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Portugal and Brazil in Transition

Portugal and Brazil in Transition

edited by Raymond S. Sayers
Copyright Date: 1968
Edition: NED - New edition
Pages: 384
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  • Book Info
    Portugal and Brazil in Transition
    Book Description:

    Through a series of essays on various aspects of Portuguese and Brazilian culture, this book presents an enlightening picture of contemporary civilization in the two countries and a forecast of what the next twenty years or so may bring. The authors discuss subjects in such basic fields as literature, linguistics, history, the social sciences, geography, the fine arts, music, and natural science. Taken as a whole, the contents demonstrate the logic of organizing a volume not around a geographical concept but, rather, around a historical concept, in this case “the world the Portuguese created,” as Gilberto Freyre described it. The essays are based on papers that were given at the Sixth International Colloquium of Luso-Brazilian Studies, held in the United States in 1966. In addition to the essays, the book contains the text of comments and discussion about the papers. There are 27 major essays by as many contributors and comments by a number of discussants.

    eISBN: 978-0-8166-6438-2
    Subjects: Sociology

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. [i]-[iii])
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. [iv]-2)
  3. Introductory Essay
    (pp. 3-6)
    Raymond S. Sayers

    The title of this collection of essays may appear anomalous today when research and teaching tend to be organized regionally so that Portugal is considered a part of the area of Western Europe and Brazil part of South America. The concept of regional studies has attracted the interest of American scholars to such an extent that few universities are without Centers of Latin American Studies, East Asian Institutes, or similar organizations. Students not only immerse themselves in the geography of some more or less vast part of the world, but also study the languages, literatures, economics, sociology, anthropology, and history...


    • Brazilian Literature: The Task of the Next Twenty Years
      (pp. 9-23)
      Wilson Martins

      The organic development and creative vitality of Brazilian literature in the second half of the twentieth century are, beyond doubt, strong grounds for optimism. Its present state and its probable future, which I shall attempt to delineate objectively in this study, tend, more than anything else, to substantiate this fact. In the same way, they prepare us to take the best possible advantage of a natural evolutionary process.

      If we accept the idea that the Modernist period ended in 1945 (a conventional and symbolic date, as all dates in literary history are), we can establish from that time the beginning...

    • Portuguese Literature: Its Prospects at Home and Abroad
      (pp. 24-44)
      Jorge de Sena

      The problem of discussing the present state and future prospects of a literature and of the scholarship concerned with it becomes complicated in the case of a literature like that of Portugal. The complication arises because this literature is of importance not only to itself and to those who are interested in it for reasons of cultural preference but also to other countries which, though separated politically now or in the future from the area of political expansion in which it was written, developed, and refined, possess the language as a part of their culture and as the written past...


    • Galician in Luso-Brazilian Studies
      (pp. 47-50)
      Ramón Piñeiro López

      If we were to limit the concept of Luso-Brazilian culture to its political area, the presence of Galician in this Colloquium might be surprising, because Galicia is not a state within itself, nor does it belong to the political boundaries of either the Portuguese or Brazilian states. However, it so happens that any profound consideration of the Luso-Brazilian cultural reality necessarily leads us to the ground of its common roots with Galicia. The cultural and political boundaries do not coincide — the political area is, in effect, Luso-Brazilian; the cultural, Galician-Luso-Brazilian. Therefore, if we abide by the cultural and not the...

    • Linguistics in Portugal: The Task Ahead
      (pp. 51-55)
      José G. Herculano de Carvalho

      For the last few years I have had in mind the project of founding a center dedicated to the study of theoretical linguistic problems. After a few attempts and exploratory discussions, however, various difficulties forced me not to abandon the idea, but to postpone its realization. Then, during the academic year 1965–1966, a happy combination of circumstances finally provided the favorable conditions for which I had been waiting and preparing. Not the least among these circumstances was the presence at Coimbra of a dedicated and stimulating collaborator, a colleague who with sincere disinterest and enthusiasm encouraged me to carry...

    • Contemporary Brazilian Studies in Portuguese Linguistics
      (pp. 56-72)
      J. Mattoso Câmara Jr.

      One notes in the period which I shall arbitrarily define as beginning in 1940 a new attitude toward the problem of establishing a norm for the literary language. There is an airing of new ideas and a better understanding of language as an instrument for communication which must be malleable and flexible if it is to work efficiently.

