucleus of militants, binding the two countries in an ideological relationship that profoundly affected the history of both. He also considers the impact of reverse migration and discusses political decisions that had a hitherto unknown influence on the course of the Spanish Civil War. Personal in perspective and transnational in scope, Anarchist Immigrants in Spain and Argentina offers an enlightening history of a movement and an era.

    eISBN: 978-0-252-09697-6
    Subjects: Political Science, Sociology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. List of Illustrations
    (pp. ix-x)
  4. Preface
    (pp. xi-xiv)
  5. Principal Individuals
    (pp. xv-xvi)
  6. List of Abbreviations
    (pp. xvii-xx)
  7. Introduction
    (pp. 1-14)

    ANTONIO LOREDO, Diego Abad de Santillán, and Manuel Villar were among the millions of Spanish immigrants to Argentina in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Loredo became an editor of a Buenos Aires daily anarchist newspaper,La Protesta, before being deported (twice) to Spain. Abad de Santillán was a writer, a historian, and one of the most important anarchists in both Spain and Argentina. Villar also served as an editor ofLa Protestauntil 1933, when he was deported to Spain. There, he quickly assumed the position as editor ofSolidaridad Obrera. The lives of these individuals reflect a...

  8. CHAPTER 1 Origins of the Spanish Anarchist Movement in the Nineteenth Century
    (pp. 15-31)

    NINETEENTH-CENTURY SPAIN experienced sporadic outbursts of violence against the Crown, uneven economic growth, and an increasingly tenuous hold on its colonies. The reign of Isabella II, from the regency of her mother, María Christina in 1833 to her overthrow in 1868, led to an increasingly powerful central state propped up by the army. “Henceforth, no institution would remain outside the ambit of the state or arm of the law, not even the Church.”¹

    Two countercurrents emerged in the mid-to late nineteenth century: regionalism in many forms, and the initiation of an organized labor movement influenced by the First International. The...

  9. CHAPTER 2 Anarchists and Immigration from Spain to Argentina
    (pp. 32-50)

    WHEN ANTONIO PELLICER PARAIRE left Spain for Argentina, he was following a pattern of movement that had developed over the last decades of the nineteenth century. Spanish workers responded to economic hardships and to political repression by seeking better opportunities abroad. Often, one member of the family traveled abroad to search for work, while the rest of the family remained in Spain. Spanish anarchist immigrants to Argentina brought with them the ideas and arguments that had divided their community in Spain and continued to influence individuals in both hemispheres. Though the dynamics of internecine conflict came to Argentina with the...

  10. CHAPTER 3 Deportations and Reverse Migration, 1902–1910
    (pp. 51-73)

    SPANISH ANARCHIST IMMIGRANTS who moved to Argentina followed a tradition of migration and return, voluntary or not, that reflected the economic and political conditions in both countries. The continuing exchange of migrants between Spain and Argentina strengthened the connections between the anarchist movements on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. The 1902 Residency Law led to an exchange of militants that helped reinvigorate the moribund Spanish movement and brought somber critiques regarding the relationship of syndicalism and anarchism. The first decade of the twentieth century was a tumultuous period in Argentina, as upheavals in 1905, 1907, 1909, and 1910 brought...

  11. CHAPTER 4 The CNT and the War Years: Anarchist Rivalries and New Leadership
    (pp. 74-92)

    THE SECOND DECADE of the twentieth century began with calamities for both Spanish and Argentine anarchists and brought schisms that weakened both movements. Many of the immigrant anarchists who were deported from Argentina continued to work in Spain. The expanding influence of anarchists in Spanish labor organizations enlarged the movement but brought divergent ideas on tactics. In Argentina, the reduction in Spanish immigration during World War I allowed younger anarchists to rise to prominence, with Spanish immigrants Emilio López Arango and Diego Abad de Santillán the most important of this group. These changes in leadership brought out personal rivalries as...

  12. CHAPTER 5 The FORA and the CNT: Transnational Anarchist Rivalries
    (pp. 93-117)

    DIEGO ABAD DE SANTILLÁN left Argentina for Europe in 1922, ostensibly to study medicine at the University of Berlin. He was discouraged by Argentine anarchists’ inability to respond to the Patagonian massacres. Abad de Santillán’s move reflected the lack of opportunity to pursue anarchist goals in Argentina as well as the relative significance of Argentine anarchism during the 1920s, as European anarchist movements faced increasing challenges from dictatorships and from the communists as the Soviet Union emerged from civil war. This chapter describes the transnational conflict between the Argentine FORA and the Spanish CNT during the 1920s, when Abad de...

  13. CHAPTER 6 Changing Political Climates and Return Migration: Abad de Santillán and the FAI in Spain
    (pp. 118-140)

    IN BOTH ARGENTINA AND SPAIN, leading anarchists and immigrants reevaluated their circumstances during 1930. A September military coup led by General José Félix Uriburu deposed Argentina’s Hipólito Yrigoyen, creating a new political climate in which anarchists were hunted down, arrested, and deported. In Spain, Miguel Primo de Rivera’s dictatorship ended in late January; a little more than one year later, municipal elections demonstrated that the king had lost the support of his people and the monarchy fell and was replaced by a republic. Spanish immigration to Argentina declined as the world economic situation deteriorated and anarchists in Argentina sought to...

  14. CHAPTER 7 Abad de Santillán and the Anarchist Revolution in Spain
    (pp. 141-160)

    THE FATE OF THE Spanish Republic hinged on decisions made by anarchists, political parties, and the military as the February 1936 elections approached. Among the anarchists who influenced the CNT’s response were two returning immigrants, Diego Abad de Santillán and Manuel Villar. Their argument on behalf of participation in the elections influenced the CNT’s stance and prompted workers to vote for the Popular Front, whose election led to a military rebellion. In addition, as workers fought rebel soldiers in Barcelona, anarchists unleashed a spontaneous revolution whose structure had been recently outlined in a book by Abad de Santillán. His pivotal...

  15. CHAPTER 8 Argentine and Spanish Anarchists in the Spanish Civil War
    (pp. 161-178)

    THE ANARCHIST REVOLUTION that began in reaction to the military uprising by General Francisco Franco brought many Spaniards home from abroad. They saw their native land as a crucible for change and wanted to participate both as anarchists and as Spaniards. Anarchists in Argentina supported the CNT and the FAI in their revolutionary activities, raising money, helping refugees, and authorizing representatives to go to Spain to assist the anarchist movement there. Several Argentines played important roles in the Spanish movement during the civil war, and although sympathetic individuals came from many countries and fought in the International Brigades, few were...

  16. CHAPTER 9 Exile and Homecoming
    (pp. 179-192)

    SPAIN WAS DEVASTATED by the civil war. Two hundred thousand Spaniards died in the fighting, and another 200,000 were murdered or executed during the conflict. Many more died of disease or starvation, making a total of at least 500,000 dead. In addition, more than 450,000 refugees fled the country, and many found themselves trapped in France when World War II began. Some later returned to Spain, while others fled abroad. In Spain, General Francisco Franco imprisoned 2,000,000, shot tens of thousands, and created a regime where no opponent could threaten his power. Spain did not return to its prewar economic...

  17. APPENDIX A. List of Spanish Refugees aboard the Winnipeg
    (pp. 193-198)
  18. APPENDIX B. La Protesta: Prisoners in or Deported from Argentina, 1905–1906
    (pp. 199-202)
  19. Notes
    (pp. 203-222)
  20. Bibliography
    (pp. 223-230)
  21. Index
    (pp. 231-240)
  22. Back Matter
    (pp. 241-244)