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American-Australian Relations

American-Australian Relations

WERNER LEVI
Copyright Date: 1947
Edition: NED - New edition
Pages: 192
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5749/j.ctttshp3
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  • Book Info
    American-Australian Relations
    Book Description:

    This new study fills a wide gap in the story of American-Australian relations and is a timely addition to the literature in this field. There has been no comprehensive treatment of the topic before, and it will be of interest to those seeking information that the thorough documentiation includes wide use of reports of the American consuls in Australia, and material from Australian parliamentary debates and Australian and American newspapers. Australia has emerged from the war as an important world power that demands a prominent role in the south and southwest Pacific. At the same time the United States has become more and more deeply involved in Far Eastern affairs. The book gives the background of the development and shows the gradual enlargement of spheres of mutual interest between the two countries, both political and economic, from the end of the eighteenth century down to the problems presented by postwar developments in the Pacific. Emphasis is placed on the economic and political ambitions of the two countries, and on their resulting agreements and disagreements both in their direct relations and in their relations with the whole Far Eastern region. Dr. Levi points out that the new importance of the Pacific resulting from World War II has proved to both nations their mutual dependence, but at the same time has increased their national interest in ever-widening and overlapping spheres in the Pacific area.

    eISBN: 978-0-8166-6346-0
    Subjects: History

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-ii)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. iii-iv)
  3. CHAPTER 1 The First Contacts
    (pp. 1-15)

    The United States of America initiated its Far Eastern trade in February 1784, when theEmpress of Chinaunder Captain Green left New York for Canton. Many other ships soon followed in her wake, and in 1789 fifteen United States vessels were in Canton.¹ They usually sailed by way of Cape Verde, the Cape of Good Hope, and the Strait of Sunda, but sailing conditions were such that this route could be used only during the spring. This was a serious handicap to extensive and regular trade, and quite unsatisfactory to the owner of theEmpress of China,Robert Morris....

  4. CHAPTER II The Anglo-American War
    (pp. 16-24)

    The Anglo-American war in 1812 provided statesmen and merchants in England with the means to destroy the unpopular American trade in the Pacific. The traders and shippers of New England and New York were furious at their President, whom they accused of having anti-commercial sympathies and of having provoked the war. “People of America!” began an article in theBoston Columbian Centinel.“Reflect on this conduct and sentiment. Cast your mind’s eye back in the history of your beloved country and say, what would have been the condition ofNorth America,had the commercial enterprise of your ancestors been destroying...

  5. CHAPTER III Whaling and Sealing
    (pp. 25-36)

    The suppression of regular trade between America and New South Wales did not interrupt relations between the two countries altogether, except during the war years. The number of American whalers and sealers in the Pacific was so large that during the first half century more fishing vessels called on ports in New South Wales and other Australian colonies than all American trading ships together.

    Australian whaling had begun in 1791, when some English ships on their way to New South Wales noticed whales and decided to investigate whaling possibilities before proceeding to the American coast for fishing. The reports of...

  6. CHAPTER IV The Gold Rushes
    (pp. 37-48)

    American-Australian relations became very lively and intense when gold was discovered in California. The first news of the discoveries, reaching Australia toward the end of 1848, was received with considerable skepticism, but upon confirmation of the news, Australians too were seized by the “yellow fever.” Emigration to the American West Coast began. The press of mercantile Sydney was happy at the prospects of new trade relations, but Melbourne suffered from a labor shortage and tried to discourage the exodus of badly needed men. Eight ships filled with gold-seekers left Sydney in January 1849, and in June some emigrants sailed from...

  7. CHAPTER V American Precedents in Australian Politics
    (pp. 49-64)

    The vanguard of America’s penetration into the Pacific was the Far Eastern merchant and fisherman of New England. They appeared in China, Australia, India, the Sandwich Islands, and the Pacific South American states immediately after independence was achieved. But much time passed before Pacific countries felt the full impact of American power. The expansive forces of the industrial age which drove Europeans to look overseas for raw materials, markets, and adventures turned the attention of Americans toward the vast emptiness of their own continent. The mentality of imperialism was present in America as much as it was in Europe; the...

