Battles and Leaders of the Civil War

Battles and Leaders of the Civil War: Volume 6

Edited by Peter Cozzens
Copyright Date: 2004
Pages: 632
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5406/j.ctt1xch94
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  • Book Info
    Battles and Leaders of the Civil War
    Book Description:

    The first four volumes of Battles and Leaders of the Civil War, published in the late nineteenth century, became the best-selling and most frequently cited works ever published on the Civil War. Volume 6 (like Volume 5), assembled by the acclaimed military historian Peter Cozzens, carries on the tradition of its namesake, offering a dazzling new collection of articles written by military and civilian leaders, North and South, on a broad array of war-related topics._x000B__x000B_Sifting carefully through reports from newspapers, magazines, personal memoirs, and letters, Peter Cozzens's Volume 6 brings readers more of the best first-person accounts of marches, encampments, skirmishes, and full-blown battles, as seen by participants on both sides of the conflict. Alongside the experiences of lower-ranking officers and enlisted men are accounts from key personalities including General John Gibbon, General John C. Lee, and seven prominent generals from both sides offering views on "why the Confederacy failed." This volume includes one hundred twenty illustrations, including sixteen previously uncollected maps of battlefields, troop movements, and fortifications. _x000B_

    eISBN: 978-0-252-09089-9
    Subjects: History, Language & Literature

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-x)
  3. List of Maps
    (pp. xi-xii)
  4. List of Illustrations
    (pp. xiii-xvi)
  5. PREFACE
    (pp. xvii-xviii)
  6. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    (pp. xix-xx)
  7. EDITORIAL METHOD
    (pp. xxi-xxii)
  8. PART 1: PRELUDE TO WAR
    • 1 From West Point to the Battlefield
      (pp. 2-19)
      George A. Custer

      In june 1857, I entered the Military Academy at West Point as a cadet, having received my appointment thereto through the kindness of the Hon. John A. Bingham, then representing in Congress the district in Ohio in which I was born, and in which I had spent almost my entire boyhood. The first official notification received by me of my appointment to the Military Academy bore the signature of Jefferson Davis, then secretary of war in the cabinet of President James Buchanan. Colonel Richard Delafield, one of the ablest and most accomplished officers of the Engineer Corps, occupied the position...

    • 2 The Seventh Regiment at the Capital, 1861
      (pp. 19-26)
      Egbert L. Viele

      Viewed through the long retrospect of a quarter of a century, the events which preceded and accompanied the great uprising of the people in 1861 possess an almost melodramatic interest when compared with the terrible tragedies of the succeeding years of bloody strife. From the day that the result of the general election of 1860 was known, the preparation for an armed resistance to the national authority throughout the Southern states began, and for four months the government looked upon these seditious proceedings with a wonderful complacency, hardly rising above a keen curiosity as to what might be the next...

  9. PART 2: THE WAR IN 1861
    • 3 Alexandria, a Graphic Account of Its Capture
      (pp. 28-38)
      Orlando B. Willcox

      The firing upon Fort Sumter having cleared the political atmosphere, President Lincoln issued his first call for volunteers on April 15, 1861. But the occupation of the nearest points in Virginia, opposite Washington, by Federal troops did not take place until late in May. Meantime the capital of the Union was endangered and more or less in a state of siege.

      There were various hostile designs upon Baltimore, which, if they had prospered, would have isolated Washington from the North and possibly paved the way for its fall. There was constant correspondence between Baltimore and Charleston, and afterwards with Richmond....

    • 4 The Battle of Rich Mountain
      (pp. 38-47)
      William S. Rosecrans

      I reported to [Major General] George B. McClellan, on receiving orders from Columbus to turn over Camp Chase, the day before the departure of the forces from Camp Dennison to western Virginia. When I arrived at Parkersburg, I found the Eighth and Tenth Indiana and the Tenth, Seventeenth, and Nineteenth Ohio. [General McClellan] placed me in command of the provisional brigade, consisting of these troops, and left me at Parkersburg to put things in order as soon as possible.

      I ordered part of the Seventeenth Ohio as guard to the railroad tunnels on the Parkersburg branch and detached part of...

