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The Fourth Eye

The Fourth Eye: M ori Media in Aotearoa New Zealand

Copyright Date: 2013
Pages: 312
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    The Fourth Eye
    Book Description:

    From the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi between Indigenous and settler cultures to the emergence of the first-ever state-funded Māori television network, New Zealand has been a hotbed of Indigenous concerns. Given its history of colonization, coping with biculturalism is central to New Zealand life. Much of this "bicultural drama" plays out in the media and is molded by an anxiety surrounding the ongoing struggle over citizenship rights that is seated within the politics of recognition. The Fourth Eye brings together Indigenous and non-Indigenous scholars to provide a critical and comprehensive account of the intricate and complex relationship between the media and Māori culture. Examining the Indigenous mediascape, The Fourth Eye shows how Māori filmmakers, actors, and media producers have depicted conflicts over citizenship rights and negotiated the representation of Indigenous people. From nineteenth-century Māori-language newspapers to contemporary Māori film and television, the contributors explore a variety of media forms including magazine cover stories, print advertisements, commercial images, and current Māori-language newspapers to illustrate the construction, expression, and production of indigeneity through media. Focusing on New Zealand as a case study, the authors address the broader question: what is Indigenous media? While engaging with distinct themes such as the misrepresentation of Māori people in the media, access of Indigenous communities to media technologies, and the use of media for activism, the essays in this much-needed new collection articulate an Indigenous media landscape that converses with issues that reach far beyond New Zealand. Contributors: Sue Abel, U of Auckland; Joost de Bruin, Victoria U of Wellington; Suzanne Duncan, U of Otago; Kevin Fisher, U of Otago; Allen Meek, Massey U; Lachy Paterson, U of Otago; Chris Prentice, U of Otago; Jay Scherer, U of Alberta; Jo Smith, Victoria U of Wellington; April Strickland; Stephen Turner, U of Auckland.

    eISBN: 978-1-4529-4174-5
    Subjects: Art & Art History, Anthropology, Sociology

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. Maps
    (pp. ix-xiv)
  4. Introduction: Fourth Eye: The Indigenous Mediascape in Aotearoa New Zealand
    (pp. xv-l)

    As the first publication of its kind on Indigenous media in Aotearoa New Zealand (hereafter referred to as “New Zealand”),¹ this collection brings a fresh approach to the relatively distinct fields of Media Studies and Indigenous Studies. It contributes to both fields by drawing upon key debates, concepts, and theoretical approaches that mark them, while suggesting that each discipline has much to offer the other, and through this, proposes a connection between the disciplines to shore up the possibility of articulating an Indigenous Media Studies.

    The “Fourth Eye” is a term we mobilize to capture a number of complex questions,...

  5. Part I. Mediated Indigeneity:: Representing the Indigenous Other

    • 1. Governing Indigenous Sovereignty Biopolitics and the “Terror Raids” in New Zealand
      (pp. 3-24)

      On March 21, 2012, the New Zealand Herald reported that the jury in the trial of Tame Iti, Emily Bailey, Te Rangikaiwhiria Kemara, and Urs Signer, the four individuals charged by the Crown for allegedly belonging to an organized criminal group, was unable to come to a decision on, this, the main charge.¹ They did however decide that the four individuals were guilty on firearms charges. The report, appearing in New Zealand’s largest circulating broadsheet paper, which also enjoys a high web and mobile app presence, was entitled “Urewera Verdict: Freedom, for Now.” The report about the March 20 jury...

    • 2. Postcolonial Trauma Child Abuse, Genocide, and Journalism in New Zealand
      (pp. 25-41)

      In New Zealand, as in many other nations, the notion of a collective experience of trauma has allowed different understandings of history, identity, and social policy to be articulated and contested. When the then Labour Party member of Parliament (MP) and associate minister of health (now coleader of the Māori Party) Tāriana Tūria proposed in August 2000 that Māori suffered from “Post Colonial Traumatic Stress Disorder”¹ she intervened in a complex set of discourses surrounding the Treaty of Waitangi (see Introduction), child abuse, and the ongoing legacies of colonial violence. The use of the word “holocaust” in Tūria’s comments, and...

    • 3. Promotional Culture and Indigenous Identity Trading the Other
      (pp. 42-59)

      In 2007, Italian truck manufacturer Iveco, a multinational corporation with little or no connection to the sport of rugby union (or to New Zealand for that matter), became the official global sponsor of the All Blacks. Having won over 75 percent of all rugby matches that they have played since 1903, and having most recently won the 2011 Rugby World Cup—a tournament that was hosted by New Zealand, and, incidentally, relied heavily on elements of Māori culture for promotional purposes—the All Blacks remain the most dominant sports team in the world. Germane to this chapter, the national sport...

    • 4. Viewing against the Grain Postcolonial Remediation in Rain of the Children
      (pp. 60-75)

      In the contemporary postcolonial environment, any non-Indigenous filmmaker who undertakes the task of engaging with Indigenous material must reconcile their methods with Homi Bhabha’s description of the construction of the colonized by the colonizer as “a site of dreams, images, fantasies, myths, obsessions and requirements.”¹ Often, as in the case of Pākehā (white New Zealander) filmmaker Vincent Ward’s Rain of the Children (2008),² this takes shape as an ethical imperative to reflexively fold a critical interrogation of the filmmaker’s own practices of representing the Other into the body of the film.

      While Bhabha recognizes that encounters with the colonized “destabilize...