      There can be no doubt that this new attitude came about in large measure as a result of the teaching of belles-lettres and courses in the Portuguese language at the university level, through the establishment for the first time of faculties of...


    • The Teaching of Portuguese in the United States
      (pp. 75-90)
      Fred P. Ellison

      Unlike Spanish, Portuguese studied as a foreign language must be considered principally a phenomenon of the mid-twentieth century in the United States. Efforts were of course made in the nineteenth century to teach Portuguese, but these were sporadic and did not bear fruit. In the United States, Portuguese has always lacked what might be called an “infrastructure” — that is, a broad social demand for the language, based upon the belief in its value and usefulness in our educational system. The small number of students of Portuguese at present must be understood in relation to these facts.

      The collaboration between Brazil...


    • Permanence and Change in Overseas Portuguese Thought
      (pp. 93-109)
      Alexandre Lobato

      Editor’s note: Professor Alexandra Lobato submitted a paper which was distributed in multigraphed form at the Colloquium, but which was very much too long to be included in this volume. It would have been impossible to print it if it had not been for Professor Douglas L. Wheeler, of the University of New Hampshire, who translated and condensed it admirably.

      The Ideal of Expansion Proclaimed in 1500 and the Dynamic of Portuguese Mysticism.The overseas expansion of Portugal achieved a clearcut expression when it reached India. What it signified politically and represented ethnically was fully expressed at the time in...

    • The Onset of Modernization in Brazil
      (pp. 110-126)
      Richard Graham

      The purpose of this paper is to view the history of Brazil during the period of 1850–1890 within the conceptual framework provided by social scientists concerned with modernization. Brazil is here thought of as moving along a spectrum that begins with what may be labeled as “traditional society” and ends in a “modern” one. It is my belief that Brazil before the Paraguayan war was closer to the “traditional” model than is usually thought, and that, on the other hand, by 1890 important steps toward modernization had been taken which were essential to the further changes in Brazil since...

    • Brazil’s Search for Identity in the Old Republic
      (pp. 127-144)
      Thomas E. Skidmore

      In 1927 there appeared the following indictment of Brazilian thought: “We aredéracinés.Our ideas are not nourished by our own vitality, they do not grow out of our life, they are not saturated in our reality, they are not immersed in our history. They entwine and suspend themselves in our mentality as Americans like those beautiful orchids and lianas on the trunks and branches of our tropical trees.”¹ By the time these harsh words of Oliveira Vianna reached the public, such criticisms had become relatively commonplace in Brazil. For upward of a decade, the Brazilianélite—a small fraction...

    • The United States Africa Squadron at the Cape Verde Islands
      (pp. 145-148)
      Samuel Eliot Morison

      From 1819 to the Civil War the United States Navy, like the British Royal Navy, maintained an Africa Squadron, which operated along the West Coast from Cape Verde to Gabon. Its primary object was to suppress the slave trade; a secondary one was to protect both peaceful traders and the American Negro colonists in Liberia from attacks by savages. Each naval squadron needed a place for rest and refreshment. The British vessels used the lee side of Ascension Island; the Americans, the Cape Verde Islands.

      The United States Africa Squadron was subjected to unjust criticism for spending as much time...


    • New England and the Portuguese World: Source Materials
      (pp. 151-156)
      John Horace Parry

      Source Materials New England may seem at first sight an unlikely place to look for source materials of Portuguese interest; and indeed the papers preserved there in libraries and museums nearly all belong to a few well-defined classes and concern limited aspects of history. The contacts between New England and the Portuguese-speaking world were almost entirely commercial and maritime, and the surviving records concern either these maritime connections or the story of Portuguese immigration and settlement in New England. Within these limits, however, they are surprisingly extensive and of great interest.

      The Portuguese were the pioneers of European seaborne trade...


    • Growth and Change in Brazil since 1930: An Anthropological View
      (pp. 159-174)
      David H. P. Maybury-Lewis

      The thesis of this paper is that there has been considerable growth in Brazil since 1930 but comparatively little change.¹ This might seem a perverse judgment in view of the substantial literature concerning change in Brazil over the last thirty years. Indeed, it would be absurd to deny that important changes have taken place. The issue rather is how these changes should be evaluated. It is a matter of emphasis rather than of assertion and contradiction.

      There seems at any rate to be broad agreement on the general character of the changes which have occurred since 1930. Coffee is no...

