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Late Quaternary Environments of the Soviet Union

Late Quaternary Environments of the Soviet Union

A. A. Velichko Editor
H. E. Wright
C. W. Barnosky
Copyright Date: 1984
Edition: NED - New edition
Pages: 360
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  • Book Info
    Late Quaternary Environments of the Soviet Union
    Book Description:

    Late Quaternary Environments of the Soviet Union was first published in 1984. In the late 1970s American and Russian scientists met twice in conferences on Quaternary paleoclimates sponsored by the U.S.-U.S.S.R. Bilateral Agreement on the Environment. The conferees agreed to prepare volumes summarizing the current status of research in the two countries. Late Quaternary Environments of the Soviet Union provides the first comprehensive summary of modern research on virtually all aspects of the Late Quaternary environmental history in the Soviet Union. The Late Quaternary of the Soviet Union includes the last interglacial period - about 125,000 years of geologic time. The pronounced climatic changes of the Late Quaternary brought about not only fluctuations of ice sheets and mountain glaciers but also shifts in the levels of lakes and seas, in the extent of the permafrost and wind-borne deposits, in the distribution of environmentally sensitive plants and animals, and in the development of human cultures. These are some of the research areas covered in this book by Soviet specialists in the earth sciences, paleoecology, and paleoclimatology. Their 30 papers on Late Quaternary environmental history cover the vast territory from the Russian plain to the maritime region of the Soviet Far East, and from the Arctic coast to the Black Sea and the high mountains of Central Asia. Much of this research has been accomplished only within the last three decades, during the exploration and development of the natural resources of the country, especially in distant parts of Siberia. Because the Soviet Union occupies so much of Eurasia’s temperate zone, information on its environmental history not only greatly expands out geological and climatological knowledge of the world but also allows us to make enlightening comparisons with the history of the North American continent. Scientists in all branches of Quaternary studies will find this book a valuable source of data heretofore largely unavailable in the West. Its usefulness is further enhanced by an introduction that synthesizes the volume’s contents, prepared by the English-language editors. The companion volumes of the Late Quaternary in the United States are also published by the University of Minnesota Press.

    eISBN: 978-0-8166-5531-1
    Subjects: History

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-viii)
  3. Contributors to This Volume
    (pp. ix-x)
  4. Preface
    (pp. xi-xii)
    H. E. Wright Jr. and C. W. Barnosky
  5. Introduction to the English Edition
    (pp. xiii-xxii)
    H. E. Wright Jr. and C. W. Barnosky

    The Soviet Union is a vast and varied land, with an area larger than that of the United States and Canada combined, and with an equal diversity in physiography and climate. It stretches from the temperate Russian Plain in the west across the Ural Mountains to the West Siberian Plain and the arid mountains of Central Asia, and thence to the mountainous Northeast and the oceanic Far East of Kamchatka. In the north is the Arctic Ocean, and in the south the subtropical shores of the Caspian and Black Seas and the semi-deserts of Kazakhstan and the Himalayan foothills. The...

  6. Introduction
    (pp. xxii-xxviii)
    A. A. Velichko

    The preparation of monographs dealing with the evolution of the natural environment of the USSR and USA reflects an important stage in joint Soviet-American research on problems in paleoclimatology, carried out in accordance with the plans for the implementation of the Agreement between the USSR and USA on Cooperation in the Area of Environmental Changes on Climate. Director of the research being done in the Soviet Union is Academician I. P. Gerasimov.

    The Soviet Union occupies a considerable portion of extratropical Eurasia, and its territory is traversed by practically all natural extratropical climatic belts. This accounts for the development of...

  7. Late Pleistocene Glaciation of the Northern USSR

    • CHAPTER 1 Late Pleistocene Glaciation of European USSR
      (pp. 3-12)
      M. A. Faustova

      According to radiometric, geologic, glaciomorphologic, and paleobotanic data, the Valdai Ice Age was characterized by two cold stages in the European USSR. To a large degree, the problem of the age of these stages, and particularly of the early stage, is connected with the relationship of glaciations and marine transgressions in the Late Pleistocene in the extreme north of the USSR.

      The marine series represented in sections of the Kola Peninsula was differentiated by Lavrova (I960) into sediments representing the boreal (correlated with the Eemian) and White Sea transgressions. However, the age of these transgressions as well as the relationship...