    • 5 At the Battle of Bull Run with the Second New Hampshire Regiment
      (pp. 47-62)
      Francis S. Fiske

      The principal battles of the War of the Rebellion have been fought over again on paper so often that everyone knows or can learn as much about them as one who fought in them. For a soldier engaged in the fight can see but little [of] how the battle wages away from his immediate vicinity, and it is only from the separate accounts of the several acts of the drama, often simultaneous although far apart, that one can learn the whole story of a battle, with the various incidents, each having more or less influence upon the result.

      What I...

    • 6 What I Saw at Wilson’s Creek
      (pp. 62-74)
      Joseph A. Mudd

      In a division of the people of Missouri in 1861 that places those who favored the Union unconditionally, and war as the necessary means of preserving the Union, and who regarded all other questions as of secondary importance, into one class; and those who favored secession, those who favored the Union with guarantees of constitutional rights, and those who favored the individualism of the state or state neutrality into another class, a clearer view may be had of the factors which determined the result of the military operations in the state. The first class, much the smaller, comprised many men...

  10. PART 3: LEADERS, CIVILIAN AND MILITARY
    • 7 Lincoln and Grant
      (pp. 76-91)
      Horace Porter

      The names of [Abraham] Lincoln and [Ulysses S.] Grant will always be inseparably associated in connection with the events of the War of the Rebellion. At first thought they present two characters in American history entirely dissimilar. Their careers seem in striking contrast. One led the life of a civilian, and made his reputation as a statesman; the other was essentially a soldier, and is naturally classed amongst the great military captains of history. But upon a closer study of their lives, it will be found that the two men had many traits in common, and that there were many...

    • 8 Robert E. Lee
      (pp. 91-100)
      Jefferson Davis

      Robert e. lee, gentleman, scholar, gallant soldier, great general, and true Christian, was born in Westmoreland County, Virginia, on January 19, 1807. He was the youngest son of General Henry Lee, who was familiarly known as “Light Horse Harry” in the traditions of the War of the Revolution, and who possessed the marked confidence and personal regard of General Washington.

      R. E. Lee entered the United States Military Academy in the summer of 1825, after which my acquaintance with him commenced. He was, as I remember him, larger and looked more mature than the average “plebe,” but less so than...

  11. PART 4: THE WAR IN 1862
    • 9 Stonewall Jackson’s Discontent
      (pp. 102-114)
      Alexander R. Boteler

      Among the Confederate leaders in the late Civil War, no one except perhaps the peerless and lamented [General Robert E.] Lee is remembered more affectionately throughout the South than [Lieutenant General Thomas J.] Stonewall Jackson. It would be strange, indeed, if this was not the case, for when we consider how unselfishly he devoted himself to the cause he espoused, how successfully he defended it, how calmly he encountered dangers, how resolutely he overcame difficulties, how consistently he maintained his Christian character, and how singularly free he was from the ordinary frailties of humanity, it is not at all surprising...

    • 10 My Campaign in East Kentucky
      (pp. 114-123)
      James A. Garfield

      James A. Garfield was appointed lieutenant colonel of U.S. Volunteers August 14, 1861, and was mustered into the service on the twenty-first of the same month. His regiment was not at that time raised, as it was then the practice to appoint field officers to recruit regiments. He preferred to be a lieutenant colonel, if he could have a graduate of the Military Academy as colonel.

      He immediately reported for duty to Brigadier General Charles E. Hill, commander of Camp Chase, near Columbus, Ohio, and entered upon camp duty—attended the drills and studied the tactics. By the aid of...

    • 11 A Boy at Shiloh
      (pp. 123-138)
      John A. Cockerill

      Shiloh church, Sunday morning, April 6, 1862. Here is a date and a locality indelibly burned into my memory. At sixteen years of age, I found myself an enlisted, fourth-class musician in the Twenty-fourth Ohio Regiment, in which my elder brother was a first lieutenant, and afterward captain and colonel. I had campaigned in Western Virginia and had seen some of the terrors and horrors of war at Philippi and Rich Mountain, and some of its actualities in a winter campaign in the Cheat Mountain district. During the winter of 1861, my command was sent to Louisville, Kentucky, where [Major...

    • 12 A Soldier’s Letters from Shiloh
      (pp. 139-148)
      Robert P. Barry

      Major robert p. barry was born in New York City on March 30, 1839. His father was Samuel F. Barry, originally of Boston, and his mother was Martha Lewis Peabody, originally from Salem, Massachusetts. Robert Peabody Barry was the youngest son. After education in private preparatory schools, he attended Columbia College. When he first entered the institution it was located at Church Street, between Murray and Barclay, but during the time that he was there the grounds were sold and Park Place was cut through. The college then moved to Madison Avenue and Forty-ninth Street.

