In the late nineteenth century, Jewish students participated actively in university life, especially in fraternities. Due to growing antisemitism, Jewish students at the University of Vienna founded the first Jewish-national fraternity Kadimah in 1882. Jewish fraternities became a stronghold of Zionism all over the Habsburg Monarchy. Around 1900 a new type of Zionist fraternity appeared, known as vacation fraternities. Students set up local fraternities like Geullah in their provincial town of origin to continue fraternity life over the vacations. The article argues that these students significantly challenged and changed Jewish community life by defending their Jewishness with word and sword.
The focus is on Austrian culture from 1750 to the present. Literature is considered in relation to psychology, philosophy, political theory, music, theatre, film and the visual arts. 'Austrian' includes the German-language culture of former areas of the Habsburg Empire, such as Prague and the Bukovina, as well as the work of people of Austrian origin living abroad. Each annual volume includes a wide range of articles in English, together with a selection of book reviews, with the aim of making recent research accessible to a broadly based international readership.
The Modern Humanities Research Association (MHRA) is an international organization with members in all parts of the world. The Association's purpose is to encourage and promote advanced study and research in the field of the modern humanities. It is concerned to break down the barriers between scholars working in different disciplines and to maintain the unity of humanistic scholarship in the face of increasing specialization.