    • CHAPTER 2 Late Pleistocene Glaciation of Western Siberia
      (pp. 13-20)
      S. A. Arkhipov

      In the northern part of the West Siberian Plain, the latest (Zyryanka or Valdai) glaciation includes deposits occurring stratigraphically above the Kazantsevo (Eemian, Mikulino) horizon. According to traditional concepts, the glaciation had two cold phases separated by the Karginskiy Interstade. In works published during the 1950s, only the final (Sartan) stage of the Zyryanka Glaciation was referred to the later phase. From this came the name Sartan Glaciation (Saks, 1953; Strelkov et al., 1959). At the end of the 1960s, it was determined that the later phase included not only the recessional (Sartan) stage but also the earlier Gydan and...

    • CHAPTER 3 Late Pleistocene Glaciation of North-Central Siberia
      (pp. 21-30)
      L. L. Isayeva

      Until the 1960s, deposits of one Late Pleistocene (Valdai) glaciation, which had the local name Zyryanka (Saks, 1953; Strelkov, 1957), were recognized in north-central Siberia. Further studies broadly based on radiocarbon-dating showed that the Valdai in central Siberia included two glaciations — the Zyryanka (Early Valdai) Glaciation and the Sartan (Late Valdai) Glaciation — separated by a long climatically complex sequence (50,000 to 23,000 yr B.P.) referred to as the Karginskiy interval in modern terminology (Troitskiy, 1967; Kind, 1974; Isayeva et al., 1980).

      The morphostructural complexity and the vast area of central Siberia account for the presence of a large number of...

    • CHAPTER 4 Late Pleistocene Mountain Glaciation in Northeastern USSR
      (pp. 31-34)
      V. G. Bespalyy

      Mountain glaciation in the northeastern USSR is dealt with at length in the works of S. V. Obruchev, D. M. Kolosov, N. Saks, N. A. Shilo, Yu. N. Trushkov, A. P. Vas’kovskiy, O. B. Kashmenskaya, Z. V. Khvorostova, Yu. P. Baranova, S. F. Biske, Yu. I. Gol’dfarb, O. M. Petrov, and many other authors. Despite the enormous volume of research already carried out, there is as yet no consensus on the number and scale of Pleistocene glaciations. During the last decade, radiocarbon dating has shown that well-defined depositional and erosional forms were produced by Late Pleistocene glaciations. This has made...

    • CHAPTER 5 Late Pleistocene Glaciation of the Arctic Shelf, and the Reconstruction of Eurasian Ice Sheets
      (pp. 35-42)
      A. A. Velichko, L. L. Isayeva, V. M. Makeyev, G. G. Matishov and M. A. Faustova

      The problems associated with judging the extent of Late Pleistocene glaciation on Eurasia’s Arctic Shelf are closely related to the problems encountered in reconstructing the entire system of ice sheets in northern Eurasia during the Late Pleistocene. Marine-geologic studies at many points of the present Eurasian shelf have resulted in the discovery of deposits and relief forms similar to those formed by glaciers on the continent. Detailed geologic mapping on the European and Asian Arctic Shelves in the 1970s — including echo sounding and photography of the bottom, largescale profiling, and bathymetric mapping of the surface — has confirmed the hypotheses previously...

  8. Mountain Glaciation

    • CHAPTER 6 Mountain Glaciation in the USSR in the Late Pleistocene and Holocene
      (pp. 45-54)
      L. R. Serebryanny

      Mountains account for one-third of the total area of the USSR, and they are concentrated in the southern peripheral regions. According to Meshcheryakov (1972), the surface of the USSR is comparable to an amphitheater open to the north and framed by marginal mountain systems. The latter include the Carpathian Mountains, Crimea, Caucasus, Kopetdag, Gissaro-Alay, Pamir, Tien-Shan, Altay, Sayany, the Baykal mountainous region, mountains of the Far East, Verkhoyano-Kolymskaya mountainous region, and mountains of the extreme Northeast.

      The mountains frequently rise several kilometers above the level of the surrounding plains and are capped by glaciers. The area of recent mountain glaciation...

    • CHAPTER 7 Late Pleistocene Glacier Regimes and Their Paleoclimatic Significance
      (pp. 55-66)
      I. M. Lebedeva and V. G. Khodakhov

      For epochs of major global climatic cooling, glacier advance, and permafrost development, many environmental indicators have decreased effectiveness (Velichko, 1980). However, cryogenic features may be more useful because of their increased areas and because of their direct response to processes of heat and mass exchange with the surroundings according to well-known physical laws. In this respect, glaciers are easier to study than permafrost, because their surface is not separated from the atmosphere by a soil and plant cover, which is a highly variable and capricious heat insulator, and because they exchange with the atmosphere both heat and water, which are...