      While at college he became...

    • 13 Sketching under Fire at Antietam
      (pp. 148-162)
      Frank H. Schell

      As I awoke soon after daylight on the morning of September 17, 1862, the air was already vibrating with mighty sounds of battle. How exhilarating was that tremendous early morning uproar! The Confederate guns across the Antietam were thundering their infernal salutations, and our batteries on both sides of the stream were as viciously responding. And how deep and abiding upon the memory was that first impression of the remarkable reverberation—Elk Ridge, three or four miles to the southward, throwing back its echoes of the artillery and producing a continuous tumult of roaring, awe-inspiring sound, never to be forgotten!...

    • 14 The Battle of Perryville
      (pp. 162-172)
      William P. Carlin

      At that time, early September [1862], the weather was hot, the limestone turnpike dusty, water scarce away from streams, and marching was fatiguing. The army seemed to be huddled together. Marching on parallel roads did not seem to be practiced in that army as it was afterwards with Sherman’s armies; but in that particular locality the turnpike was the only first-class road. But the troops suffered considerably from that point all the way back to Louisville, Kentucky, in consequence of having to march all on the same road. It was understood by the army generally and known positively to Buell...

    • 15 In the Ranks at Stones River
      (pp. 172-196)
      Ebenezer Hannaford

      Christmas came to us in camp at last. Christmas day, but not the good old Christmas times—social, generous, “merry Christmas!” To us it was only December 25, 1862.

      We had been for some weeks quietly encamped near Nashville. Almost the entire Army of the Cumberland was in this vicinity, stretched away out on the various roads centering here from the southward, waiting and watching the Rebel Army of Tennessee, massed under Bragg at Murfreesboro, thirty miles distant. An army of repose, truly; but it was not the repose of stagnation or sloth, as the manifestations of life and lifelike...

  12. PART 5: THE WAR IN 1863
    • 16 Grierson’s Cavalry Raid
      (pp. 198-219)
      Stephen A. Forbes

      The grierson raid, made in April 1863 from Lagrange, in western Tennessee, to Baton Rouge, Louisiana, was the first of the great Federal cavalry raids of the Civil War, and one of the most brilliantly successful. It was a rapid ride of some six hundred miles through the heart of the enemy’s country, made by a mounted force of less than a thousand men, belonging to two Illinois regiments, the Sixth and Seventh Cavalry, commanded by Benjamin H. Grierson, colonel of the Sixth. It had for its principal object the destruction of the railways in the rear of Vicksburg, the...

    • 17 Recollections of Marye’s Heights and Salem Church
      (pp. 219-230)
      Benjamin G. Humphreys

      During the winter of 1862–63, [Major General Ambrose E.] Burnside had been superseded by [Major General Joseph] “Fighting Joe” Hooker, who was making gigantic preparations just across the Rappahannock for the fourth “On to Richmond,” and boasted that he had the “finest army on the planet” and would “pulverize the rebellion.”

      General [Robert E.] Lee was not idle. Though cramped by his limited means and resources, both in men and appliances of war, he stood firm and unawed by the mighty hosts that confronted him.

      During the night of April 20, the Federals attacked some North Carolina pickets, drove...

    • 18 Criminal Blundering at Chancellorsville
      (pp. 230-236)
      John C. Lee

      Much has been written, and probably much more will be written of the Eleventh Corps. At Chancellorsville, May 2, 1863, a disaster befell that corps that has in a great measure been laid at the door of the arms-bearing men and subordinate officers. This is at once unjust and cruel. No veterans of the Regular army could have maintained their groundunder the same circumstances.

      I propose to give such facts as my own observation can state, and to give nothing from hearsay. I was in command of the Fifty-fifth Ohio. The Eleventh Corps consisted of three divisions. [Brigadier General...

    • 19 With Hood at Gettysburg
      (pp. 236-253)
      Robert M. Powell

      In the spring of 1863 [Lieutenant General James] Longstreet made what was called a foraging campaign. He closely invested Suffolk in order to have free and uninterrupted use of the surrounding country, thus supplying his own command and contributing supplies to the commissary department in Richmond for the maintenance of the army during the coming campaign.

