Education for Democracy

Education for Democracy: Essays and Addresses

JOHN B. JOHNSTON
Copyright Date: 1934
Edition: NED - New edition
Pages: 288
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5749/j.ctttsc48
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    Education for Democracy
    Book Description:

    Education for Democracy was first published in 1934. Minnesota Archive Editions uses digital technology to make long-unavailable books once again accessible, and are published unaltered from the original University of Minnesota Press editions. “The Greek ideal of the citizen realizing himself in the state” is the heart of Dean Johnston’s philosophy developed in this book. He is concerned not merely with education, but with our current economic, political, social, and ethical problems, which education directed toward service to the state may help to solve. This is a book in which an ideal rather than a theory of education is clearly stated at the beginning, and developed like a theme in music. The author, speaking from a long and varied experience as scientist, teacher, and college administrator, sees the only hope of a future democratic state in the selection and training of competent and unselfish leaders. This selection, he firmly believes, is the task of the schools and especially of the colleges. By “selection” he means – he is careful to point out – not the exclusion of any capable person from higher education, but a careful fitting of every individual for the occupation in which he will be most happy and will render the best service to society. The papers collected here all deal with some variation of this theme. They draw up a striking indictment of many current educational practices, while pointing the way, as this prominent educator sees it, toward the alleviation of that “social manic-depressive insanity” with which our civilization is now afflicted.

    eISBN: 978-1-4529-3795-3
    Subjects: Education

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. INTRODUCTION
    (pp. 1-11)

    We have long known the ineptitude and corruption of politics in this country. We are told now that our financial and industrial managements are bankrupt. Discussion centers around the question whether capitalist civilization is to be abandoned. We have many millions unemployed and destitute except for charitable or governmental relief, and technological improvements are constantly reducing the demand for the employment of labor. Redistribution of wealth is seen as the desideratum, but the difficulty is to accomplish it without involving ourselves in further confusion and greater miseries. Democracy is at the crossroads. But is it a T-crossing with fascism to...

  4. CHAPTER ONE WHAT PARENTS MAY EXPECT IN THEIR CHILDREN
    (pp. 12-31)

    One of the most common experiences in advising college students is to find that their parents do not understand them. Probably the most common interest on the part of parents is to give their children an opportunity to lead a “better,” more comfortable, or more satisfying life than the parents have been able to enjoy. Next to this comes the father’s desire that his son shall enter some profession which he himself would like to have followed. Then there is the general assumption on the part of parents that their children are or should be capable of and interested in...

  5. CHAPTER TWO THE OPPORTUNITY AND DUTY OF THE COLLEGE
    (pp. 32-49)

    The business and political worlds are beset with serious problems. Inventiveness and insight are needed to save human nature from itself. International complications, depression in business, disruption of commerce, disorganization of finance, and the breakdown of accepted customs and principles of conduct insistently claim the attention of leaders in every field of human relations. In these troubled times is higher education something that exists apart, not to be concerned with the silence of the market place, the idle machines of the factory, the closed mines, the food riots, the expenditures for past wars, and the threats of new ? The...

  6. CHAPTER THREE THE SETTING OF PROFESSIONAL AND VOCATIONAL TRAINING IN HIGHER EDUCATION
    (pp. 50-70)

    What are institutions of higher learning for? Before trying to place vocational training and the duty of the college in this field, the objectives in the whole area of higher education must be stated. The general objective is to train people to apply the methods of science to the problems of human welfare. Universities and colleges are established by society not to give opportunity to enterprising young men who can pay the cost to prepare themselves to forge ahead of their fellows financially and socially, but to strengthen and protect its own organization through the intellectual and moral training of...

  7. CHAPTER FOUR THE WORK OF THE LIBERAL COLLEGE IN VIEW OF ITS PROFESSIONAL AIMS
    (pp. 71-80)

    There are three clear-cut objectives of the college of liberal arts which it could regard as its professional services: training for scholarship, training for teaching, and training for the duties of citizenship through the cultivation of social intelligence and responsibility.

    The training for scholarship has been universally recognized and so widely discussed that it will require only brief comment here. It should be recognized that the term scholarship includes research and the critical examination and interpretation of the results of research, which is roughly synonymous with philosophy in the wide sense. In the departments of the liberal college, whether undergraduate...

  8. CHAPTER FIVE THE ORGANIZATION OF HIGHER EDUCATION WITH REFERENCE TO VOCATIONAL TRAINING
    (pp. 81-101)

    The question that has been posed for us in these three lectures is really, how to organize higher education in this country so as to provide opportunity to the largest possible number of the population to develop their native powers and at the same time to give facilities for the technical training needed to secure efficiency in special vocations.

    Immediately to relieve our problem of some of its cumbersome details let us admit a considerable place in vocational training to apprenticeship on the job. It would not be profitable here to enter into the discussion as to how much should...