    • Popular Catholicism in Brazil: Typology and Functions
      (pp. 175-178)
      Thales de Azevedo

      In order to identify its object, the sociology of religion must always fix the empirical limits of the religious, even when it avoids speculation on the areas of and distinctions between the sacred and the secular. However, it is right to observe that “an examination of the endemic definitional controversies concerning religion leads to the conclusion that they are not so much controversies over the meaning either of the term ‘religion’ or of the concept which it expresses, as they are jurisdictional disputes over the phenomenon or range of phenomena which are considered to constitute legitimately the empirical referent of...

    • Economic Growth and Political Instability in Brazil
      (pp. 179-198)
      Florestan Fernandes

      Economic growth and political instability seem to have been the chief characteristics of Brazilian life during the last fifty years. The country has apparently reached the peak of its “economic spurt,” and this fact would seem to provide a key to the explanation of the political convulsions that have occurred in this period. Statistics that I shall not include here give evidence of at least three substantial economic transformations: first, products previously destined for export, such as sugar, have found ever-growing home markets; second, the pattern of imports has taken on a new configuration, which reveals that during recent years...

    • The New Industrialization and the Brazilian Political System
      (pp. 199-211)
      Gláucio Ary Dillon Soares

      One of the basic postulates of political sociology is that politics has a definite relation to socioeconomic structure, and that changes in socioeconomic structure have a bearing upon the electoral strength of political parties. One of the main components of the socioeconomic structure is, of course, the class structure, and, other things being equal, historical changes in the class structure will broaden the political possibilities of some parties and narrow those of other parties.¹

      The class basis of politics is not at all a black-and-white question. Most parties recruit their followers from many classes and socioeconomic strata, but unevenly so,...

    • Social Evolution in Portugal since 1945
      (pp. 212-227)
      João Baptista Nunes Pereira Neto

      This essay* is based not on research but on the author’s own experience with respect to the social change that has taken place in the last two decades in the Algarve, Lisbon, other parts of Estremadura, and to a lesser extent, in the industrial zone around Oporto. The ideas presented are the result of contacts with all sorts and conditions of people in these regions. This is not a definitive study, but rather one in which certain hypotheses are advanced that may serve as a basis for future research. . . .

      The Portuguese social situation has changed greatly in...

    • A Case Study of the Portuguese Business Elite, 1964–1966
      (pp. 228-242)
      Harry M. Makler

      In this presentation,* I shall attempt to assess the current prospects for social research in Portugal, especially for non-Portuguese social researchers. The presentation is based on my own recent research experience in carrying out a sociological survey of the role of the businesséliteas a human factor in the economic development of Portugal.

      As a student of comparative institutions and political sociology, I have become increasingly interested in the problems of developing societies in different parts of the world. One of the problems with which I am most concerned is the factors that contribute to both social and economic...


    • An Evolutionary View of the Brazilian Landscape
      (pp. 245-254)
      Kempton E. Webb

      Our assignment in this section on geography is probably very similar in spirit to the one which Prince Henry the Navigator gave himself back in the early 1400’s as he looked south toward Africa from his vantage point at Sagres. Like him, we shall peer ahead into the uncharted territory of the next few decades and try to point out some directions that the small convoy of Luso-Brazilianist geographers might follow with interest and scholarly profit. Although the design and execution of geographical research is, or should be, an eminently personal matter in which each investigator selects his own goals...

    • The Development of the Zambezi Basin in Mozambique
      (pp. 255-262)
      Fernando de Castro Fontes

      For a long time observers have been aware of the steps needed to be taken by the Portuguese to promote the development of the Mozambique river and have had some notion of the huge resource endowment of the Zambezi Basin — as rich and varied as unexploited and unexplored. To initiate these steps an official technical body was created in 1959 which, in collaboration with private consultants, began to study the resources of the basin and the possibilities for their development.

      The studies and planning touched upon cartography and surveying, agriculture and stock raising, forestry, geology and mining, hydrology, energy development,...


    • Lisbon of 1750–1850: The Significance of Its Structural Evolution
      (pp. 265-273)
      José-Augusto França

      In the sixteenth century the recently revealed new world opened to Lisbon a commercial prosperity soon translated into a multicolor of urban animation, but the structures of the city herself were not altered by this fact, and the central city (the Baixa) continued to be defined medievally by a maze of narrow and nauseously dirty streets. Near the river stood a modest royal palace which descended from the old Moorishalcaçova.Nothing had changed the urban web superficially adorned with “Manueline” buildings that reflected a Gothic resistance to new forms of planning. Away from the Baixa with its growing population,...