      Large details assisted the commissary officers in searching the swamps for the bacon, corn, and cattle secreted by the “sawbucks.” Sawbucks was a term applied to that element of the population who contributed their own flesh and blood to the Southern cause, but failed...

    • 20 Further Recollections of Gettysburg
      (pp. 253-272)
      Daniel E. Sickles, John Newton and Daniel Butterfield

      I would not have seen Gettysburg had [Major General Joseph] Hooker not sent me a message summoning me from New York, where I was slowly recovering from a contusion received at Chancellorsville. He announced the coming battle, asking me to join my command instantly, giving such urgent and flattering reasons that I could not refuse, although my surgeons protested. I reached headquarters at Frederick on June 28, at the hour Hooker was relieved by [Major General George G.] Meade. The change in the command of the army was no sooner announced—Hooker sacrificed, on the eve of battle, by the...

    • 21 Another View of Gettysburg
      (pp. 273-280)
      John Gibbon

      It is said of General [Zachary] Taylor that he, on one occasion, after listening to several stories told of the battle of Buena Vista, remarked that he sometimes wondered whether he himself was present at that battle, so marked was the contrast between what he heard of it and what he had seen and heard at the battle.

      I have been much interested in reading the several contributions in the March number of theNorth American Reviewon the Battle of Gettysburg, and fear that [Major General George G.] Meade, could he read them, might be reminded of General Taylor’s...

    • 22 General “Jeb” Stuart at Gettysburg
      (pp. 281-290)
      John S. Mosby

      In an article which recently appeared in the [Philadelphia]Weekly Timesfrom the pen of [Major General] Henry Heth [Heth’s article appears inBattles and Leaders of the Civil War: Volume 5, edited by Peter Cozzens (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2002) under the title “Why Lee Lost at Gettysburg”], and also in the work just published by Colonel [Walter H.] Taylor,Four Years with General Lee[New York: D. Appleton, 1877], the responsibility for the loss, by General [Robert E.] Lee, of the Gettysburg campaign is indirectly cast upon [Major General James Ewell Brown “Jeb”] Stuart, the chief of...

    • 23 Port Hudson: The Forlorn Hope and the Siege
      (pp. 291-297)
      Prentiss Ingraham

      At port hudson a gallant band, one thousand strong, volunteered for a forlorn hope, to try to carry by storm at night what strategy, overwhelming numbers, and weeks of siege could not subdue.

      Unable, with army and fleet, to capture Port Hudson, [Major General Nathaniel P.] Banks, finding his assaulting columns hurled back, called for those brave one thousand to do and die, to form a human wedge to break through the Confederate lines, and, thus sacrificed, to allow the massive reserve columns to pass over them into the works. Some may have hoped to escape, but it was a...

    • 24 Plain Living at Johnson’s Island
      (pp. 297-314)
      Horace Carpenter

      In giving my experience as a prisoner of war for eighteen months, sixteen of which were spent in the military prison on Johnson’s Island, in Lake Erie, I shall confine myself strictly to an individual experience, or to such events as came under my immediate observation. As I kept no diary during my imprisonment, I must necessarily trust entirely to my memory, giving such facts as are indelibly impressed there and which are susceptible of proof. When the least doubt as to the correctness of a statement has arisen in my mind I have omitted it entirely. I shall endeavor...

    • 25 A Romance of Morgan’s Rough Riders: The Raid, the Capture, and the Escape
      (pp. 315-346)
      BASIL W. DUKE, ORLANDO B. WILLCOX and THOMAS H. HINES

      In the summer of 1863 when at Tullahoma, Tennessee, General [Braxton] Bragg’s army was menaced by superior numbers in flank and rear, he determined to send a body of cavalry into Kentucky, which should operate upon Rosecrans’s communications between Nashville and Louisville, break the railroads, capture or threaten all the minor depots of supplies, intercept and defeat all detachments not too strong to be engaged, and keep the enemy so on the alert in his own rear that he would lose or neglect his opportunity to embarrass or endanger the march of the army when its retrograde movement began. He...

