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The Social Education of Bulgarian Youth

The Social Education of Bulgarian Youth

Peter John Georgeoff
Copyright Date: 1968
Edition: NED - New edition
Pages: 344
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5749/j.ctttsbqg
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  • Book Info
    The Social Education of Bulgarian Youth
    Book Description:

    The Social Education of Bulgarian Youth was first published in 1968. The detailed description and analysis of Bulgaria’s educational system provides significant background information for those concerned with the broad social and political implications of a contemporary Communist society as well as furnishing valuable material for specialists in comparative education. Professor Georgeoff’s study is based on intensive field work which he carried out in Bulgaria. He presents, first, a brief overview of the entire educational system, from the preschool program for the children of working mothers to postgraduate university study. He then analyzes the political, social, and psychological factors involved in the educational process in terms of the educational objectives set for the nation by the government, the Bulgarian Communist Part, and educators. The primary focus is on elementary education, but all levels of education are considered, particularly with regard to the role each plays in the overall educational program. Among the factors considered are administration, methods, materials, evaluation, teacher education, and extracurricular children’s and youths’ organizations. In a final section there is a compilation of pertinent documentary material such as statistical data on Bulgarian education and, in English translation, laws, regulations of the Ministry of Education, excerpts from speeches, newspaper articles, and other pronouncements, and selections from methods books used in teacher education as well as from children’s school texts. For purposes of the study the author defines social education as the induction of youth into the traditions, values, mores, ethics, and ideology which characterize Communist society.

    eISBN: 978-0-8166-6257-9
    Subjects: Sociology

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. iii-x)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. xi-2)
  3. chapter I INTRODUCTION
    (pp. 3-17)

    Bulgaria is bordered by Rumania on the north, Turkey on the southeast, Greece on the southwest, Yugoslavia on the west, and the Black Sea on the east. Bulgaria is a part of the Shatter Belt, a narrow strip of land between the ussr and Western Europe occupied by weak, disorganized nations. These nations have been dominated alternately by the Germanic and the Slavic countries, so that their history is one of many wars and boundary changes.

    Bulgaria has a population of over eight million people, of which about 67 per cent earn their living in agriculture.¹ Sofia, the capital and...

  4. chapter II THE BULGARIAN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION
    (pp. 18-45)

    Shortly after Bulgaria’s independence in 1878, Dragan Tzankov, a schoolteacher who had studied and traveled widely in Europe and who, on several brief occasions, served as Bulgaria’s Minister of Education, wrote a number of articles under the general title “Methodology of Nursery Education” (“Za metodata v zabavachnitzite”). His efforts gave rise to a movement for preschool education in Bulgaria and eventually resulted in the formation of kindergartens and kindergarten societies in some larger cities. The writings of Froebel began to be disseminated about this time in Bulgaria and gave still greater impetus to this work.

    The movement also obtained considerable...

  5. chapter III THE SOCIAL EDUCATION OF CHILDREN IN BULGARIAN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS
    (pp. 46-65)

    A number of traits have been identified by Carl J. Friedrich and Zbigniew K. Brzezinski as characteristic of a political system such as the one that exists in Bulgaria. Of these, the four listed below are those most pertinent to the educational process:

    1. An elaborate ideology, consisting of an official body of doctrine covering all vital aspects of man’s existence to which everyone living in that society is supposed to adhere.

    2. A single mass party . . . consisting of a relatively small percentage of the total population (up to 10 per cent) of men and women, a hard core...

  6. chapter IV THE RELATION OF SOCIAL EDUCATION TO SPECIFIC SUBJECTS
    (pp. 66-102)

    Education in Bulgaria has as its primary purpose the education of the young to accept the Communist concept of life and of relations to other men and the state.¹ Because this purpose determines all aspects of education in the country, there is no elementary school subject that is apolitical — all courses have Marxist-Leninist ideology incorporated in their content,² and all contribute to the socialization of the child to fit him for participation in Communist society. However, the degree to which a subject is used for this purpose differs according to its intrinsic nature; generally speaking, the humanities, especially history...

  7. chapter V MATERIALS USED IN SOCIAL EDUCATION
    (pp. 103-117)

    School texts are probably the most important kind of material used in the social education of Bulgarian children because of all the instructional items available, they are used the most extensively. The texts are selected in open competition. An announcement is published in newspapers and educational journals specifying the kind of book needed. The entries, submitted with the author’s name in code, are judged by a special committee of educators and officials from the Ministry of Education. The manuscript which in the opinion of these judges is the best of those submitted is declared the winner; the author is given...

  8. chapter VI THE BULGARIAN SCHOOLTEACHER
    (pp. 118-125)

    All teachers in Bulgaria today, regardless of their subject area, are by the nature of their profession, social educators — supporters of the policies and principles of the Party and the government. All three kinds of institution essentially involved in the preparation of teachers — the institutes for teachers of elementary school, the institutes for the improvement of teachers, and Sofia State University — include courses of an ideological nature as part of the program of study.

    The institutes for teachers of elementary school, which are two-year normal schools admitting students who have graduated from secondary school, require the following...

  9. chapter VII SOCIAL EDUCATION THROUGH THE PIONEER AND KOMSOMOL ORGANIZATIONS
    (pp. 126-156)

    The different influences of the Dimitrov Communist Youth League and of the Dimitrov Pioneer Organization upon the social education of Bulgarian children and young people are indeed immense and complex. The topic would comprise a study by itself, for its implications are many and varied. The matter can be considered here only in its broadest aspects, but it needs to be discussed, since no study concerned with the social education of youth in Bulgarian society can be complete without an analysis of the aims, objectives, and methods of the youth organizations — one of the most active and potent elements...

  10. chapter VIII BULGARIAN EDUCATION IN PERSPECTIVE
    (pp. 157-162)

    The objectives of Bulgarian education stem from the nature of the society in which it exists. As a Communist nation in the process of economic development, Bulgaria seeks to achieve three primary objectives through its school system: to provide the students with the basic education necessary to function as individuals in modern society; to give the students professional-vocational training so that they can become, as adults, economic contributors to the development of the society; and to bring them up in an attitude of loyalty to the state and to the Communist Party.

    The Bulgarian school system has been organized to...

  11. appendix A BULGARIAN EDUCATIONAL STATISTICS
    (pp. 165-168)
  12. appendix B TRANSLATIONS OF LAWS AND REGULATIONS
    (pp. 169-188)
  13. appendix C TRANSLATIONS FROM SPEECHES, NEWSPAPERS, AND PRONOUNCEMENTS
    (pp. 189-198)
  14. appendix D TRANSLATIONS FROM COURSES OF STUDY AND EDUCATIONAL DOCUMENTS
    (pp. 199-223)
  15. appendix E TRANSLATIONS FROM TEXTBOOKS
    (pp. 224-266)
  16. appendix F TRANSLATIONS FROM TEXTBOOKS ON EDUCATIONAL METHODS
    (pp. 267-284)
  17. NOTES
    (pp. 287-298)
  18. BIBLIOGRAPHY
    (pp. 299-314)
  19. Index
    (pp. 315-329)