  8. CHAPTER VI Imperialism in the Southern and Western Pacific
    (pp. 65-80)

    Great Britain annexed the Fiji Islands in 1874. In 1875 Spain claimed sovereignty over the Caroline Islands. Germany obtained some exclusive rights in Tonga in 1876. In 1878 the United States received the right to establish a naval station in Pago Pago and agreed to mediate between Samoa and a foreign power in case of conflict. The next year Germany and Great Britain also obtained special rights by treaty with Samoa. In 1880 France annexed Tahiti. In 1881 Great Britain annexed Rotumah Island. In 1883 France and Great Britain renewed an understanding about the New Hebrides. In 1884 Great Britain...

  9. CHAPTER VII The American-Australian Far Eastern Triangle
    (pp. 81-95)

    The approach of western imperialism to the shores of Australia produced a result of fundamental significance: federation of the colonies into the Commonwealth of Australia in 1900. There had been internal reasons for the unification of the colonies, and suggestions for federation had been made by individuals since the middle of the century. But the one force which succeeded in overcoming the dividing jealousies and in arousing popular support for federation was fear of aggression by foreign powers. Before the penetration of imperialist interests into the southern and western Pacific, the colonists saw “little to unite for, and nothing to...

  10. CHAPTER VIII The Paris Peace Conference
    (pp. 96-111)

    The international situation in the Far East after the war was in the forefront of interest both in Australia and America, and the Far East continued to be the area in which the foreign policies of the two nations met most closely. The strengthened Japanese position in eastern Asia increased American and Australian animosity against their former ally. Great Britain with the other dominions, France, and Italy were not quite as fearful of Japanese ascendancy, were more conciliatory, and had definite commitments which tied them to Japan though they proved objectionable to America. Australia, sharing America’s anti-Japanese feeling, could be...

  11. CHAPTER IX The Settlement of Pacific Problems
    (pp. 112-126)

    The end of the war and the readjustment of Pacific affairs brought a number of misunderstandings between the United States and Australia. Their policies regarding the German colonies, and to a lesser degree the race issue, were the sources of the most important ones. But some other factors prevented sections of the Australian public from being wholeheartedly sympathetic to America. The disappointment over America’s neutrality in the first war years, America’s abstention from the League of Nations, and the refusal to cancel Allied war debts caused resentment in Australia.¹ However, this feeling never went very deep—except in the hearts...

  12. CHAPTER X American-Australian Economics
    (pp. 127-140)

    The economic relations between the United States and Australia have had their ups and downs during the twentieth century, but have generally proceeded smoothly. One outstanding characteristic is the influence which Americans had upon the internal economic development of the Commonwealth. Advisers and technicians in various fields of economic activity visited Australia and contributed to the establishment of new industries, new methods of mining and agriculture, and improved communications.¹

    Australia also proved attractive to American financiers, especially in the early twenties when American capitalists looked for investment opportunities all over the world. Soon after World War I American capital could...

  13. CHAPTER XI War in the Pacific
    (pp. 141-158)

    The decade from 1931 to 1941 was characterized in the Pacific as elsewhere by the breakdown of the system of collective security. The process was gradual, and as it advanced Australians became disturbed about their fate in the Pacific. Australia was one of the smaller nations which had great faith in the various treaties designed to preserve peace in the world. The “Manchuria incident” in 1931 was the first warning of the deterioration of the international situation. Since this event coincided with a rapid improvement of Australian-Japanese trade, desperately needed by primary producers in the Commonwealth, it seemed unwise to...

  14. CHAPTER XII The New Pacific
    (pp. 159-173)

    The war brought to America and Australia the completion of developments that had their roots in the middle of the last century. United States power and influence are now firmly spread over all the Pacific. Australia is conducting a policy greatly independent from that of Great Britain. The Pacific war, furthermore, made both nations realize that each is more significant to the other than was believed even in the pre-Pearl Harbor days when arrangements for cooperation were made.

    The 150-year-old confidence of Australia in the protection of the British fleet has been rudely shaken. The long passivity of Australia in...

  15. Bibliography
    (pp. 174-180)
  16. Index
    (pp. 181-184)