    • 26 The Assault on Fort Wagner
      (pp. 347-357)
      Robert D. Kelley

      During the attack upon Fort Sumter by the ironclads in April 1863, the regiment to which I belonged—Sixth Connecticut volunteers—formed part of a force on light-draught vessels lying in Stono Inlet, at the south end of Folly Island, South Carolina. From the mastheads we saw the ironclads as they passed up the coast to the attack. After the repulse we were landed on Folly Island and encamped about the middle of it. Two companies were detached to the inlet, where they remained until they had constructed two batteries commanding the approach by Stono River, and toward the end...

    • 27 The Mistakes of Grant in Relation to the Chickamauga Campaign
      (pp. 358-374)
      William S. Rosecrans

      In a recent interview with the editor of theNorth American Review, my attention was called to the article in the November [1885] number of theCentury[Ulysses S. Grant, “Personal Memoirs of U. S. Grant: Chattanooga”], and I was asked in the interests of history to prepare some observations upon the matters therein set forth. I said there were very serious objections to a compliance with his request; that time and my occupations precluded the preparation of an historical article; that the time was inopportune, on account of the recent death of the author of theCenturyarticle [President...

    • 28 Grant at Chattanooga
      (pp. 375-380)
      Oliver O. Howard

      [Major general ulysses s.] grant was graduated from West Point seven years before I entered the academy, and he was eight years my senior. He left the army by resignation about a month after my graduation in 1854, and I did not have the privilege of seeing him until 1863.

      On October 16 of that year, Grant’s success at Vicksburg had caused him to be placed in command of the Military Division of the Mississippi, which included the Army of the Ohio, then at Knoxville, the Army of the Cumberland, then at Chattanooga, and the Army of the Tennessee, then...

  13. PART 6: THE WAR IN 1864
    • 29 Dahlgren’s Raid
      (pp. 382-392)
      H. A. D. Merritt

      [Major general judson] kilpatrick’s second raid upon Richmond was made with the purpose of releasing our officers and men confined in Libby Prison, Castle Thunder, and Belle Island, and to destroy the mills, workshops, materials, stores, and government property of the Rebels in that city and vicinity, and the railroad communications. The plan also comprehended the capture of [General Robert E.] Lee’s reserve artillery at Frederick Hall Station, on the Virginia Central Railroad.

      In the execution of this general plan, Colonel [Ulric] Dahlgren’s command, diverging from the main column to the right at Spotsylvania Courthouse, was to march by Frederick...

    • 30 The Siege of Petersburg: Two Failures to Capture the “Cockade City”
      (pp. 393-407)
      August V. Kautz

      The leading actors in the War of the Rebellion had little idea of the controversies which would grow out of their actions, to be fought over, and, if ever settled, to be decided by others than the participants years after. Two such events occurred just prior to the beginning of the siege of Petersburg, in the first half of June 1864. The first, on the ninth of that month, was an attempt to capture that city, made by [Major General Quincy A.] Gillmore, and a second attempt, on the fifteenth, made by [Major General William F.] Smith. Both were partially...

    • 31 The Battle of Petersburg
      (pp. 407-424)
      Pierre G. T. Beauregard

      On June 9, 1864, [Major General Benjamin F.] Butler sent a strong force across the Appomattox for the purpose of striking another blow at Petersburg. Fully five thousand men, more than half of whom had been taken from [Major General Quincy] Gillmore’s corps, the others from [Brigadier General August V.] Kautz’s mounted infantry participated in that expedition, about the probable results of which much hope was entertained at Federal headquarters. The main reason for thus counting upon success on this occasion lay in the belief that Petersburg was totally unprotected, even more so than it really was; and, in fact,...

    • 32 The Crater
      (pp. 424-430)
      Freeman S. Bowley

      Some months ago I noticed some communications in theNational Tribuneconcerning the Petersburg mine, and although I have read everything I could get hold of in the way of published accounts of that disastrous affair, they all fall far short of conveying any idea of the desperation and ferocity of the combatants on that day. The planning of the mine and its completion by [Lieutenant Colonel Henry] Pleasants and his Forty-eighth Pennsylvania have been so often described that it is unnecessary for me to refer to them. I propose to relate that part taken by [Brigadier General Edward] Ferrero’s...

    • 33 With Sherman at Atlanta
      (pp. 431-435)
      Albert G. Brackett

      During the siege of Atlanta, many interesting things occurred that made a strong impression upon the actors and witnesses. There was a continual strain upon the nerves of everyone, which was trying enough to the men and must have been a thousand times more so to the women and children who remained in the city. The batteries used to begin firing in the morning, and after keeping it going two or three hours, would slacken up. This was the course pursued by the Unionists and Confederates, and the several battery commanders used their utmost skill in endeavoring to cripple and...