  9. Permafrost in the Late Pleistocene and Holocene

    • CHAPTER 8 Dynamics of Late Quaternary Permafrost in Siberia
      (pp. 69-78)
      V. V. Baulin and N. S. Danilova

      The formation of permafrost began in the USSR at the start of the Quaternary (Popov, 1967). The oldest paleontologically dated traces of permafrost were discovered in the northeastern USSR in the valley of the Chukoch’ya River (Arkhangelov and Shaposhnikova, 1974) in the socalled Olerian suite, which is referred to the Early Pleistocene. Depending on climatic fluctuations, the areas occupied by permafrost sometimes increased, covering almost all of the USSR, and at other times greatly decreased. However, in the Far North and Northeast, the permafrost was preserved during the entire Quaternary. It is helpful to start the analysis of permafrost dynamics...

    • CHAPTER 9 Late Pleistocene Permafrost in European USSR
      (pp. 79-86)
      A. A Velichko and V. P. Nechayev

      The European part of the Soviet Union has a special place in the history of the development of permafrost. As is well known, permafrost in this region now occurs only in a narrow band adjacent to the Arctic coast. However, only about 15,000 years ago almost all of eastern Europe was included in the region of permafrost and deep seasonal freezing, as shown by traces in the sediments and landforms.

      Evolutionary analysis suggests that the present state of the natural environment may be replaced in a few millennia by an episode of permafrost expansion. Paleogeographic studies in the Russian Plain...

    • CHAPTER 10 Holocene Permafrost in the USSR
      (pp. 87-92)
      V. V. Baulin, Ye. B. Belopukhova and N. S. Danilova

      The general warming trend in the Holocene caused changes in frost conditions. The southern boundary of permafrost shifted north by 20° of latitude, frost cracking was sharply reduced, average annual temperatures rose by 12°C to 13°C, and areas of discontinuity and thermokarst increased. In contrast to present conditions, Late Pleistocene relicts were preserved outside the southern boundary of surface frost, and a wide zone was preserved where the permafrost was deeper and appeared to be buried. The overall thickness of the permafrost was also greater (Figure 10-1).

      Because of climatic fluctuations, conditions varied throughout the Holocene, especially west of the...

  10. Loesses, FosilSoils, and Periglacial Formations

    • CHAPTER 11 Periglacial Landscape of the East European Plain
      (pp. 95-118)
      A. A. Velichko, A. B. Bogucki, T. D. Morozova, V. P. Udartsev, T. A. Khalcheva and A. I. Tsatskin

      This chapter and the subsequent five concern the development of the natural environment primarily on the basis of loess and loessial soils in various regions of the USSR. Loess and glacial features constitute two of the clearest manifestations of Pleistocene processes. In the USSR, loesses are not uniformly distributed in either Europe or northern Asia (Figure 11-1), nor is their content the same in different regions. Even in such “classic” loess regions as the European USSR and Central Asia, the stratigraphy and lithology differ markedly.

      There is no consensus on loess genesis in the USSR. The discussion on the origin...

    • CHAPTER 12 Loess Stratigraphy in Southwestern Siberia
      (pp. 119-124)
      I. A. Volkov and V. S. Zykina

      Predominantly subaerial sediments accumulated in the southern part of the West Siberian Plain during the Late Pleistocene on geomorphic levels above the floors of large depressions and river valleys. Extensive studies of these deposits have shown that the principal factor in denudation and transport was wind. The sediments comprise a separate subaerial formation having a characteristic spatial and facies differentiation and a rhythmic structure reflecting climate-caused irregularities in sedimentation (Volkov, 197Ib, 1980). Regions marked predominantly by old deflation and accumulation of coarse traction deposits are distinct from regions marked predominantly by atmospheric dust deposits. Examples of the first type are...

    • CHAPTER 13 The Loess of Central Asia
      (pp. 125-132)
      A. A. Lazarenko

      The loess deposits of Central Asia are up to 200 m thick and have a chronologic range of up to 2 million years, as well as a complex facies structure and geomorphic expression. Loess genesis can be considered in the framework of a unified eluvial-deluvial-proluvial concept (Vasil’kovskiy, 1952; Lazarenko, 1967, 1980a, 1980b; Mavlyanov, 1949, 1950, 1958, 1960; Turbin and Aleksandrova, 1970). The role of the eolian factor is not denied in principle, but it is thought to be much smaller than believed by a number of other investigators (Kes’, 1963; Kriger, 1951, 1965; Lomonovich, 1953; Fedorovich, I960).