    • 5. Consume or Be Consumed Targeting Māori Consumers in Print Media
      (pp. 76-98)

      Advertising is a pervasive discourse that has been recognized as permeating every aspect of symbolic expression.¹ By progressing the political and economic interests of business and of governments, advertising has also psychologically, sociologically, and culturally impacted people en masse.² Advertising’s significant impact on Indigenous communities has come about due to the privilege it has been afforded because of its perceived “development” potential that, in turn, has led to the destruction and reinvention of cultures and identities.

      Marketing communication relies heavily on visual representation to produce meaning. Representation is used to create an image of the product or service by linking...

  6. Part II. Indigenous Media:: Emergence, Struggles, and Interventions

    • 6. Theorizing Indigenous Media
      (pp. 101-123)

      In Arizona in the mid-1960s, Sol Worth and John Adair carried out a unique project, which later led to their 1972 book Through Navajo Eyes: An Exploration in Film Communication and Anthropology.¹ The project was revolutionary. First, it veered away from the traditions of Western rationalism and anthropology by acknowledging that the Navajo might see the world differently than Western eyes, signifying a multilensed reality. Second, the researchers “put the means of production and repre sen tation into the hands of indigenous people . . . teaching filmmaking to young Navajo students without the conventions of western production and editing,...

    • 7. Te Hokioi and the Legitimization of the Māori Nation
      (pp. 124-142)

      In 1861, two central North Island Māori chiefs from the Waikato, Wiremu Toetoe and Te Hemara Rerehau, returned from a sojourn in Vienna where they were guests of the Austro-Hungarian authorities. While there they worked for nine months at a printing establishment and, on their departure, received the gift of a printing press from the Austro-Hungarian emperor.¹ Later, this press allowed the Kīngitanga (Māori King Movement) to publish its own newspaper, Te Hokioie Rere Atu-na (literally, “the [mythical] bird flying there,” hereafter referred to as Te Hokioi), to broadcast its own developing ideology and to counter the New Zealand government’s...

    • 8. Barry Barclay’s Te Rua The Unmanned Camera and Māori Political Activism
      (pp. 143-161)

      In the first scene of Te Rua— Barry Barclay’s seminal 1991 film about Māori rights and responsibilities—a man in a trench coat walks on a beach, away from the camera and toward the water. It is a gray rainy day, and his body is obscured by the inclement weather. He turns and addresses the camera. “Ready?” he asks. He then takes a few more steps toward the water, turns to the camera once again, and says, “Is it okay?” The film cuts to an unmanned camera. Rain and heavy mist blow past it. An umbrella has been set up...

    • 9. Reflections on Barry Barclay and Fourth Cinema
      (pp. 162-178)

      Barry Barclay was a rare filmmaker, writer, and thinker. His filmwork, writings, and talks can hardly be conceived independently, so I will address the thinking that coheres in all his activity. Due to his seminal filmwork, notably the made-for-television Tangata Whenua series (1974) and the world’s first Indigenous “feature,” Ngati (1987), and to his book Our Own Image,¹ Barclay is a founding figure of Indigenous cinema. There are other substantial films, The Neglected Miracle (1985), Te Rua (1991), Feathers of Peace (2000), and The Kaipara Affair (2005), and an important later book, Mana Tuturu: Maori Intellectual Treasures and Property Rights.²...

  7. Part III. Māori Television:: Nation, Culture, and Identity

    • 10. The Māori Television Service and Questions of Culture
      (pp. 181-200)

      The advent in 2004 of the free-to-air Māori Television Service (MTS) channel in New Zealand marked an important development in Māori cultural politics and in the bicultural nation’s televisual democracy. While Māori constitute around 15 percent (and growing) of the population, more compelling than the statistical argument for greater representation in broadcast media has been the notion of “partnership” of Māori and Pākehā (white New Zealanders) under the auspices of the Treaty of Waitangi (1840, referred to hereafter as “the Treaty”) and its revival as a basis for appeals against historical and continuing (post) colonial injustice in the 1975 Treaty...

    • 11. Māori Television, Anzac Day, and Constructing “Nationhood”
      (pp. 201-215)
      SUE ABEL

      These two quotations, from very different eras in New Zealand’s history and from different ethnic groups, nevertheless resonate with each other in a way that provides a useful starting point for an examination of the role that Māori Television’s annual coverage of Anzac Day plays both in the establishment of Māori Television as an integral part of the New Zealand mediascape and in the ongoing construction of what it means to be a “New Zealander.” This examination is based on an analysis of the Anzac Day coverage in 2007, and of 312 responses that were posted to the channel’s website...

    • 12. Indigeneity and Cultural Belonging in Survivor-Styled Reality Television from New Zealand
      (pp. 216-234)

      This chapter examines the different ways in which two recent New Zealand television programs draw upon global reality television formats to articulate discourses of indigeneity and cultural belonging in New Zealand. By examining how the TV3 outdoor challenge program The Summit and Māori Television’s language competition program Waka Reo share aspects of the American reality television show Survivor, this chapter investigates the ways in which global television formatting can illuminate the specificities of local discourses of indigeneity. As this chapter demonstrates, claims to indigeneity remain a contested terrain, due to the usurpation of iwi (tribes) Māori settlement by processes of...

  8. Acknowledgments
    (pp. 235-236)
  9. Contributors
    (pp. 237-240)
  10. Index
    (pp. 241-251)