    • 34 The Price Campaign of 1864
      (pp. 436-445)
      George S. Groover

      In september 1864, after more than three years of arduous service at the front in the various Missouri cavalry commands attached to the armies of the Frontier, the Southwest, and the Border, Major Emory S. Foster and myself had resigned, as we shared the common belief that the war was over west of the Mississippi River, and had returned to our former homes in Warrensburg, Missouri, he to resume the duties of his office as county clerk, to which he had been appointed in 1861, and I to become station agent for the Pacific railroad at Warrensburg, then the western...

    • 35 Sheridan at Winchester
      (pp. 446-457)
      Benjamin W. Crowninshield

      As it has been recently stated that the story of [Major General Philip H.] Sheridan’s ride at the battle of Cedar Creek is a fiction, and as many other late statements in the newspapers about the Shenandoah Valley campaign of 1864 under Sheridan are incorrect, it seems due to the memory of the brave dead and gallant living officers and men of Sheridan’s army that some one should give an authoritative account of the campaign and the man, and especially of the fight at Cedar Creek. I shall therefore relate in brief the facts of the campaign, merely premising that...

    • 36 General Schofield at Franklin
      (pp. 458-464)
      John K. Shellenberger

      I have read with great interest your editorial of [Major General] W. F. Smith and the board of officers that investigated his claim to be the author of the plan that relieved our starving army at Chattanooga in October 1863. The finding of the board was a great surprise nevertheless. I say “Amen,” as every lover of the truth must say when such a fraud is exposed.

      There is a still more flagrant case of stolen honors that calls for an investigation. It is the case of [Major General John M.] Schofield and the reward that he filched from the...

  14. PART 7: FIRESIDE AND FIELD OF BATTLE
    • 37 The Railroad Brigade
      (pp. 466-476)
      Herman Haupt

      In the spring of 1862 I received a telegram from the secretary of war requesting my presence at Washington. I left Boston immediately and reported to the secretary. Asking why I had been summoned he explained that [Major General George B.] McClellan was on the Peninsula operating against Richmond, that [Major General Irvin] McDowell had orders to advance by way of the Fredericksburg road to cooperate with him, but that his movements were retarded in consequence of the destruction of a large portion of the Fredericksburg road, including several large bridges upon that line. He wished me to make an...

    • 38 Telegraphing in Battle
      (pp. 476-491)
      J. Emmet O’Brien

      Before 1861 the value of the military telegraph had not been demonstrated. Crude experiments had been made with poorly equipped lines in the Crimea, in India, and by France, Spain, and Italy in different campaigns, while the Germans possessed a distinct military telegraph organization as yet untested; but it was on the very route where [Samuel F. B.] Morse’s first message, “What hath God wrought” announced the benefits of his invention to the arts of peace that the telegraph was to begin its first practical use in war.

      The outbreak of the mob in Baltimore on April 9, 1861, culminated...

    • 39 A View of the Confederacy from the Inside
      (pp. 491-498)
      John A. Campbell

      My Dear Sir:

      I learn that you have interfered in my behalf to obtain my release from arrest and confinement. I am obliged by your interposition, and appreciate it the more because that the war has made no change in my feelings toward yourself. You are aware that I was not a patron or friend of the secession movement. My condemnation of it and my continuance in the Supreme Court were regarded as acts for which there could be no tolerance. When I returned to Alabama in May 1861, it was to receive coldness, aversion, or contumely from the secession...

  15. PART 8: THE WAR IN 1865
    • 40 The Failure of the Hampton Conference
      (pp. 500-506)
      Fitzhugh Lee

      On february 3, 1865, upon the waves of Hampton Roads, near Fort Monroe, Virginia, Abraham Lincoln, president of the United States; William H. Seward of New York, his secretary of state; Alexander Hamilton Stephens of Georgia; R. M. T. Hunter of Virginia; and Judge J. A. Campbell, then of Alabama, met for informal conference on the United States transport steamerRiver Queenin a conference looking toward a cessation of hostilities in the Civil War.

      They were not “warriors old, with ordered spear and shields,” but men from whose faces the war paint had been temporarily washed, and whose war...