      The loess stratigraphy...

    • CHAPTER 14 Cryogenic Processes in Loess Formation in Central Asia
      (pp. 133-140)
      A. V. Minervin

      The origin of loess in the hot dry (interglacial) or the severe cold (periglacial, glacial) climate of Central Asia has been controversial. The object of this report is to examine the paleogeographic conditions of formation of the specific chemical/mineral composition, structure, texture, and modification of loess in the Pleistocene history of Central Asia.

      The following two stages of continental lithogenesis should be distinguished with particular rigor in this problem: (1) sediment genesis by different modes under diverse environmental conditions and (2) transformation of sediments into loess as a result of the complex set of physical, chemical, and cryogenic processes in...

    • CHAPTER 15 Periglacial Landscapes and Loess Accumulation in the Late Pleistocene Arctic and Subarctic
      (pp. 141-146)
      S. V. Tomirdiaro

      In connection with the extensive Late Pleistocene oceanic ice cover in the more humid regions (Velichko, 1973), a pronounced cryoxerophytization of landscapes took place even in western Eurasia. At that time, the eastern part of the Arctic and Sub-Arctic (so-called Beringia) was located in the interior of a huge continent, for the thickly frozen Arctic Ocean, unopened for millennia, formed a true “climatic dry land” in this area. This “dry land,” together with the adjacent continents of North America and Eurasia, produced in the climatic sense a single “supercontinent” with a huge arctic-subarctic landscape hyperzone (a term coined by Velichko,...

    • CHAPTER 16 Age and History of Accumulation of the “Ice Complex” of the Maritime Lowlands of Yakutiya
      (pp. 147-152)
      T. N. Kaplina and A. V. Lozhkin

      Widely distributed over the Maritime Lowlands of Yakutiya on the upper part of interfluves are deposits called the edoma suite, which are 10 to 60 m thick and consist of icefilled aleurites and include thick syngenetic polygonal ice veins. Because of their unusually high ice content, these deposits are frequently referred to as an “ice complex” (IC). A. I. Popov’s hypothesis of an alluvial genesis of this stratum, advanced during the 1950s and developed later on, is contrasted with S. V. Tomirdiaros’ (1980) hypothesis of an eolian origin. Age estimates range from Middle or Upper Pleistocene to Zyryanka (Sher, 1971)...

  11. Vegetational History

    • CHAPTER 17 Late Pleistocene Vegetation History
      (pp. 155-178)
      V. P. Grichuk

      A comparatively thorough study of the Late Pleistocene vegetational history of the USSR has been made possible by the more comprehensive paleobotanic information provided by over 900 papers dealing with pollen analysis published from 1962 through 1977. Detailed palynologic studies of a great many sections are available for all the principal regions of the country, except for parts of Siberia and the deserts of Central Asia. The extent of Late Pleistocene studies varies for different parts of the USSR, but palynologic data are available for large regions of the country. Data on recent (subfossil) pollen spectra from most parts of...

    • CHAPTER 18 Holocene Vegetation History
      (pp. 179-200)
      N. A. Khotinskiy

      Studies of the Holocene vegetational history in the USSR have been based mainly on pollen analyses. Early analyses of lacustrine-paludal deposits were made by Sukachev (1906), Dokturovskiy (1918), and Dokturovskiy and Kudryashov (1923). The study of arboreal pollen provided a comprehensive picture of Holocene forest history in the USSR (Neustadt, 1957). New information has since been obtained by isolating nonarboreal pollen and spores and by closer taxonomic identifications. Advances in the study of the Holocene vegetational history have been described (Gudelis and Neustadt, 1961; Neustadt, 1965, 1969, 1971; Kotinskiy and Koreneva, 1973, Savina, 1975). Very recently, studies have focused on...

    • CHAPTER 19 Holocene Peatland Development
      (pp. 201-206)
      M. I. Neustadt

      The Holocene can be regarded as a time of great peat formation, resembling in many ways the older epochs of extensive peat development related to coal accumulation. The Holocene peatlands with the greatest peat thickness are about 10,000 to 12,000 years old, but some peatlands started later and expanded into new areas. The rate of peat formation generally ranges between 0.2 and 0.8 mm per year in the USSR, mainly as a function of climatic and geomorphic conditions, water regime, vegetation, etc.

