The Two-Way Mirror

The Two-Way Mirror: National Status in Foreign Students’ Adjustment

RICHARD T. MORRIS
WITH THE ASSISTANCE OF OLUF M. DAVIDSEN
Copyright Date: 1960
Edition: NED - New edition
Pages: 232
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5749/j.ctttsk2v
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  • Book Info
    The Two-Way Mirror
    Book Description:

    The Two-Way Mirror was first published in 1960. Minnesota Archive Editions uses digital technology to make long-unavailable books once again accessible, and are published unaltered from the original University of Minnesota Press editions. This is a study of images or attitudes with a two-way impact, those received and reflected by foreign students in the United States. The study seeks to determine how much the image of their native countries which they believed Americans held, influenced the foreign students in their reactions to their American experiences. Thus, the national status which a foreigner feels reflected upon him, away from home, may affect the impression of the United States which he himself reflects. The subjects of the study were 318 students from some 65 countries enrolled at the University of California at Los Angeles. The largest groups were from Israel, Japan, Nationalist China, France, Germany, Iraq, Greece, Mexico, and India. This is the fifth in a series of monographs resulting from a program of research sponsored by the Committee on Cross-Cultural Education of the Social Science Research Council. It is the first volume which reports on the second phase of the research project. Each of the previous volumes, dealing with the first phase, is concerned with foreign students of a single nationality. In the present study the authors make use of facts discovered about particular nationality groups in the first series of studies to determine what factors exert the most influence upon the adjustment of foreign students from many different countries to their sojourns in the United States. The authors obtained their data through a combined questionnaire and interview technique.

    eISBN: 978-1-4529-3812-7
    Subjects: Education

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-xii)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. xiii-2)
  3. 1 Why Study National Status?
    (pp. 3-17)

    The studies sponsored by the Committee on Cross-Cultural Education fell into two phases: Phase I, intensive studies of single nationality groups, considered the wide range of factors which might affect the adjustment of foreign students to the United States, as well as the students’ readjustment upon return to their home country; Phase II extended the range of nationalities investigated, narrowed the number of factors studied, and was concerned with foreign students only during their stay in this country.

    Theoretically, the two phases were very different. Phase I studies in the United States consciously used a shotgun approach and tried to...

  4. 2 Establishing Rapport
    (pp. 18-45)

    Method is the primary concern of this chapter, which consists of two parts. The first deals with problems encountered in securing subjects for the study, and the establishment and maintenance of rapport before, during, and after the interview. The second deals with the issues involved in defining and measuring the main variables to be used.

    The study of Scandinavian students, in Phase I of the research on cross-cultural education, necessarily required a highly elaborated system of devices for bringing about rapport. That study concerned a close-knit group, in which every member knew all about the others’ adventures within hours or...

  5. 3 The Foreign Student at U.C.L.A.
    (pp. 46-56)

    It is difficult to estimate the extent to which the group of students interviewed at U.C.L.A. during 1954 and 1955 is typical of foreign students in this country at other places and times. Generalization of these findings may be biased by peculiarities of the sample, the place, or the period. However, the data presented in this chapter will make estimates easier to apply in other later studies or in practical applications of the results of this research.

    We decided to make this study on a single campus for a variety of reasons, both theoretical and practical. The New York University...

  6. 4 The Interrelation of the National Status Variables
    (pp. 57-70)

    We shall now outline the hypotheses stated in Chapter 1, in order to give form to the analytic findings of the study.

    Foreign students suffer status shock upon their arrival in another country. Status variables will be more important than other variables in determining the adjustment of foreign students to their environment. Of all the status variables, national status as perceived by the foreign student will be the most important in determining adjustment. There are four kinds of national status: subjective, perceived accorded, actual accorded, and objective. These national status measures will have a low correlation with each other, and...

  7. 5 The Interrelation of the Adjustment Indices
    (pp. 71-77)

    Before proceeding with the discussion of the relations among the adjustment indices, we have to describe the meaning of the dichotomy of “high” and “low” as used in presenting the results.

    Favorablenesstoward the United States was measured by asking the student his perception of some aspect of American life and then asking him to say whether he liked or disliked this feature of the United States. There were twenty-seven items and we averaged the answers to them. “Low favorableness” or “unfavorable” actually means for most students, on the basis of the total distribution of responses,¹ “less favorable” or a...

  8. 6 The Relation of the National Status Variables to the Adjustment Indices
    (pp. 78-97)

    The central hypotheses of the study are concerned with the relations between national status variables and adjustment indices. Table 5 presents a summary of these findings. The following sections are numbered to correspond with Table 5 (see p. 96).

    31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36. Accorded national status is not significantly related to any of the adjustment variables, with the exception of depth of contact.

    A central hypothesis of the study is not borne out. High perceived accorded national status, i.e., the status which the foreign student believes is assigned to his country by most Americans, isnotsignificantly related...

  9. 7 The Relation of the Background Variables to the Adjustment Indices
    (pp. 98-118)

    We are concerned in the alternative hypotheses with the relations between background variables, including personal status, and the adjustment indices. The strategy of the research design requires that the background variables be related to the outcome variables of adjustment in order for us to discover the relative strength of these measures as compared to the national status factors. Table 6 presents a summary of the findings.

    In a table of this size (150 relationships), one out of twenty, i.e., seven chi-squares, should be significant at the .05 level by chance alone. The six chi-squares in the table at the .05...

  10. 8 Image of America
    (pp. 119-134)

    Here in this chapter we shall be considering the foreign students’ responses to the twenty-seven attitude and perception items in the study. In the belief that these findings are of interest in themselves, we present them descriptively, without analysis of relations between the items or between these items and the other adjustment indices, national status variables, or background variables.

    There should be a good deal of practical, and perhaps theoretical, value in knowing what foreign students see in America, how different it seems to them from their own countries, how well they like these perceived features of the United States,...

  11. 9 Some Implications for the Social Scientist and the Practitioner
    (pp. 135-142)

    It is hard to summarize the results of this study clearly and concisely, without undue repetition, because the findings are complicated and their interpretation open to a good deal of conjecture. We have given alternative explanations of findings wherever possible, particularly in trying to establish causal connections between correlated variables. We know, for example, that perception and attitude, and contact and satisfaction, are related; but we can only make a guess, hopefully an intelligent one, as to which causes which. These guesses will not be equally useful to all readers: they may be completely superfluous to one and the most...

  12. APPENDIXES· Distribution of Responses on the Interview Guide
    (pp. 145-206)
  13. Notes
    (pp. 209-213)
  14. Index
    (pp. 214-215)