The Global Guide to Animal Protection

The Global Guide to Animal Protection

Edited by Andrew Linzey
Foreword by Desmond Tutu
Copyright Date: 2013
Pages: 296
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5406/j.ctt2tt9r9
  • Cite this Item
  • Book Info
    The Global Guide to Animal Protection
    Book Description:

    Raising awareness of human indifference and cruelty toward animals, The Global Guide to Animal Protection includes more than 180 introductory articles that survey the extent of worldwide human exploitation of animals from a variety of perspectives. In addition to entries on often disturbing examples of human cruelty toward animals, the book provides inspiring accounts of attempts by courageous individuals--including Jane Goodall, Shirley McGreal, Birute Mary Galdikas, Richard D. Ryder, and Roger Fouts--to challenge and change exploitative practices. As concern for animals and their welfare grows, this volume will be an indispensable aid to general readers, activists, scholars, and students interested in developing a keener awareness of cruelty to animals and considering avenues for reform. Also included is a special foreword by Archbishop Desmond Tutu, urging readers to seek justice and protection for all creatures, humans and animals alike.

    eISBN: 978-0-252-09489-7
    Subjects: Philosophy, Religion

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-viii)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. ix-xiv)
  3. Foreword EXTENDING JUSTICE AND COMPASSION
    (pp. xv-xvi)
    DESMOND TUTU

    I have spent my life fighting discrimination and injustice, whether the victims are blacks, women, or gays and lesbians. No human being should be the target of prejudice or the object of vilification or be denied his or her basic rights. I could not have lived with myself, as a Christian and a bishop, if I had looked the other way. But the business of fighting injustice is like fighting a multiheaded hydra. As one form of injustice appears to be vanquished, another takes its place. Even if the path of progress seems interminably long, we can content ourselves with...

  4. Introduction OTHER EYES AND OTHER WORLDS
    (pp. 1-5)
    ANDREW LINZEY

    Life on Mars. What was once science fiction may yet become fact. It now seems likely that there is water, an essential prerequisite for the emergence of life, on Mars after all. The possibility emerges that during the lifetime of some of us, or at least our sons’ and daughters’ lifetimes, human beings will encounter other, nonterrestrial life-forms.

    What, we may wonder, would such other life-forms look like? Would they be recognizable in human terms? Would they, for example, have faces or hands or feet? Would they be able to communicate with us, at least in nonverbal ways? Would they...

  5. SECTION 1. HISTORIES AND GLOBAL PERSPECTIVES
    • Introduction
      (pp. 7-8)
      ANDREW LINZEY

      The first subsection of “Histories and Global Perspectives” provides an overview of the emergence of organized animal protection in Europe, the United States, Canada, and Russia.

      It would be a mistake to suppose that ideas of animal protection emerged only in the nineteenth century; on the contrary, ideas of respect for life and non-harming emerged in many continents and can be traced as far back as Jainism (seeAnimals in Jainism) and the pre-Socratics. Those who care for animals stand in a long intellectual tradition that has had advocates in every part of the globe. What distinguishes the nineteenth century...

    • HISTORIES OF ORGANIZED ANIMAL PROTECTION
      • ANIMAL PROTECTION IN BRITAIN
        (pp. 9-10)
        HILDA KEAN

        Attempts to protect animals in nineteenth-century Britain were set against broader political projects to build a forward-looking nation that rejected a barbaric past. A new humanity toward animals became a distinctive part of modernity.

        The first animals to benefit from parliamentary legislation were animals used in farming. On June 7, 1822, in what became known as “Martin’s Act,” after Richard Martin, MP, who promoted the bill, it became an offense punishable by fines and imprisonment to wantonly and cruelly “beat, abuse, or ill-treat any horse, mare, gelding, mule, ass, ox, cow, heifer, steer, sheep or other cattle.” The rise of...

      • THE EMERGENCE OF ANIMAL PROTECTION IN RUSSIA
        (pp. 10-12)
        IRINA NOVOZHILOVA

        Sensitivity to animals has a long historical provenance in Russia, even giving rise to one of the world’s earliest societies for the protection of animals in 1865. This movement was championed by intellectuals, writers, and aristocrats. But it is only comparatively recently that animal protection has again become an organized phenomenon.

        The Russian Society for the Protection of Animals was established and supported by czars Alexander II, Alexander III, Nicolas II, and their families. The society published books on humane attitudes toward animals, especially for children, and was instrumental in securing the legal prohibition of cock fighting. Earlier on, Catherine...

      • EUROPEAN ANIMAL PROTECTION
        (pp. 12-14)
        SABRINA TONUTTI

        Societies for the prevention of cruelty to animals, specifically those against vivisection (seeAnimals in Research), were first launched in Europe during the second half of the nineteenth century. Their activity, aimed at raising general sensitivity toward the plight of animals, was characterized by international mutual help, the exchange of information leading to common methods of action, and most of all, the existence of a common cultural framework regarding the relationship between humans and animals. All these elements suggest that a new social movement concerned about animals was born at that time.

        These organizations worked to limit animal abuse, specifically...

      • THE HUMANE MOVEMENT IN CANADA
        (pp. 14-15)
        JANET E. BAYNGER

        In 1824, almost fifty years before Canada’s first humane society was formed, the province of Nova Scotia made cruelty to horses, sheep, and cattle a punishable offense. This was the first Canadian law protecting animals: those convicted had to pay damages to the owner and, at the judge’s discretion, were imprisoned or publicly whipped. The Canadian Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (CSPCA) was formed in 1869, with a mandate to provide effective means for the prevention of cruelty to animals. Believing that most mistreatment was due to ignorance rather than deliberate cruelty, it asked teachers, clergy, and...

      • SOCIETIES AGAINST CRUELTY IN THE UNITED STATES
        (pp. 15-16)
        STEPHEN L. ZAWISTOWSKI

        On February 8, 1866, Henry Bergh spoke before a large crowd at New York City’s Clinton Hall. He enumerated the many abuses and cruelties inflicted on animals and called for the formation of a society to protect them. On April 10, 1866, the New York State Legislature granted a special charter for the formation of the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA), modeled after the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) of England. On April 19, the legislature passed a law that prohibited the mistreatment of animals and authorized the newly formed...

      • VEGETARIANISM IN BRITAIN AND AMERICA
        (pp. 16-18)
        SAMANTHA JANE CALVERT

        Recent research by the International Vegetarian Union historian, John Davis, suggests that the wordvegetarianwas first used in printed form in 1842. However, it was clearly in use prior to that time, at least among a small group of people who were followers of the “sacred socialist” James Pierrepont Greaves and who formed a vegetarian community known as the Concordium at Alcott House, Ham Common in Surrey. The termvegetarianat this point, in keeping with the diet of the Concordists, referred to a purely plant-based or vegan lifestyle—eschewing not only animal foods but also woolen clothing—and...

    • PERSPECTIVES FROM AROUND THE GLOBE
      • ANIMAL ISSUES IN AUSTRALIA
        (pp. 18-20)
        JOHN SIMONS

        Animal protection issues in Australia fall into three distinct categories. The first relates to the general issue of animal welfare, the second concerns measures taken to protect animals who are farmed and worked in a country where agriculture remains a very significant sector of the economy, and the third concerns the protection and preservation of free-living land animals (seePreservation and Killing) and fishes in a fragile environment where biodiversity is under threat and history shows that native fauna are vulnerable to extinction.

        General issues of animal welfare and protection are perhaps best seen as primarily the province of the...

      • ANIMAL PROTECTION IN AFRICA
        (pp. 20-24)
        LES MITCHELL

        Summarizing the state of animal protection in Africa, given that this is a continent of incredible diversity, including in its geographical features, its climate, its fauna and flora, and its peoples and their histories and social and religious practices, is a daunting task. Reliable information often cannot be found, and that which does exist may be incomplete or difficult to obtain. In addition to other sources used, animal welfare organizations that are members of the World Society for the Protection of Animals were asked to help with this article by providing information about the problems they experience, legislation in their...

      • ANIMALS IN ASIA
        (pp. 24-25)
        JILL ROBINSON

        One of the biggest challenges facing animal protection organizations operating in Asia is the lack of adequate legislation and, where adequate laws do exist, the lack of enforcement. Corruption also complicates the issue. Even cosmopolitan Hong Kong lags behind most Western countries in its animal protection legislation; it has no laws protecting animals from neglect.

        Another major challenge is the lack of awareness among the general population of animals’ capacity to feel emotional, or even physical, pain. In fact, China—Asia’s most populous country—had no term for “animal welfare” until the late 1990s. Culture plays a big part in...

      • ANIMALS IN CHINESE CULTURE
        (pp. 25-27)
        CHIEN-HUI LI

        Chinese attitudes toward animals are diverse and complex. With a civilization that has evolved over four millennia and a population that constitutes about one-fifth of the global population, any kind of generalizations or appraisals, positive or negative, risk simplification.

        Animals played a crucial role in the formation of early Chinese civilization. The Chinese people were among the first people to domesticate animals such as pigs, horses, cattle, goats, chickens, and silkworms for husbandry, transport, hunting, consumption, clothing, and various other uses. Animals figured as mediums and objects of worship and served as sacrificial victims early in Chinese history. The animal...

      • ANIMALS IN THE MIDDLE EAST
        (pp. 27-28)
        TREVOR P. WHEELER

        It is important to define the geographical area referred to as the Middle East. The boundaries appear to change depending on which organization is making the definition and perhaps the geographical distribution of an organization’s resources. In this contribution, the Middle East will consist of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) states—Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Saudi Arabia—as well as Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine, Syria, and Yemen. In addition, Afghanistan and Iran should be included. This list illustrates the immense diversity of wealth, culture, and religion within the region, all of which impact...

      • CHALLENGES TO ANIMAL PROTECTION IN SCANDINAVIA
        (pp. 28-29)
        ANTON KRAG and LIVE KLEVELAND

        Scandinavia includes Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Iceland. Sweden, Denmark, and Finland are members of the European Union (EU). Norway and Iceland are not EU members, but Iceland has applied for membership. Because of the European Economic Area Agreement, most of the animal welfare regulations in the EU are implemented in Norway and Iceland in accordance with EU standards. In addition, national animal welfare acts apply in all the Scandinavian countries (European Free Trade Association Surveillance Authority).

        Scandinavian agriculture is still based largely on family farms. Between 1990 and 2000, there was an increase in the number of animals per...

      • JAPANESE ATTITUDES TOWARD ANIMALS
        (pp. 29-31)
        PERRY McCARNEY

        Current attitudes toward animals held by the Japanese people are as varied as those held by any other nation. However, they have evolved attitudes based on their unique cultural, religious, political, and economic history. Primary cultural concepts such asma; the religions of Shintoism, Buddhism, and Christianity; and post–World War II politics and the economic realities necessitated by Japan’s defeat and subsequent development as an economic world power have all played their part in developing today’s attitudes toward animals.

        Mainfluences all aspects of Japanese culture, including religion, politics, and economics, through its defining of what is appropriate.Ma...

      • SOUTH AMERICAN PERSPECTIVES ON ANIMALS
        (pp. 31-32)
        CARLOS M. NACONECY

        At the risk of portraying South America as a homogeneous entity with a stereotypical culture, one can at least consider it as a region characterized by vast natural resources and serious socioeconomic problems. Despite recent globalization processes, the continent maintains its own particular traits and identity in various areas. Some of these have a significant effect on the condition of animals in this region and explain the South American view of animals’ role and value.

        The critical importance of South America in terms of animal life is clear: there is no other region on the Earth with such a variety...

      • THE TREATMENT OF ANIMALS IN INDIA
        (pp. 32-35)
        B. K. SHARMA and SHAILJA SHARMA

        The Indian landmass is one of the globe’s top twelve mega-biodiversity regions. India has some of the world’s most significant biological diversity since it has only 2 percent of the total landmass of the world but is home to approximately 7 percent of the world’s flora and 6.5 percent of the world’s known free-living animals. According to the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List (2008/2010), India harbors 2,530 vertebrate species. Protected areas in India include eighty national parks, among them twenty-eight tiger reserves governed by Project Tiger and 441 wildlife sanctuaries (IUCN category 4 of protected areas)....

  6. SECTION 2. AQUATIC AND MARINE LIFE
    • Introduction
      (pp. 37-38)
      ANDREW LINZEY

      This section introduces the reader to those aquatic and marine creatures whom we often see least of all, but who inhabit the waters and oceans that make up more than 70 percent of the surface of the Earth.

      These creatures live alongside us in their own spheres, but we seldom fully understand them or feel as morally obligated to help them as we may feel to help others. We may be drawn to dolphins, whales, and seals, but other sea creatures evoke less sympathy. As Ross Minett observes in the entry on cephalopods and decapod crustaceans, “historically, animal protection legislation...

    • ACOUSTIC IMPACTS ON MARINE LIFE
      (pp. 39-40)
      MARSHA L. GREEN

      A growing body of evidence confirms that intense sound produced by human-generated noise in the marine environment can induce a range of adverse effects on marine mammals and other marine organisms. These effects include death and serious injury caused by hemorrhages or other tissue trauma; stranding; temporary and permanent hearing loss or impairment; displacement from preferred habitat; and disruption of feeding, breeding, nursing, communication, sensing, and other behaviors vital to survival. Recent studies show that ocean background noise levels have doubled every decade since the 1940s in some areas.

      The primary sources of human-produced noise in the marine environment are...

    • CEPHALOPODS AND DECAPOD CRUSTACEANS
      (pp. 40-41)
      ROSS MINETT

      Historically, animal protection legislation has tended to include only vertebrates (such as mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes) and to exclude cephalopods (octopuses, squids, cuttlefishes, and nautiluses) and decapod crustaceans (lobsters, crabs, and crayfishes) on the grounds that the latter are nonsentient and, therefore, incapable of suffering. However, increasingly, scientific understanding of their nervous systems and behavior indicates that these animals are in fact sentient and likely to experience pain and suffering.

      Some of these animals are used by humans for food, as fishing bait, and in scientific research. Catching, trapping, handling, holding, transporting, storing, and killing them can cause...

    • COMMERCIAL WHALING
      (pp. 41-43)
      ANDY OTTAWAY

      Although commercial whaling for large whale species was banned worldwide by the International Whaling Commission (IWC) in 1986, this ban has never been enforced.

      Over thirty thousand whales have been slaughtered since the ban was introduced, and every year a growing number of whales are killed. Unfortunately, smaller whale species are not protected by the ban, and around a half-million dolphins and porpoises have been killed in Japan alone since 1986. Japanese fishers still slaughter around twenty thousand of these animals every year.

      Currently, Japanese, Icelandic, and Norwegian whalers harpoon over two thousand large whales each year in defiance of...

