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Nazi Psychoanalysis v3: Volume III

Laurence A. Rickels
FOREWORD BY BENJAMIN BENNETT
Copyright Date: 2002
Edition: NED - New edition
Pages: 384
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5749/j.ctttskwm
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  • Book Info
    Nazi Psychoanalysis v3
    Book Description:

    In volume III, Rickels explores the ways in which Nazi Germany imagined itself and expressed that realization through technology and science fiction or fantasy.

    eISBN: 978-0-8166-9227-9
    Subjects: History

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. