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The Zoology of Tapeworms

The Zoology of Tapeworms

Robert A. Wardle
James Archie McLeod
Copyright Date: 1952
Edition: NED - New edition
Pages: 806
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  • Book Info
    The Zoology of Tapeworms
    Book Description:

    Leaders in helminthology have long recognized the need for such a work as this -- a comprehensive study of tapeworms. This definitive treatise describes the tapeworms of the world -- their gross and microscopic anatomy, their physiology, life cycles, and relationships to hosts, the theories of origin and evolution, and the various systems of classification that have been applied to tapeworms. Detailed, systematic descriptions and keys for the identification of all known genera of the world and species of North America are provided. Emphasis on the theoretical significance of various aspects of tapeworm zoology is balanced by a wealth of detailed description. A bibliography up to 1950 is appended. A review of the literature on each topic is incorporated in the discussions. Starting with a few fragments of information a century or more ago, the literature on the subject of tapeworms has appeared in a wide range of journals and books published in at least five languages. Many of the older publications are, for practical purposes, unavailable, and a number of the more recent journals are difficult to obtain. Therefore, the consolidation of this large body of scattered literature in a single volume will be of value to scientists in many fields. In addition to filling a basic need for helminthologists, this book should serve as a reference work for parasitologists, zoologists, ecologists, clinicians, medical research workers, and students and workers in various fields of biology. There are 419 text illustrations from drawings of species by the authors.

    eISBN: 978-1-4529-3672-7
    Subjects: Zoology

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Preface
    (pp. vii-viii)
    Robert Arnold Wardle and James Archie McLeod
  3. Table of Contents
    (pp. ix-xxiv)
  4. PART I

    • CHAPTER I General Features
      (pp. 3-44)

      The word “tapeworm” is used by naturalists, farmers, physicians, and veterinarians for certain worms which infest the alimentary tracts of farm livestock, game animals, birds, fishes, and even at times of human beings. The word seems to have come into popular use about 1824 and is probably a direct translation of the German word “Bandwurm” (ribbon worm), which was being commonly used around the beginning of the nineteenth century by early German and Dutch parasitologists in their writings. Zoologically speaking, such worms are Platyelminthes (flatworms) of the classes Cestoda and Cestodaria.

      The various hypotheses as to the origin and evolution...

    • CHAPTER II Life Cycle
      (pp. 45-91)

      Our knowledge concerning the development and the life cycle of tapeworms has accumulated more slowly than that relating to their general anatomy, and few tapeworm life cycles are known completely. This phase of tapeworm study began in earnest with the publication by Siebold (1850) of his hypothesis that certain parasites of hog muscles, called at that time Blasenwürmer (bladder worms), are produced from eggs, and are not provokedin situby tissue inflammation. On Siebold’s view, they were tapeworms that had got into the wrong definitive host.

      A further landmark in the progress of investigations into tapeworm life histories was...

    • CHAPTER III Biology
      (pp. 92-141)

      The study of tapeworm biology concerns two sorts of problems: (1) those that concern the tapeworm as anindividual— its growth, activities, alimentation, respiration, and so forth; problems, that is to say, ofautecology; and (2) those that concern the tapeworm as a member of a partnership — its relationships with other parasites and with its host, the effects it may have upon its host, and the effects the host may have upon it; problems, that is to say, ofsynecology.

      The precision with which experimental investigations concerning growth, nutrition, respiration, and so on can be conducted with free-living...

    • CHAPTER IV Origin and Evolution
      (pp. 142-154)

      Common zoological opinion concerning the origin of tapeworms looks upon them as having evolved by way of Cestodaria from some early, primitive stock of digenetic Trematoda. The prevalent hypothesis, formulated originally by Claus (1889) and elaborated by Odhner (1912) and Nybelin (1922), postulates a common ancestral origin of Cestodaria, Cestoda, and digenetic Trematoda from a proto-trematode stock. It is based upon presumed resemblances between (1) the miracidial, cercarial, and adolescarial stages of the trematode life cycle and the coracidial, procercoid, and plerocercoid stages in the life cycle of the caryophyllid, spathebothrid, and pseudophyllid types of tapeworm; (2) the genitalia of...

    • CHAPTER V History and Classification
      (pp. 155-170)

      Credit for founding the present zoological classification of tapeworms is usually given to Karl Asmund Rudolphi (1771–1832), author of the term “Entozoa,” but actually Rudolphi was anteceded by J. G. H. Zeder, who in 1800 publishedErster Nachtrag zur Naturgeschichte der Eingeweidewürmer, mit Zufassen und Anmerkungen herausgegeben, a Leipzig publication of 320 pages and 6 plates in which the parasitic worms then known were distributed among five classes. In a further publication,Anleitung zur Naturgeschichte der Eingeweidewürmer(1803), of 448 pages and 4 plates, Zeder distributed the adult tapeworms known to him among four families, and the bladder worms...