    • INTELLIGENCE IN WHALES AND DOLPHINS
      (pp. 43-44)
      MARK PETER SIMMONDS

      Not unreasonably, perhaps, the process of securing recognition that animals have rights has started with nonhuman primates; the intelligence of these animals can be compared with our own relatively easily. But what of animals who live very differently from us—for example, animals swimming in three-dimensional open space with no definable homes or nests, interacting with each other and their environment in ways that we are still striving to understand? This brings us, of course, to whales and dolphins, mammals who lack that vital component of primate (including human) life—the opposable thumb—and whose senses are dominated by sound...

    • THE PINNIPEDS
      (pp. 44-46)
      DAVID M. LAVIGNE

      The pinnipeds (literally meaning feather-or fin-footed) include fur seals and sea lions (family Otariidae), walruses (Odobenidae), and the true seals (Phocidae). Often referred to simply as “seals,” they are the aquatic relatives of bears, weasels, dogs, cats, and other terrestrial carnivores (order Carnivora). Thirty-four extant species are currently recognized. Two additional species—the Japanese sea lion (Zalophus japonicus) and the Caribbean monk seal (Monachus tropicalis)—are now presumed extinct. More than one-third of all seal species are now represented on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals as critically endangered, endangered, vulnerable, or near threatened.

      The pinnipeds occur mainly in...

    • THE REHABILITATION OF DOLPHINS
      (pp. 46-47)
      RICHARD O’BARRY

      Many people have a misconception about how captive dolphins are prepared to be returned to their natural state. They think we train or, rather, retrain them. Some people suppose that we teach them to survive in their natural state in the same way that we once taught them to jump through hoops. They think we do it “scientifically.” Indeed, many of the people working to readapt and release captive dolphins think that is what we are doing. But how can we teach dolphins what they need to know to survive when the main thing they need to know is not...

    • SEA FISHES AND COMMERCIAL FISHING
      (pp. 47-50)
      SIDNEY J. HOLT

      Fishes are aquatic vertebrates covered with scales and equipped with two sets of paired fins and several unpaired fins. They differ from other vertebrates in having no neck between the head and thoracic regions, with important implications for the evolution of brains and forelimbs (pectoral fins).

      Humans generally think of fishes as things, not as beings. A change was signaled, however, in 2010 by the European Parliament’s adoption of a (nonbinding) resolution recognizing “that target species, as well as nontarget species such as fishes, sharks, turtles, seabirds, and marine mammals, are sentient creatures.” The resolution thus “call[ed] on the Commission...

    • SEA TURTLES IN THE MEDITERRANEAN
      (pp. 50-51)
      LILY THERESE VENIZELOS

      There are two main threats to the survival of the world’s sea turtles. The first is the disruption to the beaches where the turtles come to nest, and the second is the accidental catching of turtles by fishers. Both factors are especially apparent in the Mediterranean. Fishing is, of course, common throughout the region, and often the beaches where tourists delight in spending their hard-earned and much-deserved vacations are the same beaches where these marine reptiles need to come ashore at night to lay their eggs in the sand.

      Of the seven species in the world, two nest in the...

    • SHARK CONSERVATION
      (pp. 51-53)
      ELIZABETH MURDOCK

      Sharks are among the most maligned and misunderstood animals on earth. For many, the wordsharkevokes images of fearsome, menacing predators, of “killing machines” who cruise our shores. Sharks are indeed finely adapted predators, sculpted by more than 400 million years of evolution, but most of the roughly four hundred shark species pose no threat to humans. And although shark attacks do occur, they are relatively infrequent and result in very few human fatalities. By contrast, people kill tens of millions of sharks and shark-like fishes each year. Research published in 2006 indicates that between 26 and 73 million...

    • STRANDED MARINE MAMMALS
      (pp. 53-54)
      SALLIE K. RIGGS

      When dolphins, whales, seals, or sea turtles come ashore, they capture our attention. Indeed, for aeons, one of these animals on the beach was considered an economic bonanza for the local community. The stranded animal meant food, oil for heat and light, bones for tools, and skins for warmth. In the last half-century, the response to stranded animals has thankfully changed in many parts of the world. Now the emphasis is on humane care and treatment, with first priority given to returning the animal to the ocean.

      In the United States, when dolphins or whales come ashore in numbers, they...

    • UNDERSTANDING AMPHIBIANS
      (pp. 54-55)
      SIDNEY J. HOLT

      This class of vertebrate animals includes over five thousand species of frogs and toads, hundreds of species of newts and salamanders, and nearly two hundred species of legless, burrowing creatures called caecilians (no general vernacular name).

      The class has existed since the Devonian era, in which the fishes began, but most are post-Jurassic, with many extinct forms. Some scientists think they evolved from the lobe-finned fishes, whereas others think they are of multiple origins, as are the fishes and cetaceans. Most have an aquatic (freshwater) gill-breathing larval stage—the stage of tadpoles—and the adults can live in or out...

    • WEST INDIAN MANATEES
      (pp. 55-56)
      KATIE TRIPP

      West Indian manatees are large, gray-brown, aquatic mammals with bodies that taper to a flat, paddle-shaped tail. They have two flippers with three to four nails on each, and their head and face are wrinkled, with whiskers on the snout. Their closest relatives are the elephant and the hyrax (a small furry animal resembling a rodent). Manatees are believed to have evolved from a wading, plant-eating animal. The West Indian manatee is related to the West African manatee, the Amazonian manatee, the dugong, and Steller’s sea cow, which was hunted to extinction in 1768. The average adult manatee is about...

  7. SECTION 3. FREE-LIVING ANIMALS
    • Introduction
      (pp. 59-60)
      ANDREW LINZEY

      The focus in this section is on those free-living (otherwise known as “wild”) animals who share the planet with us.

      The subject is so broad that we have found it necessary to divide the material into subsections. The first concerns animals in captivity, notably in research centers, aquariums, zoos, and menageries. The second looks at issues of preservation and killing, including the conflicts between animal protection and conservation. The third focuses on sixteen species worldwide, from chimpanzees to beavers, and examines how they fare at the hands of humans. Some of these species are legally protected—others, not so—but...

    • ANIMALS IN CAPTIVITY
      • CAPTIVE CHIMPANZEES
        (pp. 61-62)
        ROGER FOUTS and DEBORAH FOUTS

        In the United States, there are more than 1,600 chimpanzees in biomedical research, and close to a third of them are considered “surplus.” There are another approximately 550 chimpanzees in other biomedical research facilities around the world. Approximately 300 chimpanzees are imprisoned in zoos in the United States, and another 1,700 around the world. Estimates of the number of chimpanzees used as companion animals or in the entertainment industry in the United States are difficult to make. One estimate is that perhaps 600 chimpanzees are kept as companion animals or as animals for entertainment.

        Around one hundred chimpanzees in the...

      • THE ETHICS OF ZOOS
        (pp. 62-63)
        RANDY MALAMUD

        Two central ethical questions arise from the consideration of zoos: First, do they succeed or fail in meeting the needs of the captive animals on display? And second, do they or do they not provide the human spectator with a valuable experience?

        Concerning the animal needs question, one might argue (as do many zookeepers and patrons) that zoos provide better care than what animals might expect if they were living free in nature: veterinary care, a stable food supply, protection from predators. Breaking down the overly large category of “animals” into specific species and even individual animals, one might argue...

      • MARINE MAMMALS IN CAPTIVITY
        (pp. 63-65)
        ROB LAIDLAW

        One of the most popular groups of animals in the world is the order of mammals known as cetaceans: dolphins and whales. These aquatic animals with large heads, nearly hairless fishlike bodies, and paddle-shaped forelimbs have earned a place in the hearts of millions of people worldwide. The majority of cetaceans kept captive in aquariums today belong to the families Delphinidae (bottlenose dolphins and killer whales) and Monodontidae (beluga whales). In nature, most cetaceans live in social groupings called pods that consist of a number of individuals of varying ages who play, feed, and travel together. Family bonds are so...

      • ROADSIDE ZOOS AND MENAGERIES
        (pp. 65-66)
        ROB LAIDLAW

        The wordzootypically conjures up images of large zoological institutions, such as national zoos located in the centers of major cities. These zoos and a handful of others like them have created the erroneous perception that most zoos are focused on the preservation of endangered species, usually through captive breeding, and conservation education. The public has been led to believe that zoos are modern arks—an important lifeline for vanishing species threatened with extinction. But those claims do not stand up to scrutiny, and few zoos make more than a token contribution in that regard. Many zoos do nothing...

      • THE SCIENTIFIC CLAIMS OF ZOOS
        (pp. 66-67)
        DAVID SPRATT

        Many questions arise from an ethical critique of the practice of science in zoos. Fundamental is when and why the practice arose. For this we have to look back to the 1820s, when scientists of the day decided that it would be useful to hold a collection of animals in London with the stated aim of, as presented in a royal charter granted by King George IV, “the advancement of Zoology and Animal Physiology and the introduction of new and curious subjects of the Animal Kingdom” (Mitchell 38–43). The current stated objective of the world’s zoos is “to support...

    • PRESERVATION AND KILLING
      • ANIMAL PROTECTION AND ENVIRONMENTALISM
        (pp. 68-69)
        KURT REMELE

        It is widely assumed that protecting animals and protecting the environment are one and the same thing. And indeed, both concerns have a lot in common. Both the animal liberation movement and the environmental movement became popular in the 1970s; both are opposed to a blunt anthropocentrism or humanocentrism that deprives the nonhuman natural world of any intrinsic value or dignity. Moreover, in public controversies and campaigns, both animal liberationists and environmentalists frequently act together.

        On closer examination, though, there are some significant differences between the ethics of animal protection and environmental ethics, differences that have been the subject of...

      • CONSERVATION PHILOSOPHY
        (pp. 69-70)
        MARC BEKOFF

        Humans are all over the place. When we interact with nature, we usually redecorate landscapes and the living rooms of animals for our own ends, with little or no thought to their needs. Humans are very much a part of nature, and our widespread intrusions and big brains carry with them enormous responsibilities as nature’s supposed and self-professed stewards. We are the only species that can “save the planet.” Although we may have dominion over nature, we are obliged not to dominate her selfishly. Researchers agree that the most serious problems facing numerous species (many of which are perilously close...

      • DE-SNARING IN KENYA
        (pp. 70-71)
        ANNE KENT TAYLOR

        Some years ago, near my home in Kenya’s Maasai Mara, I noticed a number of animals (primarily giraffes and elephants) with life-threatening injuries caused by wire snares. In order to alleviate their suffering, I worked with the Kenya Wildlife Service to bring veterinarians to the Mara to remove these snares, thereby saving the animals from an excruciating slow death. Wanting to improve the chances for these animals, I then decided to take it a step further and received permission from the authorities to run a community de-snaring program.

        The bushmeat trade has reached epic proportions throughout many African countries. TRAFFIC,...

      • THE ETHICS OF KILLING FREE-LIVING ANIMALS
        (pp. 71-73)
        PRISCILLA N. COHN

        Attempted justifications for the killing of free-living animals usually include the notion that there are “too many” animals—too many bears, deer, geese, squirrels; the list is almost endless. The solution, some say, is to control the animals’ numbers, and this means killing by one means or another, usually with guns, bow and razor-tipped arrows, trapping, or poison. It is said that their numbers must be controlled because they are a danger to us, or they frighten us, or they are just an annoying nuisance.

        Black bears, known to be docile, are shot and killed in the United States because...

      • THE ETHICS OF REINTRODUCTION
        (pp. 73-74)
        ANDREW LINZEY

        Reintroduction, or “rewilding” as it is sometimes known, is the process of reintroducing free-ranging species into a given area where they have become extinct. Species now reintroduced include the wolf, beaver, bison, and boar, and there are ambitions to introduce many more (Rewilding Symposium). The process is undertaken in the interests of biodiversity and is often a well-intentioned attempt to redress the balance of nature, which humans themselves have previously disturbed through overhunting or by causing the rapid depletion of resources or the environment on which the species depend.

        As described, reintroduction sounds like a benign process. But in fact...

      • IMMUNOCONTRACEPTION
        (pp. 74-76)
        PRISCILLA N. COHN

        Human contraceptives were first tested on animals and then later used to control fertility in animals. Starting in the 1960s, hormonal contraceptives were tested on a large number of animals, including, among others, dogs, lions, deer, horses, rats, and birds. Delivery of these compounds was comparatively simple for zoo animals, where much of the early research occurred, but difficult for free-ranging animals, because large and frequent doses were necessary and also because baits were often avoided by the target animals. In addition, social behavior was sometimes adversely affected. A major disadvantage concerned passage of these steroid hormones through the food...

      • PRESERVING ANIMALS IN MADAGASCAR
        (pp. 76-77)
        DEREK SCHUURMAN

        Madagascar is a veritable treasure trove for nature enthusiasts: thanks to an estimated 165 million years of isolation from Africa and about 80 million years from India, the “Great Red Island” is classified by Conservation International (among others) as one of our planet’s “megadiversity hotspots.”

        Approximately 150,000 of the 200,000 animal and plant species estimated to exist there are found nowhere else in the world. Other contributing factors to this extraordinarily high rate of species endemism include the country’s enormity—Madagascar is the world’s fourth-largest island—and its tropical location. Although Madagascar was one of the last habitable landmasses to...

      • SANCTUARIES AND REHABILITATION
        (pp. 77-79)
        JOANNE FIELDER

        By definition, sanctuaries for free-living animals offer a safeguard, or haven, for these animals, protecting them from danger in an undisturbed environment. As the development of human society increases its demands on the natural environment, the number of animals displaced from their natural habitats increases. Individual animals are continually being placed into crisis situations as a result of human activities; the range of species, and the manner in which they are affected, is vast. The concept of sanctuaries for free-living animals (“wildlife sanctuaries”) has been developed not only as a means of rescuing these individuals, but also to actively address...

      • SNARES AND SNARING
        (pp. 79-80)
        LIBBY ANDERSON

        The use of snares to trap animals dates from the development of plant fiber and cordage use in the Upper Paleolithic period, before the use of bows and arrows. There are numerous references to snares in ancient texts, including the Hebrew Bible. Today, snares remain prevalent around the world. They are used in subsistence and commercial hunting (including the fur trade), poaching (including the bushmeat trade), recreational bushcraft, population control, predator and “pest” species control, and occasionally research.

        The basic design of the snare is an anchored noose, originally made of vine or plant fiber and nowadays usually made of...

    • FOCUS ON SPECIES WORLDWIDE
      • THE BIG CATS
        (pp. 80-81)
        TERRY MOORE

        Of the thirty-eight species of free-living cats left on this planet, the most endangered include the Andean mountain cat, cheetah, Iriomote cat, jaguar, kodkod, lion, snow leopard, Spanish lynx, and tiger and many of the subspecies of most of the other twenty-nine species. All the big cats are included in this list because their size, larger territorial range, loss of habitat, and apparent value as body parts have resulted in their reduction worldwide.