      D. A. Gerasimov introduced the concept of “peat basins,” and later Nikonov (1946, 1948, 1955) defined them as...

  12. Development of Animal Populations

    • CHAPTER 20 Late Pleistocene Mammal Fauna of the Russian Plain
      (pp. 209-218)
      A. K. Markov

      A systematic investigation of fossil mammals of eastern Europe began in the past century and included the entire Russian Plain. The works of V. I. Gromov, I. M. Gromov, N. K. Vereshchagin, K. K. Flerov, Ye. I. Belyayeva, V. I. Gromova, I. G. Pidoplichko, V. A. Topachevskiy, V. I. Bibikova, K. A. Tatarinov, I. Ye. Kuz’mina, V. E. Garutt, A. I. David, L. P. Aleksandrova, L. I. Alekseyeva, A. K. Agadjanian, and A. I. Shevchenko discuss the composition, phylogeny, morphology, distribution, and type localities of Pleistocene species. The most detailed faunal records from the Russian Plain are of Late Pleistocene...

    • CHAPTER 21 Late Pleistocene Mammal Fauna of Siberia
      (pp. 219-222)
      N. K. Vereshchagin and I. Ye. Kuz’mina

      The Late Pleistocene mammal fauna of Arctic and southern Siberia became known at the turn of the century from the fragmentary data of Academicians P. S. Pallas, I. F. Brandt, A. F. Middendorf (1869), I. D. Cherskiy (1891), M. V. Pavlova (1910), and others. By the 1950s, new light had been shed on the fauna of central and southern Siberia by the remarkable excavations of Paleolithic campsites by Soviet archaeological work and through the paleozoological studies of Gromov (1948).

      A series of new studies on paleontologic materials now makes it possible to characterize the Late Pleistocene mammal fauna of individual...

    • CHAPTER 22 Late Pleistocene Insects
      (pp. 223-226)
      S. V. Kiselev and V. I. Nazarov

      Systematic studies of fossil insects in the USSR did not begin until the 1960s. Since that time, data have been published on the composition of Pleistocene insect faunas of the European USSR (Panfilov, 1965; Medvedev, 1968a, 1968b, 1976; Nazarov, 1979; Voznyachuk, Makhnach, et al., 1979; Voznyachuk, San’ko, et al., 1979), Siberia (Kiselev, 1973), Yakutiya (Grushevskiy and Medvedev, 1962, 1970; Grunin, 1973; Medvedev and Voronova, 1977; Sher et al., 1979; Kiselev, 1981; Kaplina et al., 1980), Chukotka (Kiselev, 1980a, 1980b; Boyarskaya and Kiselev, 1981), and some other regions of the Soviet Union (Kiselev et al., 1981). The locations of the main...

  13. Inland Sea Basins

    • CHAPTER 23 Inland Sea Basins
      (pp. 229-248)
      A. L. Chepalyga

      The USSR is surrounded by thirteen seas characterized by different degrees of isolation from oceans. The following types of basin can be distinguished: (1) marginal seas with fairly wide connections to the ocean (for example, the Sea of Japan, the Sea of Okhotsk, the Bering Sea, and the Arctic seas); one distinguishes shelf seas (for example, the Barents Sea) and marginal basin seas (for example, the Sea of Japan); (2) semiisolated seas with a restricted connection through one or several narrow and shallow straits; the most typical of these is the Black Sea; periglacial variants of such a basin are...

  14. Paleoclimatic Reconstructions

    • CHAPTER 24 Methods and Results of Late Pleistocene Paleoclimatic Reconstructions
      (pp. 251-260)
      V. P. Grichuk, Ye. Ye. Gurtovaya, E. M. Zelikson and O. K. Borisova

      As was shown by V. P. Grichuk in the chapter on vegetation (Chapter 17), three types of flora occur in the USSR: migration, orthoselection, and relict. The formation and evolution of these floras took place differently, and their reactions to environmental change were also dissimilar. Therefore, it is necessary to use a different approach to the paleoclimatic interpretation of fossil-plant data for each type of flora in question.

      The method of reconstructing climate from fossil-plant data was developed by Grichuk (1969, 1973), who used concepts from Szafer (1946) and Iversen (1944). This method consists of determining the limiting climatic values...

