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Student Deferment in Selective Service

Student Deferment in Selective Service: A Vital Factor in National Security

M. H. Trytten
Copyright Date: 1952
Edition: NED - New edition
Pages: 148
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5749/j.cttts8dm
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  • Book Info
    Student Deferment in Selective Service
    Book Description:

    Student Deferment in Selective Service was first published in 1952. What dies “student deferment” mean? Is is an exemption or a postponement of military service? Why did our government adopt the policy? How dies it operate? How does it affect national security? Does it result in special privilege? Is deferment justified regardless of what curriculum a student chooses? These are some of the questions Dr. Trytten answers in this timely review of an important and controversial national program. As a shrinking manpower pool points up the need for new sources to meet draft quotas, the deferment policy may well come under attack from those who do not understand its purpose. To stimulate informed thought and discussion about the program, Dr. Trytten here reviews the broad problem of manpower needs, as well as the history of the deferment policy. He explains the bases for the policy’s adoption, outlines the criteria and methods of deferment, and describes the college qualification test used. This central fact is emphasizes as fundamental in any consideration of our manpower problems: National defense once rested largely on the military; today’s age of technology, however, dictates that the military must depend upon an uninterrupted functioning of civilian activities. The laboratory, the industrial plant, and the business organization are as vital as the armed forces themselves. Thus college training has become as essential as military training.

    eISBN: 978-0-8166-6472-6
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Acknowledgments
    (pp. v-vi)
    M. H. Trytten
  3. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  4. PART ONE THE POLICY OF STUDENT DEFERMENT

    • CHAPTER 1 The Problem
      (pp. 3-5)

      The problem of maintaining college and university training while the nation is in a condition of partial mobilization is difficult and complex. It is a problem which touches a great majority of the American people and hence is affected by waves of public reaction. It involves the military services directly because it relates to competing demands for youth. It touches deeply the future of the nation because what we do with our youth today will determine the kind of people we have tomorrow, and thus will affect our strength in technology, our culture, our social organization, our economy, and in...

    • CHAPTER 2 Steps in Establishing the Policy
      (pp. 6-13)

      Between 1776 and 1948 the United States had no experience with compulsory military service except in connection with its major wars. There was conscription during the Civil War, and the military manpower needs of World War I resulted in the passage of the Selective Service Act of 1917. Under this act there were inducted during the fourteen months while its provisions were invoked some fewer than three million men. Prior to the passage of this act, fifty years had passed during which no compulsory service was required and little thought was given to the possibility that military service might become...

    • CHAPTER 3 Factors Determining the Policy
      (pp. 14-24)

      As we have emphasized earlier, in the entire history of the nation compulsory military service had not existed except in relation to a major conflict until peacetime Selective Service inductions were authorized by the Act of 1948. This historic fact helped to shape public thinking about mobilization when the outbreak of hostilities in Korea provided the necessity for substantial draft calls. The fact that many of those inducted would see service in actual combat produced the emotional overtones of war among the people and led many persons to apply wartime ideas to the current situation. But in actuality the nation...

    • CHAPTER 4 Logical Bases for the Policy
      (pp. 25-36)

      As we have pointed out, none of the various Selective Service acts provides specifically for manpower allocation. They are limited to arranging for the procurement of military manpower by requiring each male citizen of given ages to register with a local Selective Service board. To the board is given the function of classifying each registrant according to policies laid down in the law and regulations.

      Those who are exempt by law are so classified. The others are classified as 1-A, available for call, or are placed in a deferred category if they are engaged in an activity which in the...

    • CHAPTER 5 Reserve Officers Training Programs
      (pp. 37-40)

      No discussion of student deferment is complete without some consideration of reserve officers training on college and university campuses. Reserve officers training programs are old enough to be traditional in American education, but they have not in the past been large enough to be an important factor in manpower allocation. In years prior to World War II the subsequent military service required other than in wartime was not enough to affect seriously the careers of those who enjoyed such training.

      The growth of such programs since World War II has been great. Many new units have been established and enrollments...

    • CHAPTER 6 A Summing-Up
      (pp. 41-46)

      A great nation, or a lesser one, must at all times exercise an intelligent concern for the proper training of its future leaders, because the extent and character of that training will to a large extent determine how effectively and with what strength the nation will continue to meet and solve its problems—allits problems, domestic, economic, and cultural, as well as those of military defense.

      If we are to put this realization into practice, there must be widespread understanding of the fact that we are not at present faced with the kind of immediate crisis which makes military...

  5. PART TWO SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION AND DISCUSSION

    • SECTION A The Manpower Pool
      (pp. 49-54)

      It has been pointed out that the problem of mobilizing and maintaining an armed force in time of war is quite different from that of maintaining a force in being in peacetime. In the former case all who are fit and not needed for other types of essential military-supporting activities are subject to induction for an unlimited period. The total strength of the nation is subject to call.

      In the present mobilization effort there are substantial restrictions. Those who have served more than a given period in the services are exempt. Liability for service touches only a few age groups....

    • SECTION B Our Intellectual Resources
      (pp. 55-60)

      Each year about 2,200,000 boys and girls reach the age of eighteen. Because the birth rate was low eighteen years ago that number is smaller than it has been for many years in the past or than it is likely to be for many years in the future. Yet those 2,200,000 young adults must provide the replacements and new recruits for the nation’s labor force. Because they are few in number, the nation places unusually large demands upon them. Industry wants them for military and civilian production. The armed services want them for military duty. Farsighted people who are keeping...

    • SECTION C The Selective Service College Qualification Test
      (pp. 61-80)

      On December 1, 1950, the six advisory committees appointed in 1948 by the director of the Selective Service System made their report, which laid down the basic principles and recommendations for a college student deferment program. It was the unanimous and considered opinion of these committees that the nation’s immediate and long-range security urgently required an uninterrupted flow of sufficient numbers of scientific and specialized personnel into advanced training for subsequent utilization in either civilian or military occupations. It was recognized as an incontrovertible fact that young men of draft age differ widely in their abilities, and only a very...

    • SECTION D Reports of the Scientific Advisory Committees
      (pp. 81-117)

      The six Scientific Advisory Committees (Agricultural and Biological Sciences, Engineering Sciences, Healing Arts, Humanities, Physical Sciences, Social Sciences) appointed by you in the autumn of 1948 have reviewed the recommendations originally submitted to you on December 21, 1948. With certain minor modifications the Committees have unanimously reaffirmed these recommendations.

      In the interest of securing widespread discussion and acceptance of the policies recommended and the principles underlying them the Committees urge that the full report as here attached be made public.

      These recommendations have been developed by the six Committees as a committee of the whole to meet the objective indicated...

    • SECTION E Some Official Regulations and Releases
      (pp. 118-136)
      Lewis B. Hershey

      “1622.15Class I-S: Student Deferred by Statute, (a) In Class I-S shall be placed any registrant who has not attained the twentieth anniversary of the day of his birth and who is satisfactorily pursuing a full-time course of instruction at a high school or similar institution of learning. Such registrant shall be retained in Class I-S (1) until the time of his graduation from such school or institution, or (2) until he attains the twentieth anniversary of the day of his birth, or (3) until he ceases satisfactorily to pursue such course of instruction, whichever is the earliest. The date...

  6. Index
    (pp. 137-140)