  9. CHAPTER SIX NEW DEMANDS FOR DIFFERENTIAL TREATMENT OF STUDENTS IN THE COLLEGE OF LIBERAL ARTS
    (pp. 102-121)

    Many young men and women aspire to certain positions in society for which they believe college training to be necessary or desirable. It is in terms of the numbers, aims, and future services of these students that the objectives and ideals, the organization and activities of the colleges are to be described.

    Students come to college either to secure training for one of the professions, semiprofessions, or occupations, or to enrich their minds in order that they may have an enlightened outlook on affairs and the power to enjoy the processes and products of a cultured civilization. Both those who...

  10. CHAPTER SEVEN THE DEVELOPMENT OF DIFFERENTIAL COLLEGE CURRICULA
    (pp. 122-146)

    As indicated in the last chapter there is a very wide range of intellectual ability represented among the students who come to our colleges. This has been much better demonstrated by facts which have become available since that paper was written in 1924. It was already known then that a good many high school graduates who stand at the foot of their classes come to college. Since about 25 per cent of the population graduate from high school, and since an unknown number of average or above average ability leave school without graduating, it is evident that some of those...

  11. CHAPTER EIGHT INTEGRATION OF THE SENIOR COLLEGE AND THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
    (pp. 147-168)

    In the minds of many of us, the graduate school in this country for about fifty years has stood for the university. Higher education for the greater number of students has been furnished by the American college, which carries the student on for about two years beyond the close of public or secondary education in Europe. When professional schools have been developed under the same administration, the four-year liberal college has remained as one, and usually the central, school of the university in the American sense. With this American college the graduate school has had to deal in the matter...

  12. CHAPTER NINE GUIDANCE IN THE SECONDARY SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES
    (pp. 169-187)

    Modern universities are conscious of a long tradition and of a commanding position in intellectual affairs. This long-sustained position makes for conservatism and a sense of satisfaction in the personnel of institutions of higher learning. From this secure position their faculties may observe and interpret changes in other social institutions. Within the lifetime of existing universities, changes enough have taken place.

    In the political sphere down to one hundred and fifty years ago, monarchies were the rule. Since then, nation after nation has changed to democracy of some degree, and now these democracies are shifting to communism, fascism, dictatorships, and...

  13. CHAPTER TEN THE GUIDANCE FUNCTION IN EDUCATION
    (pp. 188-209)

    Individual differences were not invented by modern psychologists. They were known and were the basis of policies in the time of Jacob and Laban and in the time of cave men. Individual differences were the common subject of conversation in my boyhood among the farmers of Ohio, who never had heard of psychology. They discussed the mental characteristics and social attitudes of the families in the neighborhood and of the children of each family. The English language is full of nouns and adjectives designating the qualities in which individuals differ: industrious, persistent, wily, cunning, obstreperous, thoughtful, scintillating, wise, earnest, domineering,...

  14. CHAPTER ELEVEN HOW SHALL OUR STUDENTS FACE THEIR FUTURE?
    (pp. 210-228)

    We are in the midst of an industrial revolution. The industrial revolution of the nineteenth century in England following after the Napoleonic Wars consisted of a substitution of steam power for horse power and man power, of the introduction and expansion of machinery to be driven by the greater power of steam engines, of the transfer of many kinds of manufacturing from hand work and home industries to machine work and factories, of the great increase of output per man due to his working on machines and of the consequent unemployment, a long period of distress with destitution and starvation...

  15. CHAPTER TWELVE THE CURRICULUM AND PREPARATION FOR LIFE
    (pp. 229-245)

    I am not a geographer. I do not know by what turn of fate or fortune your program makers came to ask me to speak to the geography section. I am interested in the larger aspects of the organization and purposes of education in this country, and am most directly concerned with higher education. Institutions of higher education are in a very great measure dependent for success in their work upon what has happened in the lives of their students. While all experience is educative and character-forming, the public schools and high schools are the most important agencies for the...

  16. CHAPTER THIRTEEN HIGHER EDUCATION AND PUBLIC POLICIES
    (pp. 246-269)

    The seriousness of the time through which we are passing amply justifies a frank appraisal of the services of education to society. Education is offered by society, its results are used by the individual to the profit of himself and his neighbors. Through the behavior of individuals education in turn serves society.

    Certain things the student must do on behalf of his debt to society: he must acquaint himself reasonably well with the development of civilization; with the forces at work in the world; with the efforts by which man has acquired knowledge of his world; with the experiences through...

  17. CHAPTER FOURTEEN A STATE SYSTEM OF HIGHER EDUCATION
    (pp. 270-280)

    In any state or regional organization of higher education the endowed colleges and universities should have their proper place and their accepted relations. Although their funds come from private sources, once they are devoted to education they become a public trust. Moreover we are now in a peculiar situation. The demands for higher education are greater than ever before and the business depression has reduced the available funds so far that the utmost economies are necessary in every aspect of college and university work: plant, administration, teaching, and research. Plans to enable higher institutions to perform the necessary services to...