    • CHAPTER 25 Late Pleistocene Spatial Paleoclimatic Reconstructions
      (pp. 261-286)
      A. A. Velichko

      As is evident from the preceding chapter, through the use of indicator paleofloristics it is possible to determine past climatic conditions for 25 localities. Despite the relatively small number of “weather stations of the past,” the 25 points are representative of their geographic locations and are scattered more or less uniformly across the main regions, except for Central Asia, which has almost no points. Fourteen of the sites are concentrated in the European part of the USSR. The points encompass almost all the presentday climatic zones, including arctic tundra, temperate forest, steppe, subtropics (Lia), and desert (Kaktas). In addition, the...

    • CHAPTER 26 Holocene Paleoclimatic Reconstructions Based on the Zonal Method
      (pp. 287-296)
      S. S. Savina and N. A. Khotinskiy

      The Quaternary is characterized by alternating glacial and interglacial epochs and a general increase in cooling, which reached an extreme at the end of the Pleistocene (Markov, I960; Velichko, 1973). Analysis of the Holocene as an interglaciation may yield considerable new information for retrospective-prognostic constructions and answer vitally important questions pertaining to present and future relationships between nature and modern civilizations. The growing importance of the anthropogenic factor makes the Holocene very special compared to preceding phases of the Quaternary.

      Reconstruction of Holocene climates is based mainly on the vegetational history of northern Eurasia. Sernander (1908) first reported evidence for...

    • CHAPTER 27 Paleoclimatic Reconstructions Based on the Information Statistical Method
      (pp. 297-304)
      V. A. Klimanov

      Paleoclimatic reconstructions from pollen data are based on the correlation of subrecent pollen spectra with present vegetation and climatic conditions. Various mathematical methods have been used to reconstruct paleoclimates from these correlations and fossil pollen data (Muratova et al., 1972; Klimanov, 1976; Geleta and Spiridonova, 1979; Klimanov et al., 1980; Webb and Bryson, 1972).. The statistical information method used here (Klimanov, 1976) is adapted from that proposed in physical geography by Puzachenko and Moshkin (1969).

      Every natural system has a certain degree of uncertainty or unpredictability, for example, the variability of mean annual temperature at a particular location. In statistical...

    • CHAPTER 28 Holocene Climatic Change
      (pp. 305-310)
      N. A. Khotinskiy

      Data obtained on the history of the Holocene vegetation and climate show that past climatic fluctuations were intermittent and nonuniform across northern Eurasia. The three main types of Holocene climatic fluctuations are the Atlantic-continental type in the European USSR, the continental type in Siberia, and the oceanic or Pacific Ocean type in the Far East (Figure 28-1). There is also the Atlantic type in northwestern Europe, which was very similar to the Atlantic-continental type except for having more precipitation. An interglacial climate developed everywhere during the Holocene, and synchronous climatic changes caused abrupt and simultaneous responses over vast areas. Such...

  15. Dispersal of Primitive Cultures

    • CHAPTER 29 Paleolithic Cultures in the Late Pleistocene
      (pp. 313-318)
      N. D. Praslov

      Determining the first appearance of Paleolithic man in the USSR is hampered by the scarcity of sites. Paleolithic settlements are frequently buried and are discovered by accident. Except for cave sites, they are not well suited to systematic investigation. Discoveries in northern Eurasia during the last two decades have made it necessary to reexamine the time of man’s arrival in the USSR, as well as the nature of Paleolithic culture in the European USSR, Central Asia, Kazakhstan, Siberia, and the Far East.

      The first people in the USSR came from various centers of earlier habitation and arrived at different times....

    • CHAPTER 30 Human Cultures and the Natural Environment in the USSR during the Mesolithic and Neolithic
      (pp. 319-328)
      P. M. Dolukhanov and N. A. Khotinskiy

      The development of primitive society was a complex process determined by socioeconomic, cultural, biologic, and ecologic factors, which were of varying importance at different stages of prehistoric human development. Human society as a whole may be regarded as an adaptive system (Markaryan,1976). In the case of primeval tribes, adaptation was expressed by the choice of economic strategies, tool kits, demographic processes, settlement patterns, and so on. We attempt here to evaluate the ecologic factors that determined human settlement and cultural evolution in the USSR.

      The Mesolithic and Neolithic epochs from approximately 10,300 to 4000 yr B.P. correspond to the Preboreal...

    • Back Matter
      (pp. 329-329)