    • The Architecture and Wood Sculpture of the North of Portugal, 1750–1850
      (pp. 274-288)
      Flávio Gonçalves

      In the period extending from 1750 to 1850 the art of northern Portugal under went appreciable changes. This was to be expected in the eighteenth century, one of the most productive in the life of Europe. But it is interesting to observe that the beginning and end of this period almost coincide, in the province of Entre Douro e Minho, with the inception and decline of two great artistic movements that developed in those hundred years. Commercial Oporto, churchly Braga, and noble Guimarães, as well as the aristocratic seaport of Viana do Castelo and other places, produced at that time,...

    • [Illustrations]
      (pp. None)
  12. The Art of Brazil: Research in the Period 1750–1850
    (pp. 289-300)
    Mário Barata

    A Brazilian historian of the beginning of this century, the Pernambucan Alfredo de Carvalho, on being seated in the Brazilian Historical and Geographical Institute, emphasized the importance of the eighteenth century for the defining of the Brazilian nationality. He said: “with us so little importance is given to the highly instructive facts of a peaceful revolution that throughout the eighteenth century Brazil is considered one of the happy countries ‘which have no history’ by those who are impressed only by warlike deeds and the bloody conflagration of homicidal struggles. Yet that was the phase of the real birth of the...

  13. MUSIC

    • Music and Society in Imperial Brazil, 1822–1889
      (pp. 303-309)
      Luiz Heitor Corrêa de Azevedo

      Today the word SOCIETY is constantly associated with musicological studies. After the widening of the field of investigation of this discipline by the adoption of ethnomusicology (which acquired rights of citizenship in congresses and publications formerly hostile to everything which was not purely music history), we can note the appearance of what might be called sociomusicology—although the term is not generally used, and this speaker is not going to propose its adoption. But it is clear that, after ethnology, it is sociology which is invading musical studies, and hence, to be à la mode, the speaker chose as the...

    • Portuguese Music and Musicians Abroad, to 1650
      (pp. 310-318)
      Robert M. Stevenson

      During the nineteenth century, Portuguese musicology boasted of Joaquim de Vasconcellos (Os musicos portuguezes, 2vols., 1870) and Ernesto Vieira (Diccionario biogrdphico de musicos portuguezes, 2vols., 1900),¹ both of whom devoted their major energies to biographical research. So, for that matter, did Sousa Viterbo whenever he published any new documentary discovery related to music. In our own generation Mario de Sampayo Ribeiro, Manuel Joaquim, José Augusto Alegria, Álvaro Carneiro,² Eurico Gama,³ and Gongalo Sampaio⁴ have extended and corrected the biographies of such major composers as Duarte Lobo,⁵ Filipe de Magalhaes,⁶ Manuel Mendes,⁷ and Manuel Cardoso. At last the exact...


    • Medical Education and the Reform of Brazilian Universities
      (pp. 321-327)
      Roberto Figueira Santos

      Brazilian universities are about to undergo radical changes. Aside from a few preliminary steps that had no major consequences, it was only after 1930 that universities were established in Brazil. Until that time higher education had been exclusively the province of isolated professional schools.

      In addition to the invaluable services traditionally performed by these schools educating personnel for essential tasks in Brazilian life and society, one should mention the occasional presence among both the faculty and student body of a nucleus of professors and students oriented toward research activities. But even so, chief concern of these institutions was the transmission...

    • Portuguese Activities in Public Health in the Tropics
      (pp. 328-338)
      F. J. C. Cambournac

      The intertropical zone, with its great climatic variability — from areas perpetually covered by snow to the hottest areas in the world — provides living organisms with an immense variety of ecologic conditions, allowing for the existence of an almost universal pathology.

      Practically all the so-called cosmopolitan diseases can be found in the tropics. But there is no doubt that, besides the strictly tropical diseases — those to be found in the endemic state only in the tropics, such as sleeping sickness, yaws, certain filariases, various mycoses and viroses, which are responsible for a sufficiently large amount of public health problems — many cosmopolitan...

  15. NOTES
    (pp. 339-358)
  16. INDEX
    (pp. 359-367)