        Currently, for example, there may be fewer than 800 snow leopards and 4,200 tigers left in their natural state.

        All the members of the cat family have...

      • COEXISTING WITH COYOTES
        (pp. 81-83)
        CAMILLA H. FOX

        Coyotes and humans shared the same environment long before European settlers arrived in North America. To many Native American cultures, coyotes were powerful mythological figures endowed with the power of creation and venerated for their intelligence and mischievous nature. The Aztec name for the coyote wascoyotyl, which loosely translates to “trickster,” whereas Navajo sheep and goat herders referred to the coyote as “God’s dog.” European settlers, however, viewed coyotes as a threat to livestock and as a competitor for game species, a view that unfortunately still persists in many areas of North America. As a result, the coyote remains...

      • FACTS ABOUT BEARS
        (pp. 83-84)
        VICTOR WATKINS

        There are eight species of bear living in habitats as varied as the tropical rainforests of Indonesia and the icy Arctic wastes. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are the only bear species living in the cold Arctic regions, and brown bears (Ursus arctos) live in temperate forests of the Northern Hemisphere from North America (where they are often called grizzlies) through parts of Europe and on through Asia and China, to the northern island of Hokkaido in Japan.

        American black bears (Ursus americanus) inhabit North America, and Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus) are found from Pakistan through Southeast Asia and into...

      • FREE-LIVING CHIMPANZEES
        (pp. 84-85)
        JANE GOODALL

        When I began my chimpanzee research in 1960, in Tanzania’s Gombe national park, there must have been well over one million free-living chimpanzees in Africa. It is estimated that there are now 300,000 at most, and they are spread through twenty-one nations, many in small fragmented populations that have little hope of long-term survival (they are already extinct in four countries). And for other primates the situation is even more alarming. One species, Miss Waldron’s red colobus, was declared extinct in 2000.

        The exploitation of natural resources through poverty, ignorance, or greed is the root cause of catastrophic environmental problems...

      • FREE-RANGING HORSES
        (pp. 85-86)
        DEBORAH ELLSWORTH and BARBARA CLARKE

        Their hoofprints were barely visible as we stood on the edge of the water hole. The free-ranging horses had recently been there but had left a narrow path without disturbing the vegetation. We stood there and imagined them returning at dusk to get the last drink of the day, the mares and foals cautiously approaching the cool water under the watchful vigilance of the band stallion. The peaceful silence of the moment was suddenly broken by the sound of a bulldozer. Just over the hill, a housing development was taking shape, and this water hole would soon be gone. The...

      • THE FUTURE OF FREE-ROAMING ORANGUTANS
        (pp. 86-87)
        BIRUTÉ MARY GALDIKAS

        The tropical rainforests of Southeast Asia, considered one of the world’s biologically richest ecosystems, are a refuge for some of the world’s most endangered species, including orangutans. However, the future of these forests and the species these forests harbor is under tremendous threat. If the onslaught of habitat destruction is not halted, experts predict that by the 2030s, biologically viable populations of Asia’s only great apes will no longer exist.

        Orangutans were one of the first great apes known to the Western world, yet for many years, they were the least understood. Often called the “neglected ape,” orangutans were rarely...

      • KOALAS AND THEIR PROTECTION
        (pp. 87-88)
        DEBORAH TABART

        Koalas are loved the world over for their gentle demeanor and teddy bear–like features. They are one of the living icons of Australia. They live naturally only on the island continent and have evolved with the eucalypts to take a unique place among Australia’s flora and fauna.

        Often called bears, koalas are in fact marsupials, like most of the mammals of Australia. Their young are born after approximately thirty-five days of gestation; the jelly bean–like baby koala makes his or her way unaided from the mother’s cloaca to her pouch where the baby attaches to a teat and...

      • MOON BEARS AND BEAR BILE FARMING
        (pp. 89-90)
        JILL ROBINSON

        Of the eight bear species in the world, the Asiatic black bear (Ursus selenarctos thibetanus) is perhaps the most maligned. Affectionately named the “moon bear,” originating from the Latin, because of the yellow moon-shaped chest crescent, this species suffers widespread exploitation and abuse in every country throughout its range.

        The moon bear is believed by scientist Daniel Taylor-Ide to be the original yeti, and the animal’s habitat extends from Iran to Japan and across Southeast Asia. Listed under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) Appendix I, the surviving moon bears number as few as 25,000, estimates indicate....

      • PERCEPTIONS OF ELEPHANTS
        (pp. 90-91)
        GEORGE WITTEMYER

        Elephants are widely considered some of the world’s most magnificent animals on account of their intelligence, beauty, size, and strength. New discoveries are continually made about this species since the animals’ complexity leaves a seemingly endless line of questions for scientists to tackle. Congruently, the management and conservation issues surrounding these animals are also many and complex. The massive reduction in wilderness areas available for free-living animals, a process associated with the resource demands of increasing human populations, is a major threat to the elephant. As the largest terrestrial mammal, the elephant requires immense open spaces for survival. Only recently...

      • THE PERSECUTION OF BADGERS
        (pp. 91-92)
        ELAINE KING

        Badgers are among Britain’s most popular mammals and are now protected by law. Yet badgers have been persecuted for hundreds of years—and still are. In many towns and villages, it was a traditional part of a weekend’s entertainment to go badger digging. The Protection of Badgers Act 1992 was enacted to protect badgers from baiting and other forms of intentional cruelty. It also sought to protect badgers and their setts from the adverse effects of development—for example, road building and housing. But the pressures on badgers have never been greater. Indeed, such is the current level of persecution...

      • PRIMATES WORLDWIDE
        (pp. 92-94)
        SHIRLEY McGREAL

        Nonhuman primates are the animals closest to human primates on the evolutionary tree. Everyone reading this article is a primate! In the course of evolution, species developed with increasing intelligence, forward-looking eyes that help with depth perception, greater manual dexterity than other animals, and a long period of mother-infant dependency. These animals are known as the primates.

        There are over 250 primate species living in Africa, Asia, South and Central America, and Gibraltar. Many primate species are well known to the public, especially gorillas, chimpanzees, and orangutans. Others are less well known, but highly endangered, such as the drill, the...

      • THE PROTECTION OF BIRDS
        (pp. 94-96)
        CHRISTOPHER F. MASON

        The modern-day protection of birds began in the United Kingdom and had its origins in the Sea Birds Protection Bill of 1869, which provided a closed season for killing seabirds when they were on their breeding cliffs. This bill came about because of widespread repugnance at shooting parties whose pleasure was to slaughter seabirds sitting on nests in the colonies of Flamborough Head in Yorkshire. During the 1880s, there was also a marked increase in the import of bird skins to make hats for women, with millions of herons and egrets being killed to meet demand. This requirement for skins...

      • THE SLAUGHTER OF KANGAROOS
        (pp. 96-97)
        JULIET GELLATLEY

        All over the world, free-living animals are being driven to the point of extinction. The usual reasons are habitat loss, hunting, and the export trade. In Australia, the killing of seven species of kangaroo and wallabies is encouraged by the government, and the products of this massacre—meat and skin—are aggressively marketed around the world by the nation’s embassies and high commissions.

        The killing is done mainly by rifle-toting part-timers. They roar through the outback at night in four-wheel drives fitted with powerful spotlights. The Code of Conduct states that animals are supposed to be “head shot,” but frequently...

      • THREATS TO THE BROWN HARE
        (pp. 97-98)
        STEPHEN HARRIS

        It is hard to envisage a mammal whose fortunes have been greater influenced by the vagaries of human behavior than the brown hare. Hares have been moved around the world so extensively that no one is sure of their original range. The brown hare evolved on the open steppes of Asia and spread into agricultural habitats throughout Europe during the postglacial period. How much of this spread was natural, as forest landscapes were cleared, and how much was due to deliberate releases for hunting remains unclear. Certainly, brown hares were introduced to many of the Mediterranean islands between two and...

      • UNDERSTANDING BEAVERS
        (pp. 99-100)
        SHARON TAYLOR BROWN

        Beavers may be the most misunderstood animals of Europe, Asia, and North America, yet also the most important—most important because their habit of building dams on streams creates wetlands, the “rainforests of the North” that are the land’s best life support system. Although the enormous environmental benefits of beavers were not known soon enough to stop their widespread extermination in the past, nature’s engineers are now reclaiming some of their historic territory in North America and Europe.

        Even the beavers’ scientific name, the genus “Castor,” arose because of a misunderstanding: early Europeans believed that because beavers had no visible...

      • THE WELFARE OF MUTE SWANS
        (pp. 101-102)
        DOROTHY BEESON

        The mute swan,Cygnus olor(derived from two words meaning “swan,” the former being the Latin and the latter apparently derived from an old Celtic name for the species of bird), is found in many parts of the world and is known in Britain as a “royal bird.” It is protected by a law known as the Royal Prerogative. That means that it is a criminal offense to harm the birds, disturb their nests, or steal their eggs. But despite their privileged legal status, there are continuing concerns about their welfare and the preservation of their habitat.

        Mute swans may...

    • TRADE
      • CITES AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE
        (pp. 102-103)
        STEPHEN V. NASH

        Planet Earth is home to over 13,000 known species of mammals and birds; thousands of reptile, amphibian, and fish species; some 250,000 flowering plant species; and millions of insect and other invertebrate species. Together these animals and plants form part of the great natural wealth of the world with which we are entrusted, both for present generations and for generations to come. Yet many thousands of species are under pressure because of human activities such as habitat destruction, pollution, and unsustainable use.

        International trade, both legal and illegal, has grown dramatically over the past few decades as improved transport has...

      • THE FUR TRADE
        (pp. 103-104)
        MARK GLOVER and ANDREW LINZEY

        Historically, fur has always been associated with status and excess. Twelve thousand squirrel and eighty ermine skins were used for just one of Henry IV’s robes, and the types of fur that could be worn depended on the rung of the social ladder a person occupied. Fur is still seen as a status or fashion statement. Animals have been exterminated from many of their territories by the trade in fur. As early as 1526, the last beaver was killed in the United Kingdom, and subsequently, in many parts of Europe, target species, such as the much-prized marten, were progressively “hunted...

      • LIVE ANIMAL EXPORTS
        (pp. 104-106)
        PHIL BROOKE

        A wide variety of animals, including pigs, sheep, cattle, poultry, and horses, are transported across countries, across continents, and in some cases across the open sea for slaughter, further fattening, or breeding purposes.

        Being loaded onto a truck is likely to be a disturbing experience, especially for animals who are unused to travel. They are removed from the environment they know and are likely to suffer considerable fear from human handling and a range of unfamiliar stresses. They as locally killed, perhaps misleading local consumers into thinking it was also locally produced. Live export is sometimes defended on the grounds...

      • THE TRADE IN PRIMATES FOR RESEARCH
        (pp. 106-107)
        SARAH KITE

        The trade in nonhuman primates for research is a global industry. It is an industry responsible for inflicting immense cruelty and suffering on tens of thousands of primates every year, during their capture, caging, holding, and transportation to laboratories worldwide. The major importers and users of primates in research are the United States, China, the European Union, and Japan.

        Primates traded are Old World species, in particular macaques (Macacasp.), but African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops) and baboons (Papiosp.) are also used. The trade in New World species includes squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus), marmosets (Callithrixsp.), and tamarins (Saguinus...

      • THE TRADE IN REPTILES
        (pp. 107-109)
        CLIFFORD WARWICK

        Many, if not most, people view the decline of the dinosaurs as something of a tragedy, at least if interest in the animals’ fossilized remains is anything to go by. The “golden age of reptiles” met with rapid and near-global extinction, a major catastrophe marking the end of a long and successful reign. If we could step back in time, we would see our “prehistoric greats” living in harmony with the near-identical forefathers of modern-day crocodiles and turtles—who are still as ancient and yet as up-to-date as ever. With about nine thousand described species, reptiles outweigh mammalian diversity by...

      • THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION
        (pp. 109-110)
        SIOBHAN O’SULLIVAN and SANDY ROSS

        The World Trade Organization (WTO), with 153 member states, plays a central role in the negotiation, establishment, and enforcement of rules on international trade based on the principle of nondiscrimination, which requires that all equivalent goods be treated equally for the purpose of trade, no matter which country they come from.

        The WTO was established in 1995 by a series of intergovernmental agreements arising out of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). In addition to trade in goods (including nonhuman animals), WTO agreements also encompass trade in services and the regulation of intellectual property. In the context of...

  8. SECTION 4. COMPANION ANIMALS
    • Introduction
      (pp. 113-114)
      ANDREW LINZEY

      Millions of people worldwide have companion animals. Some are lavishly treated; many are not. Some are neglected (largely because of ignorance) or placed in unsuitable environments, abandoned, or euthanized when caregivers tire of them.

      The first subsection of “Companion Animals” begins with the essential information about caring for the most common of our companions, such as dogs, cats, guinea pigs, hamsters, horses, and rabbits. It is important that everyone who cares for such animals be familiar with the essentials of proper care, including housing, feeding, and the need for veterinary care. The second subsection includes a range of articles focusing...

    • CARING FOR INDIVIDUAL SPECIES
      • CATS
        (pp. 115-116)
        PETER F. NEVILLE

        In many surveys, cats are commonly described by their caregivers as “close friends.” Most of us accept that our cat companions are as aware of our moods as we are of theirs. Mechanistic descriptions of animal behavior are being replaced by an understanding of “emotionality”—how all animals, including humans, are emotionally complex beings. This enables us to examine not only our own mood states better, in terms of assessing our general well-being, but also those of our cats.

        Most caregivers in Europe allow their cats the freedom of the great outdoors to behave as they wish and then care,...

      • DOGS
        (pp. 116-118)
        ALI TAYLOR

        Originally, the ancestors of the domesticated dog were often bred specifically for a job, for work. Most are now kept as companion animals, and the contemporary challenge is how to provide optimum care while respecting the animals’ natural, instinctive behaviors. To keep a domesticated dog healthy and happy, caregivers should follow a basic set of guidelines to ensure that the dog is integrated into the home environment while at the same time being allowed to develop his or her own personality.

        Housetraining is probably the most important aspect of dog keeping to get right from the outset. Dogs live in...

      • GERBILS
        (pp. 118-119)
        JOHN ROLLS

        In their natural state, gerbils live in groups called colonies. As social animals, same-sex pairs or groups of gerbils can live happily together, but they should be introduced to one another before the age of seven to eight weeks to prevent fighting. Gerbils are agile and are very good diggers and gnawers, so their housing should be constructed to provide continual opportunity for these behaviors. They are active during the day.

        Gerbils have the following requirements:

        Companionship with other gerbils.

        Daily feeding of a rodent diet of a commercial pellet or seed-based mix, with a small amount of fresh fruit...