  5. PART II

    • Tapeworm Classification Used in This Book
      (pp. 173-174)

      1. ORDER PROTEOCEPHALA new order, with one family: Proteocephalidae La Rue, 1914, emended Woodland, 1933, with eight subfamilies: Proteocephalinae Mola, 1929; Zygobothriinae Woodland, 1933; Marsypocephalinae Woodland, 1933; Ephedrocephalinae Mola, 1929; Peltedocotylinae Woodland, 1934; Rudolphiellinae Woodland, 1935; Endorchidinae Woodland, 1934; Monticelliinae Mola, 1929.

      2. ORDER TETRAPHYLLIDEA Braun, 1900, with two families: Phyllobothriidae Braun, 1900; Onchobothriidae Braun, 1900.

      3. ORDER DISCULICEPITIDEA new order, with one family: Disculicepitidae new family.

      4. ORDER LECANICEPHALA new order, with two families: Lecanicephalidae Braun, 1900, emended Pintner, 1928; and Cephalobothriidae Pintner, 1928.

      5. ORDER TRYPANORHYNCHA Diesing, 1863, with two suborders: i. Suborder Atheca Diesing, 1854, with seven families: Tentacularhdae Poche, 1926, emended...

      (pp. 175-226)

      Of the class Cestoda. Small tapeworms with an extremely mobile holdfast provided with four simple cup-shaped suckers set flush with its surface. A fifth or apical sucker sometimes present. Segmentation usually well marked. Cirro-vaginal atrium opening marginally. Parenchymal muscle zone forming a boundary between cortical and medullary regions of the parenchyma. Yolk glands, ovary, uterus, and testes usually medullary but occasionally cortical. Yolk glands follicular, in lateral bands. Ovary bilobed and posterior in position. Uterus with numerous lateral outgrowths and one or more median ventral apertures. Adults parasitic in fresh-water fishes, in amphibians, and in reptiles.

      The first recognition of...

      (pp. 227-269)

      First use of the term “tetraphyllid,” or at any rate of any word of similar etymological origin, must be credited to the famous Belgian pioneer in the study of tapeworms, Edouard van Beneden, who in 1849 suggested the word “Tetraphyllides” — later changed to “Tetraphylles” — as a group designation for six tapeworms which he recorded from selachians (i.e., sharks and rays) and which were peculiar in having four earlike or trumpetlike outgrowths of the holdfast end of the body. These outgrowths, according to Beneden, were extraordinarily mobile, contracting and expanding with great vigor and rapidity.

      Beneden’s term was adopted...

      (pp. 270-272)

      Of the class Cestoda. Relatively large tapeworms with the holdfast having neither bothridia, suckers, nor hooks, but consisting of a large, cushionlike pad followed by a collarlike region, the whole being embedded within the intestinal mucosa of the host. Body craspedote and anapolytic. Individual segments approximately square. Special granulations of the cuticle present. Cirro-vaginal atrium displaced ventrally. Vaginal aperture anterior to that of the cirrus pouch. Ovary voluminous, at the extreme posterior end of the segment, occupying its full width. Testes numerous. Yolk glands (see remarks below). Osmoregulatory system in the form of a net. Uterus lobed, greatly thickening the...

      (pp. 273-285)

      Of the class Cestoda. With the holdfast lacking bothridia but subdivided by a horizontal groove into an anterior region — dome-shaped, or flattened antero-posteriorly, or in the form of a deep, cuplike sucker, or even cut into retractile tentacles — and a posterior region, which is commonly cushionlike and has four suckers but which, again, may be collarlike or in the form of tentacles. Yolk glands usually in two lateral bands. Life cycle unknown. Adults in selachians.

      The earliest recognition that lecanicephalans stand apart from other tapeworms of selachians was the establishment, already mentioned, of Linton’s family Gamobothriidae. As there...

      (pp. 286-320)

      Of the class Cestoda. Relatively small tapeworms with the holdfast very mobile and provided with two or four sessile bothridia and four tentacles, these being armed with rows of hooks and being withdrawable within the holdfast. Body segmentation usually distinct. Parenchyma divided by a zone of parenchymal muscles into cortical and medullary regions. Yolk glands in the cortex arranged as a continuous sleevelike layer around the segment, or in the medulla alternating with the bundles of longitudinal muscle fibers. Testes extending backward behind the level of the ovary. Vagina ventral to the uterus and cirrus pouch. Vaginal aperture lateral to...