    • 41 The Fall of Fort Fisher
      (pp. 506-513)
      Thomas H. Sutton

      In consequence of a change of service the closing days of the war found the writer on the coast defenses of North Carolina. He was attached to the Fortieth North Carolina Regiment, stationed on Smith’s Island, and was in the heavy artillery branch of the service guarding the islet to the main or western bar of the Cape Fear River, for the twofold object of giving aid and comfort, as well as protection to the blockade runners and defending the approaches to Wilmington.

      Smith’s Island is on the eastern shore of the Cape Fear River at its mouth, about thirty...

    • 42 The Burning of Columbia
      (pp. 513-526)
      James G. Gibbes

      When [major general william t.] sherman reported that Columbia was either burned by [Lieutenant General Wade] Hampton or by accident, caused by the burning of cotton in the streets by the citizens, he presented the people of the North so-called facts; but over forty thousand eyewitnesses of the scene—one half of them his own soldiers—knew the facts to be very different indeed. As a witness of what took place on that fearful night, and with most of the scenes as vividly before me as if they had occurred but yesterday, I propose to give an account of it...

    • 43 The Last Days of the Rebellion
      (pp. 526-535)
      Philip H. Sheridan

      Public attention having of late been occasionally called to some of the events that occurred in the closing scenes of the Virginia campaign, terminating at Appomattox Court House, April 9, 1865, I feel it my duty to give to history the following facts:

      When [on] April 4, 1865, being at the head of the cavalry, I threw across the line of General [Robert E.] Lee’s march at Jettersville on the Richmond and Danville Railroad my personal escort, the First United States Cavalry, numbering about two hundred men, a tall, lank man was seen coming down the road from the direction...

    • 44 The Last Days of Lee’s Army
      (pp. 535-543)
      Charles Marshall

      The march was continued during April 8, [1865,] with little interruption from the enemy, and in the evening was halted near Appomattox Court House, General [Robert E.] Lee intending to march by way of Campbell Court House, through Pittsylvania County, toward Danville, with a view of opening communication with the army of General Joseph E. Johnston, then retreating before [Major General William T.] Sherman through North Carolina. General Lee’s purpose was to unite with General Johnston and attack Sherman or call Johnston to his aid in resisting [Major General Ulysses S.] Grant, whichever might be found better. The exhausted troops...

    • 45 An Effort to Rescue Jefferson Davis
      (pp. 543-552)
      Joseph Wheeler

      On april 27, 1865—I think that was the date—I arrived in Charlotte, North Carolina, where Mr. [Jefferson] Davis had summoned me. This was about a fortnight after Appomattox, and the president, accompanied by officers of his staff and by several members of his cabinet, with a number of other officers of government and many clerks of department, had recently reached this point, traveling by rail to Greensboro, thence in the saddle. While he saw the necessity of further retreat, he did not yet realize the completeness of our undoing. He still hoped that the tide of calamity might...

    • 46 The Last Chapter in the History of the War
      (pp. 553-564)
      J. M. Bundy

      The details attending the death-throes of the Southern Confederacy east of the Mississippi have been told, by those who witnessed them on each side, over and over again. The surrender of [Robert E.] Lee, which virtually ended the war, was an event of such transcendent importance that every particular incident thereof was portrayed by enterprising correspondents or embodied in official reports. The surrender of [General Joseph E.] Johnston was brought into special prominence by the spicy and trenchant correspondence between [Major General William T.] Sherman and [Secretary of War Edwin M.] Stanton, to which the first negotiations gave rise. When...

  16. PART 9: EPILOGUE
    • 47 Why the Confederacy Failed
      (pp. 566-592)
      Duncan Rose

      If a person be asked the question, “Why did the states fail seceding to win independence in the war of 1861–65,” the chances are that he will give one of two answers. It is likely that he will say that it was never intended that they should win; that America was designed by almighty Providence for one great nation; that it is not divided by interior seas and other natural boundaries, but is essentially one country; and that any effort to divide it, not being a good cause, must fail. If he does not give such an answer as...

  17. NOTES ON SOURCES AND CONTRIBUTORS
    (pp. 593-598)
  18. MAP AND ILLUSTRATION CREDITS
    (pp. 599-600)
  19. INDEX
    (pp. 601-606)
  20. Back Matter
    (pp. 607-608)