      • GUINEA PIGS
        (pp. 119-120)
        JOHN ROLLS

        Guinea pigs are traditionally thought of as good first “pets” for children; however, it should always be an adult who takes responsibility to ensure guinea pigs are properly handled and cared for. Caregivers must ensure that they meet their guinea pig’s welfare needs.

        Guinea pigs are active animals and need the opportunity to perform species-typical behaviors, including running, digging, standing fully upright on their back legs, and stretching out when lying down. Guinea pigs need a secure living environment that is large enough for them to exercise in and high enough for them to stand up fully on their back...

      • HAMSTERS
        (pp. 120-121)
        JOHN ROLLS

        In their natural state, hamsters make underground homes, building nests within them. They are generally nocturnal, which means they are active at night and should be left alone and quiet during the day. In winter they may go into a deep sleep, or hibernation. The Syrian hamster is solitary and should not be kept in pairs or groups. Other species can be sociable—for example, the Campbell’s dwarf hamster and the Russian winter white dwarf hamster—but great care is needed when introducing them, or they may fight.

        Hamsters have the following requirements:

        Daily feeding of a rodent diet of...

      • HORSES
        (pp. 121-123)
        LYNDA FREEBREY

        Caring for a horse or pony is not something to be entered into lightly. Contrary to popular opinion, they are not animals who can just be turned out in a field and visited once or twice a week. A field, with just grass to eat, may not be enough for some to survive, let alone live healthy lives. Of the many horses and ponies suffering from neglect, starvation, or abuse who come into the care of World Horse Welfare (WHW; previously the International League for the Protection of Horses) every year, very few of them have caregivers who are intentionally...

      • RABBITS
        (pp. 123-124)
        JOHN ROLLS

        The welfare needs of rabbits are often poorly understood by potential and existing caregivers, and the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) is concerned that this lack of knowledge, together with many inappropriate traditional housing and husbandry practices, has a detrimental impact on rabbit welfare.

        Rabbits are traditionally thought of as good first “pets” for children; however, the RSPCA does not recommend them as suitable companion animals for young children because rabbits have complex needs and are not easy to look after well—they can also be easily injured if not handled correctly. Caregivers must ensure...

    • RESPONSIBLE CARE
      • CHILDREN’S RELATIONS WITH ANIMALS
        (pp. 125-126)
        ELEONORA GULLONE

        Current statistics indicate that many people share their lives with companion animals. This relationship between people and animals is best documented for modern Western countries, and available statistics indicate that between almost half of all households (47 percent in the United Kingdom) and nearly three-quarters (63 percent in Australia; 67 percent in the United States) include companion animals. Of particular relevance, the statistics indicate that companion animals are most common in households with children. This is not surprising when one considers the nature of children’s relationships with companion animals.

        As a social species, our need for interpersonal attachments and social...

      • THE CONCEPT OF GUARDIANSHIP
        (pp. 126-127)
        ELLIOT M. KATZ

        One of the most exciting recent developments in the animal protection movement is the campaign to elevate the status of animals beyond that of property, commodities, and things. Historically, humanity has regarded our relationship with other animals in terms of ownership. This conception of animals as property is the basis of both our legal relationship with animals and our everyday thinking about their place in our lives. Because almost all animal abuse and exploitation stems from viewing animals as property, the animal protection movement is becoming unified in challenging this demeaning, cruel, and unjust perspective.

        The language of ownership has...

      • DISASTER PLANNING
        (pp. 127-129)
        PEGGY CUNNIFF and THE STAFF OF NAVS

        Natural disasters, such as tornadoes, hurricanes, and floods, displace thousands of families from their homes every year. On a smaller but no less serious scale, fires, illnesses, accidents, and sudden death can have terrible consequences for companion animals who depend on their human families to protect them and provide for their daily needs. Historically, companion animals have not been included in traditional disaster planning or relief services. But the tragic events in New York City and Washington, DC, on September 11, 2001, demonstrated to the whole world the important role animals play in rescue efforts and in the comforting of...

      • ENHANCING A DOG’S ENVIRONMENT
        (pp. 129-130)
        STEPHEN G. KING

        Environmental enrichment is concerned with improving the environmental welfare of animals. Providing a positive, rewarding, and stimulating environment based on trust and affection, rather than force and compulsion, helps our companions to be both healthy and happy.

        Dogs are a classic example of a species whose welfare can be dramatically improved by environmental enrichment. When we allow dogs to burn off calories in a safe and natural way, they are likely to behave more naturally in a restricted environment and are less likely to be stressed by handling and restraint. Breed differences and husbandry requirements should obviously be borne in...

      • KENNELS AND CATTERIES
        (pp. 130-131)
        GWEN BAILEY

        Many people who have companion animals are understandably anxious about leaving their animals when going away on holiday or vacation. Sometimes the problem can be resolved by finding a neighbor or relative to “pet sit,” or live in the house. There are also professional agencies that offer pet-sitting arrangements. Sometimes, however, boarding a companion animal at a kennel or cattery is the only solution. Once this decision has been made, it is important to select the best cattery or kennel, so that you can go away on holiday without worrying about the safety or welfare of your animals.

        The first...

      • A LIFELONG RESPONSIBILITY
        (pp. 132-133)
        JOANNE RIGHETTI

        In Australia, 85 percent of people live with a companion animal at some point in their lives, providing a unique opportunity to nurture, to learn from, and to interact with another living creature. We Aussies often talk of our affection for animals, both our native free-living “wildlife” and our domesticated companions. With one look at our numerous shelters caring for thousands of surrendered dogs and cats, however, we may begin to question our nation’s supposed devotion. Similar situations exist all over the world. Cute puppies and kittens readily find homes, only to end up unwanted and homeless when the going...

      • MICROCHIPPING
        (pp. 133-133)
        ALASTAIR MacMILLAN

        Thousands of companion animals are lost every year, even to the most careful and loving caregivers. Sadly, many of these animals and caregivers are never reunited. The best way to ensure that an animal will be found if he or she goes missing is to have the animal microchipped—implanted with a special microchip “tag.” The Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) supports the national microchip identification databases for animals. It is the quickest, surest way of getting any lost animal back to his or her caregiver, safe and sound.

        Once an animal has been microchipped,...

      • SHELTERS AND SANCTUARIES
        (pp. 133-135)
        JOANNE FIELDER

        Shelters and sanctuaries, as defined in the English language, are places of safety, offering protection from danger (or the elements) and freedom from disturbance. Throughout the world, hundreds of sanctuaries have been developed to deal specifically with domesticated animals. Animals are placed into these centers for a variety of reasons, and the way in which they are looked after, as well as the eventual fate of the animals concerned, often varies greatly.

        Most sanctuaries have to cope with homeless or unwanted animals, including, for example, stray animals living on the streets of towns and cities—dogs and cats who have...

      • TEACHING ANIMALS HUMANELY
        (pp. 135-136)
        ANDREW CONSTANT

        We have all seen it. A caregiver gets angry or frustrated and lashes out at his or her dog. Perhaps such actions, when they happen in rage or anger, are at least understandable. But there are many people who keep companion animals and regard themselves as good caregivers who still use force or violence to teach their animals. Among some “trainers” or “behaviorists,” such violence is still accepted as commonplace, even moral.

        An example of how far this tendency has gone can be found in the phenomenon of electric collars. These are devices strapped to a dog’s neck that are...

      • UNDERSTANDING COMPANION ANIMALS
        (pp. 136-137)
        ABBEY ANNE SMITH

        How many caregivers of domesticated cats and dogs have asked themselves how their companions view them? With a little knowledge and imagination, it is possible to glean insight into the way companion animals see their world and the role their human caregivers play therein.

        In their natural state, kittens are social animals, happily sharing their territory with their littermates and mother. As they reach maturity, however, adolescent cats leave their family group to search for their own territory, where they will lead a solitary life. Unlike their undomesticated counterparts, domesticated cats often live happily with others for their whole lives....

    • HEALTH, LOSS, AND BEREAVEMENT
      • ANIMAL BURIALS
        (pp. 137-139)
        ANDREW LINZEY

        Human beings often form close emotional bonds with their companion animals; indeed, for some people—usually but not exclusively children and the elderly—companion animals are the “significant other” relationship in their lives. The death of a companion animal can occasion deep emotional trauma, shock, disorientation, and feelings of guilt—all the usual experiences associated with other kinds of bereavement. But such bereavement is accompanied by two practical issues—namely, how to properly mark closure and how to respectfully dispose of the body of a loved companion. It is those two issues I want to address.

        It is psychologically important...

      • EUTHANASIA
        (pp. 139-140)
        MARY F. STEWART

        The literal meaning of “euthanasia” is a good death, or an easy death. It describes a planned death that is painless and relatively stress-free. Properly understood, the euthanasia of animals is a compassionate act that allows them to die peacefully, rather than in great pain or prolonged distress. It is indicated in cases of severe injury, untreatable conditions that impair the quality of life, and terminal illness.

        Veterinarians have the responsibility of putting an end to the suffering of animals in their care. There are ethical dilemmas, however, when caregivers are unwilling to let their companion animals go and persist...

      • THE EXPERIENCE OF LOSS
        (pp. 140-141)
        NIGEL K. WALTON and JO-ANN FOWLER

        The loss of a companion animal can be a traumatic experience. It marks the end of a partnership that may have lasted many years, sometimes more than a decade. Companion animals often provide significant benefits: friendship, unconditional love, physical activity, and social contact. In the case of animal-assisted partnerships, companion animals will have enabled everyday tasks and even freedom of movement. When an attachment is severed, either through death or through another form of enforced separation, the experience of loss can be profound.

        The grieving process varies from individual to individual, even for the same individual, and may be different...

      • FIRST AID
        (pp. 141-143)
        W. J. JORDAN

        “Not to hurt our humble brethren is our first duty to them, but to stop there is not enough. We have a higher mission—to be of service to them whenever they require it.” These words of Saint Francis of Assisi should inspire all those who want to offer first aid to animals in distress.

        It is important to appreciate that animals, like humans, suffer pain and stress and have their own complex emotional lives. They have similar systems for perceiving pain and reacting to stress. Even fishes have special nerve endings that detect painful injuries. Humans are not the...

      • HOLISTIC HEALTH CARE
        (pp. 143-144)
        SUSAN MARINO

        In recent years, there has been a rekindling of interest in holistic health care and a desire to use natural products and medicines. Not only people but also their animal companions are experiencing the benefits of holistic care. Holistic medicine (sometimes spelled “wholistic”) is the art of natural healing. It is not so much a discipline as a concept in the care and treatment of individuals.

        The concern of holistic practitioners is to assist in the healing process of the animal. They treat the whole animal, not just the disease. They believe there is a central life force, variously termed...

      • HOMEOPATHY
        (pp. 144-145)
        J. G. G. SAXTON

        Homeopathy is a system of medicine that was developed by a German doctor, Samuel Hahnemann, in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Two spellings of the term are used; the original “homoeopathy” is still used widely, but increasingly, modern practice is to ignore the original diphthong, and hence the form “homeopathy” is seen most often.

        Since its initial development, homeopathy has been expanded and refined, with its use spreading around the world. It has been used to treat animals from its very early days. Its basic philosophy differs from that of conventional Western medicine in that functional upsets in...

      • INSURANCE
        (pp. 145-146)
        CHRISTOPHER FAIRFAX

        All caregivers want to give their animal companions the best medical attention if the need arises. That is why insurance should feature on the checklist of every responsible caregiver. Sadly, only 7 percent of cat caregivers and 14 percent of dog caregivers in the United Kingdom have taken this step so far. So how can insurance help your animal companion?

        Veterinary fees are increasingly expensive. Being sure that one can pay the bill when the need arises is essential to responsible care. Veterinary fee coverage is therefore one of the main planks of insurance for companion animals, and it is...

      • NEUTERING AND SPAYING
        (pp. 146-147)
        CELIA HAMMOND

        There are a staggering 2,500,000 stray dogs and cats in the United Kingdom. Thousands of unwanted animals are abandoned or destroyed every day. Countless animals struggle to survive on our streets, cold, hungry, frightened, and often sick or injured. Responsible care of companion animals means not adding to the problem. If caregivers allow their companion animals to breed, then even if they find good homes for the puppies or kittens, they are using up homes that the animal rescue charities desperately need for the animals they already have waiting to be adopted. There are simply not enough good homes to...

    • ISSUES OF CONCERN
      • CANINE PROFILING
        (pp. 148-149)
        JOAN E. SCHAFFNER

        Newfoundlands, German shepherds, Saint Bernards, Dobermans, and rottweilers share a common problem: over the years these breeds of dogs have been subject to breed discrimination. Today, American pit bull and Staffordshire terriers along with mixed-breed dogs who share their physical characteristics are the target of breed-discriminatory laws (BDL) throughout the world. In an effort to protect citizens from so-called dangerous dogs, some jurisdictions define all “pit bulls” as dangerous per se based purely on their breed and then either ban them or impose strict limitations on their “ownership.” However, upon studying the matter, these jurisdictions have found that these laws...

      • COSMETIC SURGERY
        (pp. 149-150)
        HOLLY CHEEVER

        Although many countries have either stopped or banned cosmetic surgeries, otherwise known as “non-veterinary mutilations”—such as ear cropping and tail docking of canines—these practices remain legal in the United States. Regrettably, the American Kennel Club (AKC), many breed associations, a large section of the public, and a fortunately decreasing number of veterinarians still view these surgical procedures, done only to alter a dog’s appearance and not for her or his health, as acceptable, even desirable.

        Tail docking involves removing a segment of the dog’s vertebral column, which may constitute as much as one-quarter to one-third of the total...

      • DOGS AS FOOD
        (pp. 150-151)
        ELLY MAYNARD

        In 1998, ten Saint Bernard dogs from Europe and the United States were exported to China for dog meat trials, along with Great Danes and Tibetan mastiffs. As a result, the Chinese government declared the Saint Bernard to be “the meat dog of choice,” advertising the animal’s supposed aphrodisiac qualities in business brochures designed to encourage the farming of these highly intelligent animals. Large breeding farms were set up, supported by Web sites detailing rearing and housing requirements and spelling out the financial benefits of farming Saint Bernards for table meat.

        Dog-eating had died out during the Cultural Revolution of...

      • THE ETHICS OF COMMERCIALIZATION
        (pp. 151-152)
        ANDREW LINZEY

        There are thousands, if not millions, of neglected, abandoned, or abused companion animals worldwide who live on the streets or who are waiting for adoption or rehoming in shelters and sanctuaries. Many advocates for animals adopt or rehome these animals to the extent that they can, but there are simply too many animals around and too few good homes available. That is why euthanasia is still the lot of many of these animals.

        An ethical approach must, therefore, ask critical questions about the commercialization of companions. In the first place, there are few legal controls on breeding and selling worldwide....