      (pp. 321-533)

      Of the class Cestoda. Tapeworms ranging in length from a few millimeters to thirty meters or more. Holdfast varying in detail but provided typically with four suckers, large and prominent. Apical end commonly projecting as a domelike or fingerlike rostellum which may or may not be armed with hooks or spines and may or may not be withdrawable within the holdfast. Body segmentation usually well marked, with the new segments originating from a growth zone between the holdfast and the body. Segments commonly much wider than long, with the posterior borders overlapping the anterior borders of the following segments, leaving...

    • Order APORIDEA
      (pp. 534-537)

      Of the class Cestoda. Small forms, up to 13 mm. in length. Holdfast of simple hymenolepidid type but lacking suckers, or provided with an elaborate, glandular rostellum and relatively enormous suckers. External segmentation lacking. Proglottisation lacking in one genus, present in the other. Testes and ovaries without ducts or other communication with the outside. Ootypes lacking. Yolk glands present or, doubtfully, lacking. Ovaries cortical, forming a sleeve around the testes. Adults protandrously hermaphroditic, some forms without female organs at all. With one family, Nematoparataeniidae, with the characters of the order.

      This order was established by Fuhrmann (1933) for two species...

      (pp. 538-539)

      Of the class Cestoda. With the body nearly cylindrical and holdfast with a single well-developed sucker, but with no other organs of fixation. Neck short, fused with holdfast. Segments few, each with one set of genitalia. Yolk gland compact, bipartite. Osmoregulatory canals numerous, cross-connected. Adults in fishes. One family known, Nippotaeniidae.

      The order was established by the Japanese zoologist Satyu Yamaguti (1939) for a form taken from a fresh-water fish (Chaenogobius) in Japan. In his opinion the possession of a very powerful apical sucker, the arrangement of the reproductive organs, of the osmoregulatory system, etc., fully justified the establishment for...

      (pp. 540-551)

      Like the order Spathebothridia, discussed in the following section, tapeworms of the order Caryophyllidea are small, unsegmented forms whose genital apertures and uterine apertures open on the same flat surface of the body, the uterine apertures of each set of reproductive organs opening between those of the male and female organs. There is never a common cirro-vaginal atrium. The holdfast may be completely undifferentiated from the body or may show vaguely demarcated grooves or depressions, but true suckers or true bothria are not found. The eggs are operculated and are nonembryonated when laid. These forms have been recorded only from...

      (pp. 552-558)

      Of the class Cestoda. Small forms with the holdfast end varying in degree of differentiation but never having true bothria or suckers. Body showing proglottisation but not external segmentation or apolysis. Genital apertures on the ventral surface. Uterine aperture of each genital complex openingbetweenthe male and the female apertures. Testes medullary, in two lateral bands. Ovary median, markedly bilobed, with the lateral lobes denser than the bridge, or rosettiform. Ootype surrounded by well-defined shell glands. Uterus tubular, sinuate, without local expansions. Uterine glands usually prominent. Eggs thick-shelled, operculate, but apparently not liberating ciliated embryos. Adult form apparently a...

      (pp. 559-652)

      Of the class Cestoda. Tapeworms ranging from a few millimeters to thirty meters or more in length. Holdfast somewhat variable in appearance; typically with a dorsal and a ventral bothrium, but sometimes lacking bothria or having only weak mid-dorsal and mid-ventral grooves representing them. Neck conspicuous or so short as to appear lacking in contracted specimens. Segmentation usually well marked but often weak or lacking. Segments anapolytic, commonly acraspedote, commonly linear. Parenchymal musculature powerful. Genital apertures surficial in some families, marginal in others. Usually only one set of reproductive organs per segment but two sets per segment not infrequently found....

      (pp. 653-666)

      The three orders named above, whose description will conclude this discussion of the zoology of tapeworms, are not strictly speaking tapeworms at all but Cestodaria, a term coined by the Italian zoologist Francesco Saverio Monticelli in 1892 for certain tapewormlike forms that were usually referred to in zoological textbooks as monozoic or monozootic tapeworms. Although these forms recall tapeworms (Cestoda) in being gut parasites of vertebrate animals, in having no alimentary organs, and in having parenchymal muscles, they as readily recall flukes (Trematoda) in the nature of their holdfast structures, their lack of segmentation and proglottisation — only one set...

  6. References
    (pp. 669-773)
  7. Index
    (pp. 774-780)