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Contested Citizenship

Contested Citizenship: Immigration and Cultural Diversity in Europe

Ruud Koopmans
Paul Statham
Marco Giugni
Florence Passy
Volume: 25
Copyright Date: 2005
Edition: NED - New edition
Pages: 376
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  • Book Info
    Contested Citizenship
    Book Description:

    Presenting an unprecedented wealth of empirical research, Contested Citizenship compares collective actions by migrants, xenophobes, and antiracists in Germany, Britain, France, the Netherlands, and Switzerland. Revealing striking cross-national differences in how immigration and diversity are contended by different national governments, these authors find that how citizenship is constructed is the key variable defining the experience of Europe's immigrant populations.

    eISBN: 978-0-8166-9774-8
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. Preface
    (pp. vii-viii)
  4. Introduction: The Contentious Politics of Immigration and Ethnic Relations
    (pp. 1-30)

    In the early days of labor and postcolonial migration, few observers foresaw the profound long-term consequences for Western European democracies. What were meant to be temporary labor hands, economically active but otherwise invisible, turned out to be permanent immigrants, whose activities, needs, demands, and social impacts extended far beyond the economic sphere. Unlike the proactive, self-identifying immigration countries of the New World, the nations of Western Europe have become immigration countries largely unintentionally and reactively, and often against the explicit will of sizable parts of both the political elite and the native population (Hollifield 1992). This explains, for instance, why...

  5. 1 Configurations of Citizenship in Five European Countries
    (pp. 31-73)

    Citizenship has become a central category in the debate on immigration and ethnic relations. Following in the footsteps of Brubaker (1992), many studies have focused on the rules for nationality acquisition (e.g., Cinar 1994; Kleger and D’Amato 1995; Safran 1997), often contrasting jus soli and jus sanguinis regimes of citizenship attribution. Nationality acquisition is a crucial determinant of migrants’ access to citizenship rights, since it entails that migrants become fully equal before the law. However, access to citizenship rights neither starts nor ends with the acquisition of nationality. Even immigration countries with a relatively easily accessible nationality harbor large numbers...

  6. 2 Beyond the Nation-State? National and Postnational Claims Making
    (pp. 74-106)

    So far we have presented a set of conceptual tools for the cross-national comparative analysis of political contention over migration and ethnic relations. Recently, a growing number of authors have argued that such nation-state-centered approaches are obsolete. Associated with the buzzword “globalization,” these critiques claim that we have entered, or are about to enter, a new postnational or transnational era characterized by complex and qualitatively new patterns of multilevel governance in which the nation-state still plays a role, though a drastically reduced one (e.g., Held 1996; Basch, Schiller, and Blanc 1994; Sassen 1998; J. Cohen 1999). This decline of the...

  7. 3 Migrants between Transnationalism and National Citizenship
    (pp. 107-145)

    While some of the political activities of migrants can easily be integrated into existing political institutions and legal frameworks, other types of migrant mobilization may pose serious challenges. Some political activities of migrants refer not to their integration into the receiving society but to the political and social issues of their countries of origin. Such transnational involvement links the hearts and minds of migrants to their homelands and may be detrimental to migrants’ integration into their countries of settlement. Some fear it may even lead to a self-reinforcing process of segregation into “parallel societies” along ethnic lines, thus undermining the...

  8. 4 Minority Group Demands and the Challenge of Islam
    (pp. 146-179)

    Over the last decade much has been written on multiculturalism in relation to citizenship. Increasing clashes between minority and majority populations over issues, such as language rights, regional autonomy, political representation, education curriculum, land claims, immigration and naturalization policies, and national symbols, are seen by some as the central defining feature of contemporary societies and as “the greatest challenge” (Kymlicka 1995a, 1) to the liberal nation-state. Such problems are seen to arise from the increasing demands that are put forward by migrants and minorities for special group rights and recognition, exemption from duties, and support from the state for their...

  9. 5 The Extreme Right: Ethnic Competition or Political Space?
    (pp. 180-204)

    In this chapter, we shift our attention to another collective actor that plays an important role within the field of immigration and ethnic relations: the extreme right. The last two decades have witnessed the rise and continued saliency of right-wing extremist parties that have xenophobic and racist positions, or at least positions that are against the rights and interests of immigrants (see Elbers and Fennema 1993; Hainsworth 1992; Ignazi 1992; Kitschelt 1995; Kriesi 1999). Parties such as the Republicans in Germany, the British National Party, the Swiss Democrats (formerly National Action) in Switzerland, the Center Democrats in the Netherlands, and...

  10. 6 Interest or Identity? Pro-Migrant and Antiracist Actors
    (pp. 205-231)

    Over the past two decades, immigration and ethnic relations have become highly politicized issues. Evidently, state actors have largely contributed to this politicization by framing the issues and implementing immigration and integration policies. However, as in any other political conflict, many other actors voice their views and politicize public issues. These political debates on migratory flows and migrant settlement are not just a conflict between different actors with opposing interests who put forward propositions for changes to state policies; they are also a conflict over different conceptions of national identities. Political actors enter the public space to support or contest...

  11. 7 Contested Citizenship: Conclusions and Future Directions
    (pp. 232-253)

    This book presents a new approach for analyzing immigration and ethnic relations politics. We proposed a conceptual framework based on citizenship by integrating approaches drawn from the previously distinct social movements and migration fields. First, we set out to demonstrate the systematic differences in approaches to citizenship in the countries by examining their institutional policy approaches for granting rights to migrants. Subsequently, we used our cross-national empirical data on political claims making to test the main theses in the literature on citizenship, immigration, and ethnic relations. Each chapter took up the challenge to answer a key research question through recourse...

  12. Appendix: The Coding of Political Claims Making
    (pp. 254-266)
  13. Notes
    (pp. 267-278)
  14. References
    (pp. 279-296)
  15. Index
    (pp. 297-312)
  16. Back Matter
    (pp. 313-314)