      • FERAL CATS
        (pp. 152-153)
        FAITH BJALOBOK

        A feral cat is simply a cat who lacks human socialization. Feral cats are often the product of unaltered domesticated cats who have been allowed to roam free or have been turned out by their caregivers to live on their own. Feral cats are found around the globe, with the largest known colonies existing in Rome. The group Friends of Roman Cats estimates that 300,000 feral cats live in Rome in approximately two thousand colonies. Feral cats are found in cities, in suburban areas, and in rural areas of many countries. It is estimated that the feral cat population in...

      • POUND SEIZURE
        (pp. 153-155)
        PEGGY CUNNIFF, MARCIA KRAMER and ALEXANDRA BERNSTEIN

        Many regional and local authorities in the United States have laws that require local pounds, or give local pounds the option, to turn over to laboratories on demand those animals who remain unclaimed for a specified time after their arrival (typically five days). “Pound seizure” is the legally sanctioned or voluntary release of animals from pounds and shelters to laboratory animal dealers and to research and educational facilities for the purpose of animal experimentation.

        The ultimate fate of these animals is nearly always death. However, before these animals reach their end, they may suffer horribly as research subjects. Cats and...

      • PUPPY MILLS
        (pp. 155-156)
        CAROL B. JOHNSON

        Each year, millions of dogs are killed in animal shelters while at the same time “puppy mills,” also known as “commercial breeders” in the eyes of the U.S. government, breed thousands of puppies a year for sale to “pet shops” across the United States, Canada, Asia, and Europe. A puppy mill is a place where several breeds of dogs are raised, and the breeder always has puppies for sale; dogs are bred solely for financial gain, with little or no regard for breed integrity. Most of the dogs are forced to live their entire lives in dark warehouses, in tiny,...

      • SELECTIVE BREEDING
        (pp. 156-157)
        ABBEY ANNE SMITH

        “Selective” dog breeding involves breeding only from animals who have specific “desirable” traits. For centuries, dogs were primarily bred to work and so were bred for fitness and health rather than appearance. In the nineteenth century, this changed, largely because of the growing popularity of dog showing. By the beginning of the twenty-first century, there were over thirty thousand people showing dogs as a hobby in the United Kingdom and hundreds of thousands doing so worldwide.

        Breeding to produce show dogs has had a profound effect on the appearance and well-being of the animals. Each breed has a “breed standard”...

      • STRAY ANIMALS
        (pp. 157-159)
        BRUNO MANZINI

        Italy, like most European countries, has a considerable stray animal population, and it is this particular country’s situation on which this discussion focuses. There are nearly seven million dogs and eight and a half million cats in Italy, of which over a million and a quarter are stray cats and over 800,000 are stray dogs. According to the organization Animalisti Italiani, approximately 150,000 dogs and 200,000 cats are abandoned every year. It is worth focusing on the situation in Italy because it is the one European country that both has a huge problem and has made serious attempts to remedy...

  9. SECTION 5. AREAS OF WORLDWIDE CONCERN
    • Introduction
      (pp. 161-162)
      ANDREW LINZEY

      This section concentrates on three areas of global concern: animals in farming, animals in research, and the use of animals for “sport” and recreation.

      By far the most significant (numerically) are the animals utilized in agriculture. Billions of land animals and aquatic animals are raised and slaughtered every year for human consumption worldwide. yet securing even minimal welfare standards for these animals is an immense global challenge. Through the intensification of farming since the 1960s, animals have been crowded into smaller and smaller units, where their behavioral needs cannot be adequately met, which causes stress, frustration, abnormal behaviors, and both...

    • ANIMALS IN FARMING
      • ANIMAL WELFARE AND FARMING
        (pp. 163-164)
        JACKY TURNER

        One of the first things that should strike anyone who thinks about animal welfare is the low level of concern for farmed animals compared with the concern for companion animals (seeCompanion Animals) or even free-living animals (seeFree-Living Animals). In most of the developed world, for example, a pregnant sow—an intelligent and social animal—can be immobilized in a stall so short and narrow that it almost touches her for four months of pregnancy. Such treatment would be unthinkable (and illegal) for a canine companion. But farmed animals, in most humans’ view, exist to provide us with food...

      • BIRDS USED IN FOOD PRODUCTION
        (pp. 164-165)
        KAREN DAVIS

        Chickens, turkeys, and ducks have a zest for living and enjoying the day. Treated with respect, they are friendly, sociable birds with an appealing sense of independence. At a distance, turkeys look like otherworldly visitors moving gracefully through the grass. Up close, one sees their large, dark, almond-shaped eyes and sensitive fine-boned faces. Chickens enjoy being together in small flocks, sunning, dustbathing, and scratching in the soil for food. A mother hen will fiercely protect her young brood, driving off predators and sheltering her little chicks beneath her wings. The rooster keeps watch over the flock. He calls the hens...

      • FISH FARMING
        (pp. 165-166)
        PHILIP LYMBERY

        Tucked along remote coastlines, or discreet river valleys, lies one of the fastest-growing sectors of intensive animal rearing—fish farming. Up to fifty thousand salmon can be crowded into a single sea cage, where they often swim in constant circles, like caged zoo animals. Often suffering blinding cataracts, fin and tail injuries, body deformities, alarmingly high mortality, and infestation with parasites, the “king of fish” is now raised intensively in factory farms under the sea. And the situation can be even worse for farmed trout, who are often packed into tanks or ponds up to three times more tightly than...

      • FUR FARMING
        (pp. 166-167)
        ANDREW LINZEY and MARK GLOVER

        More than fifty million minks (Mustela vison) and three million foxes (mostly Arctic fox,Alopex lagopus) are bred to meet the worldwide demand for their skins. According to fur trade sources, European countries—especially Denmark, the Netherlands, Finland, and Norway—head the list of producers, but China is rapidly catching up. Other fur farming countries include Russia, the Baltic States, Poland, Argentina, Canada, and the United States.

        The methods used in this form of intensive husbandry are essentially uniform across the globe. Minks and foxes are kept in rows of barren wire cages in open-sided sheds. A typical mink cage...

      • HORSE SLAUGHTER
        (pp. 167-168)
        FAITH BJALOBOK

        Horse slaughter refers to the practice of killing horses to use their meat for human consumption. People in many countries consider horse meat a delicacy. However, in countries such as Kazakhstan and Mongolia, horse meat is a staple of the population’s diet. Horses are slaughtered and eaten in a variety of countries, including Japan, the Netherlands, Germany, France, Canada, Mexico, Chile, Poland, Senegal, Spain, and Italy.

        Horse meat is not eaten in the United States largely because of the iconic status Americans afford the horse. American and Canadian horses destined for slaughter are sold by their owners at auctions, where...

      • PIG CASTRATION
        (pp. 168-169)
        ANTON KRAG

        In most countries, male piglets are castrated before being fattened for slaughter. Castration is supposedly performed in order to prevent a small proportion of male pigs from developing a distinct odor called “boar taint.” Some sexually mature male pigs develop boar taint as a result of the naturally occurring chemicals androstenone and skatole. Flesh tainted by these chemicals is considered unpleasant by some meat consumers. To avoid any risk of dissatisfied customers, piglets around the world are routinely castrated by the meat industry.

        In castration of piglets, an incision is made between the hind legs with a scalpel. The opening...

      • THE PRODUCTION OF FOIE GRAS
        (pp. 169-170)
        JEAN-CLAUDE NOUËT

        Foie gras livers come from ducks and geese who have been force-fed so that the excessive quantities of feed are transformed into fat stored in the liver. Ninety-five percent of foie gras comes from ducks, and 5 percent from geese. The liver grows to ten or twelve times the normal weight; in ducks it increases from 60 grams to 550 or 600 grams; in geese from 80 grams to 1 kilo.

        France is the leading producer of foie gras in the world, producing more than eighteen thousand tons a year; a further three to five thousand tons of foie gras...

      • RELIGIOUS SLAUGHTER
        (pp. 171-172)
        ANDREW LINZEY

        Religious slaughter (also known as “ritual slaughter”—a term rejected by its supporters) is the method of slaughtering animals by a single cut to the throat without pre-stunning. The practice has caused considerable controversy and is banned in many countries, including Switzerland, Sweden, Norway, and Iceland. In 2011, the Dutch parliament voted by 116 to 30 to prohibit it. The European Directive on slaughter allows member states to make exceptions to pre-stunning, and religious slaughter is legal throughout most of the world, including many member states of the European Union, the United States, and the United Kingdom. Supporters of the...

      • SLAUGHTER
        (pp. 172-173)
        DENA M. JONES

        By virtue of numbers alone, the slaughter of animals for food represents the most compelling animal welfare concern worldwide. According to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the number of land animals killed for food in 2008 exceeded 59 billion, including 57 billion birds, 1.3 billion pigs, 925 million sheep and goats, and 298 million cattle. Nearly one-half of the world’s total were killed in slaughterhouses in just three countries—Brazil, China, and the United States.

        Welfare laws governing slaughter require that animals be rendered insensible to pain before killing. Humane slaughter laws originated in Europe, with Switzerland...

      • THE WELFARE OF COWS
        (pp. 173-175)
        JOYCE D’SILVA

        The dairy cow surely has pride of place among farmed animals. Historically, she has been revered, and she is frequently portrayed as a symbol of maternal nurturing. The life of the majority of cows used for dairy, however, is very harsh.

        The young female, or heifer, can produce her first calf at around two years of age. In a natural environment, she would let her calf suckle several times a day—in between, she would leave him in a sheltered, safe area, probably with some other calves, and wander off to graze, thus fueling her own milk supply. After a...

      • THE WELFARE OF PIGS
        (pp. 175-176)
        PHILIP LYMBERY

        The popular perception of pig farming is of contented pigs roaming and rooting in the soil. This could not be further from the truth for many of the world’s pigs. In the Western Hemisphere, most pigs are factory farmed. Large numbers of animals are crammed into small pens, confined in cages or crates, and subjected to an array of routine mutilations, such as tail docking and castration. Every stage of pig rearing on these farms is geared toward maximum production, often causing considerable suffering. This intensive pig industry has been spreading around the world.

        The sheer scale of global pig...

      • THE WELFARE OF SHEEP
        (pp. 176-177)
        JACKY TURNER

        Sheep are farmed and herded over a wide range of climates, landscapes, and human farming systems, from pastoralists in Asia, South America, Africa, and the Middle East to the commercial sheep farmers of Europe, New Zealand, and Australia. There are estimated to be around one billion farmed or herded sheep in the world.

        The European Union slaughters nearly 170 million sheep and lambs a year, nearly half of them reared in the United Kingdom and Spain. Australia and New Zealand keep around 113 million sheep between them, and there are estimated to be 136 million in China. During the past...

    • ANIMALS IN RESEARCH
      • THE ALTERNATIVES
        (pp. 178-180)
        KATY TAYLOR

        An “alternative” or “replacement” to an animal test can be defined as “any scientific method employing non-sentient material which may, in the history of animal experimentation, replace methods which use conscious living vertebrates” (Russell and Burch). Animal-based methods that have been refined to cause the animals less pain or distress or that use fewer animals (see discussion of the 3Rs in Russell and Burch) are also sometimes referred to as alternatives. However, not everyone is comfortable with an “improved” animal test being called an “alternative,” and therefore the term “replacement” is often preferred for clarity.

        The development of alternatives to...

      • ANIMALS USED IN RESEARCH
        (pp. 180-183)
        PEGGY CUNNIFF and PAMELA OSENKOWSKI

        Cats are favored by animal researchers for a wide variety of scientific experiments, and they remain one of the best-documented animal subjects in the laboratory. Researchers favor cats because they are easy to obtain, fairly uniform in size, and convenient to maintain in the laboratory because of their fastidious habits. Most cats are bred by animal dealers and then sold to laboratories, although some in the United States are obtained from local pounds or shelters.

        Because the anatomy of the cat’s sensory system has been studied so thoroughly, the animals are used extensively in research involving the nervous system, including...

      • CLONING ANIMALS
        (pp. 183-184)
        PEGGY CUNNIFF and PAMELA OSENKOWSKI

        Cloning is one of society’s most complex, misunderstood, and controversial science topics. It has sparked fears of “Frankenstein” science although proponents claim that this technology holds the promise of cures for a host of human ailments. Cloning has sparked ethical debates and government intervention. On February 22, 1997, when newspaper headlines announced the successful cloning of a sheep named Dolly, the fears of human cloning were so prevalent that then U.S. president Bill Clinton called for a ban on the use of federal funds for research that could lead to human cloning. Within days of the announcement of Dolly’s cloning,...

      • THE ETHICS OF TESTING
        (pp. 185-186)
        ANDREW LINZEY

        The use of animals in testing or experiments (originally known as “vivisection”) arouses considerable controversy, particularly between researchers and animal protectionists. On one hand, researchers claim that use of “animal models” is essential to make scientific progress, whereas on the other hand, animal protectionists claim that the infliction of suffering on animals ought never to be countenanced. The range of areas in which animals are used is huge and includes drug testing, product testing, toxicity testing, military experiments, genetic manipulation, and biological and behavioral research as well as medical research. Around 500 million animals worldwide—from primates to rodents—are...

      • FREEDOM OF INFORMATION
        (pp. 186-187)
        JAN CREAMER

        Animal experiments are currently excluded within the arrangements for the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), 2000, in the United Kingdom, preventing a proper scientific scrutiny of proposals to use animals in laboratories. Without access to the technical details of license applications, it is impossible for independent scientists to scrutinize the alleged justification for proposed experiments or recommend non-animal alternatives. The National Anti-Vivisection Society (NAVS, U.K.) argues that a proposal to deliberately inflict pain and suffering surely deserves the widest possible public and scientific scrutiny and that such scrutiny should be carried out before licenses are awarded. After all, if any...

      • MILITARY EXPERIMENTS
        (pp. 187-189)
        BRUCE KENT

        That the world’s military forces rely on animals should be no surprise. We are all accustomed to seeing beautiful horses at the British Trooping of the Colour, regimental billy goats on parade as mascots, and trained dogs sniffing out the presence of unexploded ammunition. Indeed, the Royal Army Veterinary Corps says that its personnel “enjoy a challenging and varied employment role involved in all aspects of the use of animals for military purposes.” The Corps states that its Web site “gives advice on how to get the best out of service animals to ensure they are used to full potential.”...

      • PATENTING ANIMALS
        (pp. 189-191)
        DAVID THOMAS

        Patents protect inventions. They give inventors a monopoly over their invention for a period, usually twenty years. No one can exploit the invention without the patentee’s permission during that period. After that, anyone can do so. In return for the protection, a patentee must make his invention public. The history of patents goes back at least to 500 B.C.E., when the Greek city of Sybaris encouraged “all who should discover any new refinement in luxury, the profits arising from which are secured to the inventor by patent for the space of a year” (Anthon 1273).

        Patents are granted by governments...

      • PRODUCT TESTING
        (pp. 191-192)
        MICHELLE THEW

        Product testing is one of the most controversial areas of animal use, with opinion polling demonstrating clear public opposition to the practice. Animal tests for cosmetics or household products are not specifically required by law: to market a product a company must demonstrate its safety, but this can be done by using approved non-animal tests and combinations of existing ingredients that have already been established as safe for human use. It has been estimated, for example, that there are over eight thousand ingredients already proven safe for use. More and more companies are saying no to animal testing and still...

      • STEM CELL RESEARCH
        (pp. 192-193)
        PEGGY CUNNIFF and PAMELA OSENKOWSKI

        Stem cell research is among the new and controversial frontiers of biomedical research. Respected science journals, as well as the general media, frequently feature reports of successful treatments and promising cures for human diseases using these cells. Some animal welfare proponents have advocated stem cell research as a replacement for research where animals are currently used. But there are skeptics who fear that these claims are exaggerated and others who question the ethics of harvesting cells that may benefit some people at the expense of reducing other lives to the value of “raw material.” It is important that the general...

      • TOXICITY TESTING
        (pp. 193-195)
        JUNE BRADLAW, PEGGY CUNNIFF and PAMELA OSENKOWSKI

        The objective of toxicity testing is to develop an adequate database to make reasonable and reliable decisions about the safe use of chemicals in society by testing these chemical agents on living systems. Historically, experimental “animal models” (in vivo) provided the data for making these decisions. However, in vitro models, such as mammalian cells in culture, subcellular and molecular constituents, and knowledge of the chemical structure of the test agent, have gained in prominence because, taken together, this information can provide an insight into the mechanism by which the agent exerts its toxic effect.

        In order to reduce or replace...

      • TRANSGENIC ANIMALS
        (pp. 195-196)
        PEGGY CUNNIFF and PAMELA OSENKOWSKI

        Transgenic science involves transmitting, through genetic engineering, one or more genes from one species to another. These animals can be manipulated to overexpress specific genes, express human genes, or even express mutated genes. As a result, these animals can produce specific proteins that they normally would not produce. Basic science researchers often use transgenic animals to better understand gene function.

        Some researchers generate transgenic animals to study specific diseases because animals can be engineered to express genes implicated in human disease. Scientists can introduce genes implicated in cancer and Alzheimer’s disease, for instance, to animals and then study the pathologies...

      • XENOTRANSPLANTATION
        (pp. 196-197)
        ALAN H. BERGER

        With a perceived shortage of human donor organs, the medical community has looked for a new source of organ donors and thinks it has found it in animals. Xenotrans-plantation, animal-to-human transplant, is being proffered as the ideal solution. The proponents of xenotrans-plantation want us to envision a world with an unlimited supply of fresh organs, available to anyone in need. What they do not tell us is the downside of xenotransplants—the cost to the animals whose organs are used, to the humans who pay for it financially and ethically, and to all animals (human and nonhuman) who face the...

    • ANIMALS IN SPORT AND ENTERTAINMENT
      • ANGLING FOR SPORT
        (pp. 197-198)
        JONATHAN BALCOMBE

        Angling, also known as sport fishing or recreational fishing, is the catching of fishes for purposes other than commercial gain. The distinction between commercial fishing and angling is blurred by the fact that sport fishing is, in itself, a major commercial enterprise in which over one million people are at least partially employed in the United States alone. For the purposes of this article, angling encompasses any and all catching of fishes by individuals not employed in the commercial fishery industry.

        One study estimates that close to 12 percent of the human population worldwide engages regularly in recreational fishing, with...

      • ANIMALS IN CIRCUSES
        (pp. 198-201)
        JAN CREAMER

        In the first study of its kind, an undercover team from Animal Defenders International (ADI) spent eighteen months investigating conditions in thirteen British and five other countries’ traveling circuses and their winter (“permanent”) quarters. The team recorded more than 7,200 hours of observation and 800 hours of videotape covering almost every aspect of the lives of circus animals, including daily routines, husbandry, accommodation, exercise, training, health, and psychological well-being. This was combined with a survey of local authorities’ performing animal licenses and international animal trafficking evidence. Observations were backed up by academic research.

        The data was compiled into a report...

      • ANIMALS IN FILM
        (pp. 201-202)
        JONATHAN BURT

        Taking an overall view of the history of cinema, from its early days in the 1890s to its current state more than a century later, the treatment of animals in film production has improved markedly. However, the narrative of this improvement does not follow a straightforward progression in that there are still plenty of examples in recent years of cruelty to animals during the process of filmmaking. It is also equally the case that there was a strong awareness early on, especially in Britain from the early twentieth century onward, that cruelty should not be a component in the making...

      • BLOOD FIESTAS
        (pp. 202-203)
        TONY MOORE and MECHTHILD MENCH

        Spanish blood fiestas center on the torture and death of animals. Many thousands of these fiestas take place in villages throughout Spain each year, the majority in honor of a local saint. There are also blood fiestas in Portugal and Brazil, known as the Farra do Boi, as well as in many Latin American countries, with Mexico being the most prominent.

        The vast majority of the animals used are cattle, and blood fiestas with cattle are classified as bull fights. More than 27,000 bulls, cows, and calves—some as young as a few weeks—die and suffer annually. The range...

      • BULL FIGHTING
        (pp. 204-205)
        TONY MOORE and MECHTHILD MENCH

        Bull fighting is the ritual killing of a bull in a public arena. Bull fighting originated in Spain and spread throughout the Spanish protectorates and still continues in Spain, France, Mexico, Portugal, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela, Bolivia, California, and Costa Rica. So-called bloodless bull fights take place in Portuguese communities in the United States. Early bull fighting was carried out on horseback to celebrate notable occasions, such as royal weddings, military victories, and religious solemnities. Bull fighting on foot came into popular practice in the eighteenth century.

        Many of the early bull fighters were slaughtermen. The Seville slaughterhouse was the...

      • CANNED HUNTS
        (pp. 205-206)
        NORM PHELPS

        A “canned hunt” is a commercial hunt in which the victim is a captive animal. For a sizable fee, usually ranging from several hundred dollars for plentiful game species to several thousand for “exotic” animals and white-tailed deer with trophy-sized antlers, operators of the so-called game ranches and shooting preserves at which canned hunts take place give their customers the opportunity to kill an animal who has no chance to escape. Advertisements often promise “no kill, no bill,” a guarantee the operators can afford to make because the animal’s death is a virtual certainty.

        Because the United States and Canada...

      • COCK FIGHTING
        (pp. 206-207)
        HAROLD HERZOG

        Humans have staged combat between roosters and gambled on the outcome for thousands of years. Indeed, it has been argued that chickens were originally domesticated from their progenitor, the jungle fowl of Southeast Asia, for fighting rather than for meat or egg production. As a result of centuries of intense selective breeding, modern gamecocks naturally exhibit high levels of intraspecific aggression. Cock fighters have developed hundreds of strains of fighting cocks, each having a different name—for example, roundheads, clarets, Madigan grays, and butchers. Although breeders sometimes cross strains in their search for a more aggressive (“gamer”) rooster, great care...

      • DEER HUNTING
        (pp. 207-208)
        PRISCILLA N. COHN

        Deer are, it seems, the object of admiration and even affection both by those who want to protect them and by those who want to kill them. Three kinds of deer in the United States are extensively hunted: mule deer, black-tailed deer, and white-tailed deer. Hunting is licensed in almost all states in America. During the 2000s, in Pennsylvania alone, more than half a million whitetails were shot, wounded, and killed. Only the small Florida Key deer is not hunted.

        The hunting season for deer overlaps the rut, the breeding season when the males (bucks), treasured for their large antlers...

      • DOG FIGHTING
        (pp. 208-209)
        PEGGY CUNNIFF and MARCIA KRAMER

        Dog fighting is an activity in which two dogs are put into an enclosed area with the aim of attacking and often killing each other. The purpose of this practice is profit and entertainment. Spectators often make bets on which dogs will win. Dogs who have the appearance and characteristics of Staffordshire bull terriers, American pit bull terriers (commonly known as a “pit bulls”), and other large breeds of dogs are frequently used in fighting activities. Dog fighting is illegal in all fifty states of America and, since 2008, is a felony in all of them.

        Dogs used in fighting...

      • GREYHOUND RACING
        (pp. 209-211)
        PAULA BLANCHARD

        Pari-mutuel greyhound racing in the United States began over seven decades ago, with the adoption of the mechanical lure. It spread rapidly across the country, reaching a peak in 1991. Since then its popularity has steadily declined. Eleven states and one U.S. territory have banned it since 1993. As of 2013, live racing continues in only seven states. However, among them, those states have twenty-two racetracks. Florida alone has thirteen.

        All racing greyhounds are registered with the National Greyhound Association, an industry-controlled, self-regulating body. By the time puppies reach the age of three months, their right and left ears are...

      • HUNTING WITH DOGS
        (pp. 211-212)
        JOHN BRYANT

        Although hunting with dogs, especially fox hunting, is usually regarded as an English pastime, hunting packs exist throughout the world, including Belgium, France, Germany, Holland, Italy, Australia, and New Zealand. According to the Masters of Foxhounds Association of America (MFHA), there are 11 fox packs in Canada and 154 in the United States. Fox hunting has evolved its own flavor, with an emphasis on the chase rather than the kill, and “stopping up” (blocking the earth so the foxes cannot go underground) is officially against the MFHA code of practice.

        But it is hunting with dogs in the United Kingdom...

      • HUNTING WITH FERRETS
        (pp. 212-213)
        ANDREW LINZEY

        Hunting with ferrets, or “ferreting” as it is sometimes called, is principally a method of chasing and killing rabbits. All entrances and exits to the rabbit’s underground burrow are covered with netting (known as “purse nets,” which cover each individual hole), and one or more ferrets are placed down the holes to chase rabbits into the nets. After being caught in the nets, the rabbits are usually killed by having their necks broken, though sometimes guns, dogs, falcons, or hawks are used. Hunting with ferrets takes place in many countries in Europe, including the United Kingdom, but it is illegal...

      • JUMPS RACING
        (pp. 213-214)
        LAWRENCE POPE

        Jumps racing is a form of thoroughbred horse racing in which horses are made to jump obstacles—“hurdles” or “steeples”—of specific heights over race distances of between three and seven kilometers.

        Jumps racing began in England as cross-country contests in which participants would ride from one village church steeple to another over several miles—hence the term “steeplechase.” Jumps races are held in dozens of nations around the world, with England, the United States, France, Ireland, Japan, and Australia being major participants. The first jumps race to be held on a specially made racetrack was conducted at Bedlam, England,...

      • LIVE PIGEON SHOOTS
        (pp. 214-215)
        FAITH BJALOBOK

        A live pigeon shoot is the practice of using live pigeons for target practice. The “sport” appears to have had its origin in Spain, and it was popular during the early twentieth century. Although live pigeon shoots were held at the 1900 Olympics, the so-called sport received a negative reception from the public and was never held again as an Olympic event. However, live pigeon shoots continued to be held in Monaco. The popularity of live pigeon shoots began to decrease, and in the 1960s live pigeons were for the most part replaced with clay pigeons. In the United States...

      • LIVE QUAIL SHOOTS
        (pp. 215-216)
        TONY MOORE

        Known astiradas de codorniz(throwing of quail), live quail shoots take place regularly in the clay pigeon shooting clubs of Spain. It is normally a monthly event organized as part of the shooting program.Tiradas de codornizare primarily centered in the provinces of Andalucia, Valencia, Murcia, and Castilla Leon, but the practice is spread all over Spain, taking place in purpose-built arenas in the countryside.

        In clay pigeon shooting, a disc is thrown into the air by means of a spring-loaded trap or launcher. The disc is shot at, and the shooters are awarded points for their success....

      • PIGEON RACING
        (pp. 216-217)
        JAN DECKERS

        Racing pigeons belong to the speciesColumba livia. What separates these birds from the small colonies who still live free and from feral pigeons, who no longer live under human control, is that they are kept inside the lofts or dovecotes built by humans. Although interest in pigeon racing is declining in many Western countries, it has been reported to be growing elsewhere, particularly in Asia.

        In spite of this growth in interest, a topic search using the words “pigeons” and “ethics” in the ISI Web of Science database yields just seven papers. Out of these, only one—a one-page...

      • RODEOS
        (pp. 217-218)
        TONY MOORE and MECHTHILD MENCH

        The word “rodeo” derives from the Spanish wordrodear, which means “to encircle.” The earliest rodeos are reported to have taken place in the 1870s. There are approximately five thousand rodeos annually in the United States. Rodeos also take place in Canada, Mexico, Brazil, Chile, and Australia. In Europe, rodeos take place mostly in Germany, France, Italy, Hungary, Poland, Belgium (American rodeo), and Portugal (Brazilian rodeo). There have also been unsuccessful attempts to introduce it into Spain, Greece, and China.

        There are various rodeo disciplines. The most common are as follows: In bareback riding, horses are ridden without saddle, but...

  10. SECTION 6. CHANGING PERSPECTIVES
    • Introduction
      (pp. 221-222)
      ANDREW LINZEY

      The last fifty years have witnessed major changes in the ways humans think about animals.

      From a view of them as things, machines, commodities, or resources for humans to do with as they wish, a new conception of animals has emerged—that sentient animals should be regarded as individuals with their own dignity, intrinsic value, and rights. This paradigm change is the result of work by philosophers and ethicists who have challenged the dominant view of animals and is informed by scientific work indicating the extent of animal sentiency and animals’ complex systems of awareness.

      So huge is this paradigm...

    • CHANGING ETHICAL SENSITIVITY
      • ANIMAL AND HUMAN VIOLENCE
        (pp. 223-224)
        PHIL ARKOW

        Historically, violence to animals has been viewed as an issue separate from other forms of family violence. However, in many instances, cruelty to animals, particularly companion animals, is a part of the landscape of family violence and at times shows strong links to interpersonal violence, notably child maltreatment and domestic violence and, to a lesser extent, elder abuse. These links are being examined in a resurgence of popular and interdisciplinary professional interest. A growing and compelling body of research is confirming anecdotal reports—and traditional cultural, ethical, and religious understandings—that acts of animal cruelty (described more contemporarily as animal...

      • THE FEMINIST ETHIC OF CARE
        (pp. 224-225)
        ELIZABETH FARIANS

        Within the movement for change in the way humans treat animals, there are many diverse philosophies, including two in particular: the rights theory with justice as its basis and the feminist ethic of care based on caring. Advocates of both philosophies have the well-being of nonhuman animals as their goal, even as they debate how best to change the way animals are treated.

        The ethic of care theory is feminist in its modern origins. It dates from Carol Gilligan’s 1982 workIn a Different Voice, in which she reported that women’s experience of morality derives from an ethic of care...

      • MORAL ANTHROPOCENTRISM
        (pp. 225-227)
        LISA JOHNSON

        Anthropocentrism, or the propensity to interpret things through human-centered values, presents a primary challenge to conceptualizing animals as beings unto themselves, rather than beings who exist for humans to use. Though some contemporary thinkers recognize that animals possess moral standing (e.g., see Singer), the “moral orthodoxy” in Western thought is that any such interest is inferior to that of humans (Garner 8). During the last part of the twentieth century, this orthodoxy—or moral anthropocentrism—has been increasingly challenged by a growing number of leading thinkers. However, moral anthropocentrism, predicated by anthropocentrism, remains firmly entrenched in Western culture.

        The supposed...

      • THE MORAL CLAIMS OF ANIMALS
        (pp. 227-228)
        DANIEL A. DOMBROWSKI

        Philosophers who defend the claim that nonhuman animals (hereafter “animals”) have rights or that human beings can make moral claims for animals by proxy tend to be reacting, whether explicitly or implicitly, against the thought of the seventeenth-century thinker René Descartes. Descartes thought that reality was made of two radically different sorts of stuff: minds on the one hand and material bodies that worked with machine-like regularity on the other. Although human beings were composed of both sorts of stuff, in his view animals did not have minds and hence were, strictly speaking, machines. Not only could they not think;...

      • THE MORAL COMMUNITY
        (pp. 228-229)
        MARK H. BERNSTEIN

        At a minimum, full-fledged membership in a moral community entails mutual moral consideration; all members in the community need to take into account the potential impact of their actions on the welfare of others. Unfortunately, history has provided us with many examples of humans self-servingly circumscribing the domain of a moral community. From the ancient Greeks who discounted barbarians to the twentieth-century Nazis who dismissed Jews, cultures have systematically shunned sectors of adult human society from their moral ranks. In our relatively morally enlightened era, we now know that these exclusions had no justifiable basis. Still, haughtiness should be constrained....

    • CHANGING LEGAL ATTITUDES
      • DEVELOPMENTS IN ANIMAL LAW
        (pp. 230-231)
        PEGGY CUNNIFF and MARCIA KRAMER

        Animal law encompasses many different disciplines rather than a single area of law. Based on the common law, which is the root of much of our legal systems, laws regarding animals are founded on the premise that animals are property. As property, they are subject to commercial transactions and, for the most part, treated as fungible commodities, where each individual animal is interchangeable for another of the same specifications.

        Even protections at the international level (through international treaties for threatened and endangered species) are concerned with the loss of biological diversity rather than with the fate of individual animals, as...

      • LEGAL CHALLENGES TO EXPERIMENTS IN THE UNITED KINGDOM
        (pp. 231-234)
        DAVID THOMAS

        Litigation to maximize the protection animals receive in laboratories under U.K. legislation has historically been underused. There are a number of reasons for this. First is the secrecy that surrounds animal experiments. Short of undercover investigations, which are time-consuming and expensive and can take place only at a handful of laboratories or supply companies, it is very difficult to obtain precise information about what is done to animals and for what purpose, which is often necessary for a legal case. Animal researchers have, for a variety of reasons, traditionally guarded information about what they do jealously, releasing only what they...

      • LEGAL PROTECTION OF ANIMALS IN CHINA
        (pp. 234-235)
        DEBORAH CAO

        In the long history of human activities in China, animals have occupied a very important place. They have been used for their practical roles in animal husbandry, hunting, transport, and human consumption and healing; as victims in religious and ritual sacrifices; as symbols and metaphors in everyday life (e.g., in the Chinese zodiac, in which the personality and other character traits of animals are used to describe people and vice versa); and as symbols of authority (e.g., an imaginary one-horned animal calledxie zhiwas used in traditional China as a symbol of law and justice). In traditional China, animals...

      • THE LEGAL RIGHTS OF GREAT APES
        (pp. 235-237)
        CARL SAUCIER-BOUFFARD

        Apes, including great apes, are members of the Hominoidea superfamily of the biological order primates. The term “great apes” typically includes eastern and western gorillas, chimpanzees, bonobos, Sumatran orangutans, and Bornean orangutans. The first four species are found exclusively in Africa, and the last two are found only in Southeast Asia. All of these species of great apes fall into the endangered or critically endangered categories of the Red List gathered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature.

        Although great apes are ethologically known to be sentient, cognitively complex, communicative, and self-aware, no legal system recognizes them as legal...

      • LEGISLATION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION
        (pp. 237-238)
        DAVID B. WILKINS

        The European Economic Community, or Common Market, was created by the Treaty of Rome in 1956. As the name implies, the main purpose of the treaty was to encourage trade between member states by harmonizing rules and removing obstacles. There was no mention of animals, let alone animal welfare. Farmed animals came under the heading of agricultural products. It was no surprise, therefore, to find that in such a treaty there was no legal basis under which legislation for the specific purpose of protecting animals could be drawn up.

        It is remarkable that there is any European animal welfare legislation...

      • PROGRESS IN ANIMAL WELFARE
        (pp. 238-239)
        ROBERT GARNER

        There have been significant legislative initiatives in many countries since the 1980s that have improved the position of animals, although much remains to be done. What is allowed, for example, in laboratories varies widely throughout the world. Even in the developed world, some countries, such as Spain and Portugal, have initiated very little legislation of their own, whereas others, such as Britain, Holland, Denmark, and Germany, have detailed statutes.

        In Britain, the 1986 Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act requires all animal researchers to hold a license that attests to their fitness to conduct such work, in addition to project licenses for...

    • CHANGING RELIGIOUS PERSPECTIVES
      • ANIMAL-FRIENDLY SPIRITUALITY
        (pp. 240-241)
        ANDREW LINZEY

        Many religious traditions are known for being anything but animal-friendly. The dominant voices—and the dominant practices—within almost all traditions often appear antithetical to progressive positions on animal protection. It is important to understand why this is the case. There are broadly three reasons: In the first place, almost all religious traditions are anthropocentric in orientation; that is, they center on human beings and their nature, welfare, and destiny. This means that animals get little attention; indeed, concern for animals is frequently regarded as marginal in religious thought and practice. Second, most religious traditions exhibit hierarchical thinking in which...

      • ANIMAL SACRIFICE
        (pp. 241-243)
        KAI HORSTHEMKE

        “Animal sacrifice” is frequently used as a euphemism for killing other-than-human animals for human purposes, particularly in scientific research, “wildlife” management (seePreservation and Killing), and the like. Less misleadingly, but not less commonly, it denotes the process of killing for religious or cultural reasons—for example, in the service of one or multiple deities or ancestors. These practices usually follow precise instructions as to how the animal’s life ought to be taken, who may do the killing, what instruments should be used, and what incantations must accompany the ritual. The reasons for a particular practice vary, ranging from making...

      • ANIMALS IN THE BIBLE
        (pp. 243-244)
        STEPHEN H. WEBB

        The biblical view of animals is distinctive for what it does not say as well as for what it does. That is, the Bible does not divinize or demonize animals. The Bible contains no animal magic, animals are not messengers of the gods, and animals do not directly influence human affairs. Although we can learn from them, we are not to worship animals or treat them as a part of divinity. In a word, the Bible is more realistic than romantic about the world of animals. The Bible treats animals as creatures who are rather different from us and yet...

      • ANIMALS IN JAINISM
        (pp. 244-245)
        CHRISTOPHER KEY CHAPPLE

        Jainism, a minority religion practiced in India and around the world, is particularly well known for its advocacy for animals. The Jain faith arose more than 2,500 years ago on India’s northern Gangetic plain. Its founding figures, Parshvanatha (ca. 850 B.C.E.) and Mahavira (ca. 500 B.C.E.), are regarded as the twenty-third and twenty-fourth of a long line of spiritual teachers (tirthankaras). They taught and lived a way of life that emphasizes the practice of nonviolence (ahimsa). This commitment to nonviolence, which includes vegetarianism and rejection of occupations that involve the harm of animals, is designed to release the fettering karmas...

      • BUDDHIST ATTITUDES
        (pp. 245-246)
        ARA PAUL BARSAM

        Among political, social, economic, and artistic achievements, sixth to fifth century B.C.E., India is distinguished by the propagation of the Buddhist religious tradition. The founder of this widespread and diverse tradition is generally known as the Buddha, a descriptive title meaning “Enlightened One,” though his given name was actually Siddhartha Gautama.

        The life of Siddhartha Gautama (ca. 563–483 B.C.E.) is known only through his followers and has become immersed in legend. According to tradition, at his birth sages recognized in him the marks of a great man with the potential to become either a ruler or a sage. Four...

      • THE BUDDHIST CASE FOR VEGETARIANISM
        (pp. 246-248)
        BODHIN KJOLHEDE

        There are many compelling reasons to refrain from eating animals, but the central one for Buddhists is to not be complicit in harm. The first of the Five Grave Precepts in Buddhism is “not to kill but to cherish all life.” Each and every creature, in his or her own unique way, manifests Buddha Nature, an ultimate completeness, or perfection, with which nonhumans are endowed as much as humans. This essential wholeness, common to all sentient beings, is both a reality and a potentiality: it is intrinsic to us, and it is our nature to actualize this perfection. Thus, to...

      • CATHOLIC TEACHING
        (pp. 248-249)
        DEBORAH M. JONES

        For Catholics, the animal world is a sign of God’s creative power, his wisdom, and his goodness. God made every living thing and delights in the abundance and the variety of life. “The Lord’s is the earth and the fullness thereof” (Psalm 24)—all exists to give glory to the God who created it. As theCatechism of the Catholic Churchstates, all human beings “must therefore respect the particular goodness of every creature, [and] avoid any disordered use of things which would be in contempt of the Creator and would bring disastrous consequences for human beings and their environment.”...

      • CONFUCIANISM AND DAOISM
        (pp. 249-250)
        DEBORAH CAO

        The Chinese people and Chinese culture have had a long-standing and ambivalent interest in animals. Chinese culture, both ancient and contemporary, has always been human-centered, but animals have also been very important to Chinese life. In traditional Chinese philosophy, animals are considered part of the moral cosmos, as in Confucianism and Daoism (Taoism), in search of the betterment of life and society. In traditional Chinese thought, humans and animals are part of the moral universe of the exemplary humans, who should be models of benevolence and compassion, and such compassion and benevolence extend beyond humans to other life forms in...

      • HINDUISM AND ANIMALS
        (pp. 250-252)
        THILLAYVEL NAIDOO

        The Hindu religion, the product of five thousand years of socioreligious development, has no founder. It is the reflection of a cultural ethos that is closely associated with the ethnic traditions spawned by the distinct cultural life of India. It possesses an ancient literature that is eminently religious and reflects a philosophic tradition that exemplifies its perceptions of all existence. The foundational scriptures are the Vedas, followed by a litany of other works that reflect Hindu theological and, above all, religio-philosophical conceptions on God and life in its many forms.

        Ancient Hindu cosmology, like the cosmology of the ancient Greeks,...

      • ISLAM AND ANIMALS
        (pp. 252-253)
        NEAL ROBINSON

        In current English usage, a Muslim is an adherent of Islam, the religion founded by Muhammad, who was active in Mecca and Medina between 610 and 632 C.E. and who claimed that he received divine revelations known as the Qur’an. However, in Arabic the word Islam means “submission” or “surrender,” and the term Muslim denotes a person who has surrendered himself or herself to God by entering into his peace. The Qur’an teaches that the prophets who preceded Muhammad, including Noah, Abraham, Moses, and Jesus, were all Muslims and that Islam is the primordial religion of humankind. In keeping with...

      • JUDAISM AND ANIMAL LIFE
        (pp. 253-254)
        ROBERTA KALECHOFSKY

        The first volume of theEncyclopedia Judaica, under “Animals, Cruelty to,” provides a summary of the moral and legal Jewish rules regarding the animal world: “Moral and legal rules concerning the treatment of animals are based on the principle that animals are part of God’s creation toward which man bears responsibility. Laws and other indications in the Pentateuch make it clear not only that cruelty to animals is forbidden, but also that compassion and mercy to them are demanded of man by God” (Roth 6).

        Although Genesis 1:27 seemingly awards superiority to humans in the statement that we are “made...

    • CHANGING SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDES
      • ANIMAL AGRICULTURE AND CLIMATE CHANGE
        (pp. 254-256)
        ANDREW KNIGHT

        Evidence from the fossil record demonstrates five mass extinctions in which over 50 percent of animal species died within the past 540 million years. Prior to this time animals with hard body parts—and hence, significant fossilization—had not evolved.

        Four of these extinctions corresponded to global temperature peaks (Mayhew, Jenkins, and Benton). Contemporary climate change now poses the greatest threat to most animal species since the last mass extinction, some 65 million years ago. Since 1970, the earth’s average surface temperature has increased by 0.6 degrees Celsius, and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projects temperature rises of up...

      • ANIMAL PAIN
        (pp. 256-257)
        BERNARD E. ROLLIN

        David Hume (1711–1776), arguably the greatest skeptic in modern philosophy, affirmed, despite his skepticism, “No truth appears to me more evident, than that beasts are endowed with thought and reason, as well as men. The arguments . . . are so obvious, that they never escape the most stupid and ignorant.” That animals feel pleasure and pain would, for Hume, be an even more obvious conclusion. Nonetheless, the obviousness of animal pain clearly escaped René Descartes (1596–1650), who asserted that animals, lacking language, are just sophisticated pieces of machinery, exhibiting pain behavior but feeling nothing. This ideology was...

      • ANIMALS AND PUBLIC HEALTH
        (pp. 257-258)
        AYSHA AKHTAR

        If we were to take a good look at the top news stories worldwide over the past ten years, we would notice an interesting trend: more and more of these stories concern animal welfare. What is perhaps even more interesting is that a significant number of these stories reveal just how intricately connected the welfare of nonhuman animals is to public health. Consider the following examples.

        In 2003, avian influenza (H5N1) spread swiftly across poultry farms in Asia and jumped the species barrier to infect humans, causing alarm to be raised about the potential for the next pandemic to originate...

      • THE COMPLEXITY OF ANIMAL AWARENESS
        (pp. 259-260)
        AYSHA AKHTAR

        Do animals suffer? Do animals know who they are? Do animals enjoy a good belly rub? Do animals think about what they will do next? Intuitively, you would likely answer, “Yes, of course animals feel and think.” Spend one day with a dog or watch a squirrel interact with another squirrel, and you would be hard-pressed to deny them these basic capacities.

        But deny them we have. Our use of nonhuman animals for experimentation and for other purposes that compromise their welfare is in need of justification. Often enough, that justification has come from scientists who have argued that nonhuman...

      • HUMANE RESEARCH
        (pp. 260-261)
        GILL LANGLEY

        The field of non-animal or replacement research emerged as a response to both ethical and scientific imperatives. Recognition of the capacity of other animals to experience pain and distress or well-being shaped a desire to end their suffering in the world’s laboratories. Equally, as evidence has accrued that the results of animal experiments predict human responses only imperfectly, the need to develop more reliable and reproducible research and testing methods has grown.

        Recognition of animal sentiency underpins the European Union goal to fully replace animal experiments with non-animal alternatives. Achieving this is also seen by the EU as a means...

      • VETERINARY ETHICS
        (pp. 261-262)
        BERNARD E. ROLLIN

        Veterinary ethics is the field of study that examines issues of right and wrong, good and bad, and justice and injustice that arise in veterinary medicine. Conceptually, much of veterinary ethics is structurally similar to human medical ethics in that the same sorts of conflicting obligations arise. After all, veterinarians, like physicians, have clear-cut moral obligations to their clients, to society, to their peers, and to themselves, some of which may conflict with each other.

        What makes veterinary ethics more philosophically interesting is a fifth ethical dimension—the question of moral obligation to the patient, which, in the case of...

    • DECLARATIONS FOR ANIMALS
      • THE DECLARATION OF THE RIGHTS OF CETACEANS
        (pp. 263-264)
        THOMAS I. WHITE

        One of the most significant areas in which scientific discoveries are revealing unethical treatment of nonhumans is the study of cetaceans. Modern marine science has shown that whales and dolphins have sophisticated cognitive and affective abilities, possess self-awareness, manage complex social relationships, and can even use tools. The ethical implication of such findings is that cetaceans should be regarded as nonhuman persons, not as economic resources.

        Accordingly, in May 2010, a select group of scholars and scientists met at the Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies at the University of Helsinki to consider the question of whether the scientific findings about...

      • THE UNIVERSAL CHARTER OF THE RIGHTS OF OTHER SPECIES
        (pp. 264-265)
        LAWRENCE POPE

        When we hear of an individual being deprived of his or her “basic human rights,” we normally understand that the person has been wronged in a serious way. Usually the person has been unjustly deprived of something that is essential to the person’s thriving and well-being. It may be education, fresh drinking water, food and shelter, or the freedom to express his or her views without fear of punishment. To be unjustly deprived of one’s conscious life, to be killed, is generally regarded as the most severe form of rights violation because it deprives one of that upon which all...

      • THE UNIVERSAL DECLARATION ON ANIMAL WELFARE
        (pp. 265-266)
        DAVID MADDEN

        The campaign for the Universal Declaration on Animal Welfare (UDAW, awaiting adoption by the United Nations) was launched in 2000 by the World Society for the Protection of Animals (WSPA) and partners. The Philippines hosted an intergovernmental conference agreeing to the principles in Manila in 2003, and in 2005 Costa Rica held a follow-up meeting with representatives from five countries. Forty-three countries from the developed and developing world have declared their interest in supporting a declaration, as has the World Organization for Animal Health (the OIE, comprising the chief veterinary officers of 169 countries). An expert meeting report from the...

  11. SECTION 7. ANIMAL-FRIENDLY LIVING
    • Introduction
      (pp. 269-270)
      ANDREW LINZEY

      The final section details those projects—both personal and social—that we need to consider in order to make a difference for animals worldwide.

      Although it may seem that individuals are powerless in the face of institutional abuse and cruelty, the reality is that we have great power as consumers, as investors, as educators, and as voters to effect change for animals. Even in apparently small matters, such as the products we buy or the way we teach our children, can make a big impact. The cause of animal protection needs thoughtful people who shop, buy, invest, teach, and vote...

    • ACTION FOR ANIMALS
      • ALTERNATIVES TO DISSECTION
        (pp. 271-272)
        JONATHAN BALCOMBE

        Dissection is the cutting open and studying of dead animals (seeAnimals in Research). The dissection of human and nonhuman animals has a long history dating back at least two thousand years. As a method for teaching biology in schools, however, it became common only from the twentieth century onward. Some ten million vertebrate animals—and many more invertebrates—are dissected yearly in classrooms worldwide. Frogs, rats, fetal pigs, cats, snakes, turtles, birds, bony fishes, and sharks are among the commonly used vertebrates; earthworms, crayfish, clams, sea stars, and grasshoppers are commonly used invertebrates.

        There are two main arguments—one...

      • ANIMAL ADVOCACY
        (pp. 272-273)
        RICHARD D. RYDER

        We can become animal-friendly in many ways. Animals suffer pain, fear, and discomfort in farms, transport vehicles, abattoirs, laboratories, circuses, their natural environments, and our homes. Unlike us, however, they cannot organize themselves into protest groups or trade unions in order to campaign for their rights. Therefore, we have to do this for them. We can try to improve the laws protecting animals.

        In the nineteenth century, it was quite common to send boys up chimneys to clean them, to capture Africans and force them to be slaves, and to send women and children to work sixteen hours a day...

      • ANIMAL COURSES IN ACADEMIA
        (pp. 273-275)
        BRIANNE DONALDSON

        Animal studies courses are no longer just for veterinarian students. Colleges and universities around the globe are adding animal courses across multiple disciplines.

        Human-animal studies (HAS) represents the broadest and most rapid interdisciplinary expansion of courses addressing animals in academia. Sometimes referred to as critical animal studies, the wide purview of HAS could encompass all of the other categories of animals studies that are detailed separately in this article. The U.S.-based Animals and Society Institute offers an extensive database of HAS course offerings throughout the world involving disciplines as varied as agricultural science, art, gender and cultural studies, child development,...

      • ANIMALS AND THE MAJOR MEDIA
        (pp. 275-277)
        GRETCHEN WYLER, SUE BLACKMORE and BEVERLY KASKEY

        It is only in recent decades that animal abuse has become visible. What happened to animals in the past invariably happened in the dark, behind closed doors. People simply did not stop to think where their hamburgers came from; they did not know the gruesome story behind every fur coat, that the makeup they wore was cruelly tested on animals, that animals led impoverished and derelict lives in zoos and endured inhumane treatment in circuses, or that millions of animals suffered relentless pain in laboratories. They were unaware because the major media paid scant attention to these issues, and even...

      • ANIMALS IN POLITICS
        (pp. 277-278)
        JASMIJN DE BOO

        Animal protection issues are a mainstream public concern (Garner,Animals, Politics and Morality), and in some countries, constituents send members of the parliament (MPs) and other governmental representatives more mail on animal-related issues than on most other issues. Yet concern for animals is poorly reflected in most political party policies. Initiatives to improve the legal status and protection of animals are usually taken by the same few animal-friendly politicians who often struggle to recruit support from additional MPs for these causes.

        It is understandable that many pressing social issues require urgent action; however, ample examples demonstrate that animal and environmental...

      • REPORTING CRUELTY IN THE UNITED KINGDOM
        (pp. 278-279)
        NIGEL YEO

        Hundreds of successful Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) prosecutions are made each year in the United Kingdom, and thousands of animals are saved from further suffering as a direct consequence of action by members of the public.

        Witnessing, or even suspecting, that an animal is being cruelly treated can be very distressing. It is important to assess the situation calmly and consider your own safety before acting. Then take a note of what you have seen and phone the RSPCA’s twenty-four-hour national cruelty and advice line—0300-1234-999. This number takes all calls and refers the...

      • REPORTING CRUELTY IN THE UNITED STATES
        (pp. 279-280)
        RANDALL LOCKWOOD

        Reporting and responding to animal cruelty in the United States presents special challenges. Most companion animal cruelty is addressed under state laws. Every state law defines “animal” and “animal cruelty” in its own way. This presents the public and law enforcement officials with the task of determining which acts against which creatures are to be addressed by these laws. Some states apply their anticruelty statutes only to mammals; others limit them to vertebrates other than humans. Some states specifically remove certain animals from consideration, such as Delaware’s exclusion of “fish, crustaceans or molluska” from its criminal code.

        The specific acts...

    • COMPASSIONATE LIFESTYLE
      • CARING FOR ANIMALS AND HUMANS
        (pp. 281-282)
        LOUISE VAN DER MERWE

        Animal protectionists living in South Africa are sometimes asked whether ethical concern for animals is really a luxury, even an indulgence. Dare we, in Africa, care about the well-being of animals while so many of our people are dying of hunger, of AIDS, or in violent civil conflict? It is certainly a question worth pondering.

        The statistics of abuse and violence in South Africa are staggering. The murder rate is the highest in the world. A rape occurs every twenty-five seconds. One in three girls and one in four boys will be sexually molested before adulthood. In some communities, drive-by...

      • CARING SHOPPING
        (pp. 282-284)
        AUDREY EYTON

        Not quite ready to give up animal products but concerned about the ways animals are reared and killed? That makes you a very powerful person, among those most able to change intensive farming methods for kinder systems. Every time you step inside a supermarket or shop, look at a mail order catalog, or buy through a Web site, you can help to bring about a kinder world for animals. Here is how animal-loving omnivores can shop for change. Although most of my examples come from the United Kingdom, some are relevant to other countries as well.

        Every supermarket and most...

      • CRUELTY-FREE LABELING
        (pp. 284-285)
        MICHELLE THEW

        Consumers care about animal testing for cosmetics and household products, and increasing numbers of people wish to shop with compassion. According to the Co-operative Bank’s Ethical Consumerism Report, ethical spending in 2008 in the United Kingdom alone amounted to 36 billion pounds, with spending on humane cosmetics rising.

        An opinion poll commissioned by the British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection (BUAV) and the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) found that 96 percent of women thought there should be compulsory labeling of animal testing for cosmetics. Furthermore, in a BUAV poll conducted by Opinion Research...

      • ETHICAL FINANCE
        (pp. 285-286)
        CHRIS DEACON

        Individuals often feel powerless in the face of large corporations that support or gain financially from animal exploitation and abuse. What can the individual do, apart from write to his or her governmental representative, join an organization, or sign a petition? In fact, individuals (as well as charities and other organizations) can have an enormous impact if they are careful to ensure that their money is not invested in companies involved in unacceptable activities, such as animal experiments, the fur trade, or intensive farming. By applying ethical criteria to the use of your money within the system, you can make...

      • HUMANE EDUCATION
        (pp. 286-287)
        HOLLY HAZARD

        Instinctively, we know that kind children become kind adults. Statistics bear out that the opposite is also true. Children who learn to ignore the feelings of others—or even take delight in someone else’s pain or distress—grow up to be, at best, unhappy adults and, at worst, sociopaths with whom society must grapple on a number of legal, social, and emotional levels. Whenever confronted by the abhorrent acts of such disturbed individuals, our leaders stumble to provide answers, or at least to develop the questions, that will allow us all to rest easier and believe that this could not...

      • LIVING WITH ANIMAL NEIGHBORS
        (pp. 287-288)
        JOHN BRYANT

        To get an idea of the size of the “pest control” industry in the United Kingdom alone, one need only look in theYellow Pagesdirectory. In the southeast London edition alone, there are more than fifty companies competing to kill nuisance animals, including mammals, birds, and insects, in an area of little more than 250 square kilometers. Agencies offer the “eradication” of pigeons, rats, mice, squirrels, foxes, wasps, beetles, flies, cockroaches, and ants. This is not an isolated example. All over the world countless companies are engaged in nothing less than a war against free-living animals. Millions of gallons...

    • VEGETARIAN LIVING
      • ETHICAL VEGETARIANISM
        (pp. 288-289)
        STEVE F. SAPONTZIS

        Vegetarianism is the practice of not eating the flesh of animals, including fishes and birds as well as red meat. Vegans do not eat any animal products, including eggs and dairy products, and some of the ethical reasons for being a vegetarian also apply to veganism. Ethical arguments for vegetarianism focus on two issues: the suffering inflicted on animals in the production of meat and the value of conscious life itself, which is, of course, destroyed when animals are killed for food.

        Both arguments presuppose that animals can feel pleasure and pain, fulfillment and frustration, and contentment and fear or...

      • MEATOUT
        (pp. 289-290)
        ALEX HERSHAFT

        Originally a modest effort, with a couple dozen events in 1985, Meatout has grown into the world’s largest annual grassroots diet education campaign. On or about March 20 each year, caring people in a thousand communities in all fifty states and twenty other countries welcome spring with colorful educational events. France, Germany, and Spain have even launched their own Meatout Web sites. The purpose is to help consumers evolve to a wholesome, nonviolent, plant-based diet.

        The events range from simple information tables, exhibits, food samplings, and cooking demonstrations to elaborate receptions, street theater, and festivals. Visitors at each event are...

      • PLANT-BASED NUTRITION
        (pp. 290-292)
        STEPHEN WALSH

        A central piece of evidence underpinning the preceding conclusions from the American Dietetic Association (ADA) is the collaborative analysis of five separate studies of vegetarians in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Germany (Key et al.). This analysis showed a moderate advantage for vegetarians compared with meat-eaters in terms of lower death rates both from heart disease and from all causes combined.

        This has been confirmed by some more recent studies. The longest-living group of people in the world are U.S. Seventh Day Adventists. U.S. Adventist vegetarians who drink milk live about two years longer than non-vegetarians, and U.S....

      • VEGAN LIVING
        (pp. 292-293)
        PAUL APPLEBY

        What do the following everyday items have in common: a pair of shoes, a paintbrush, a roll of photographic film, and a glass of wine? Chances are that they have all been manufactured using products derived from animals. In some cases, the connection is obvious: the shoes will probably be made of leather, and the paintbrush from animal bristles. In others, less so: photographic film is coated in gelatin (derived from animal bones and skins); most wines are cleared using a variety of animal-derived substances. The good news for vegans and others who prefer to avoid products derived wholly or...

      • VEGANIC GARDENING
        (pp. 293-294)
        JILL HOWARD CHURCH

        Many animal advocates, including vegetarians and vegans, enjoy growing their own fruits and vegetables. For those who shun animal products for ethical, health, and environmental reasons, the idea of growing their own organic foods makes perfect sense and gives peace of mind about their food supply. Although gardening organically means avoiding harmful synthetic chemicals, many instructions for organic gardening include the use of animal-based products, such as bone meal, blood meal, fish emulsion, and manure—all of which involve killing more than just your appetite.

        Thankfully, vegetarians can have their kale and eat it too if they follow the principles...

      • VEGETARIAN COOKING
        (pp. 294-296)
        DILIP BARMAN

        It is not as difficult to move toward a plant-based diet as many suppose. There are many good cookbooks readily available and many large searchable Web archives—for example, from the International Vegetarian Union. Many communities and grocery stores offer vegetarian cooking classes. Following are a few foods that you may want to incorporate into your kitchen and several quick ideas of how you can create simple, but very appealing dishes.

        In terms of staples, try soy products such as tofu and tempeh. Tofu is soybean curds pressed into a block; tempeh is fermented whole-bean soy, often with other grains...

  12. ABOUT THE EDITOR AND THE CONTRIBUTORS
    (pp. 297-304)
  13. INDEX
    (pp. 305-327)
  14. Back Matter
    (pp. 328-328)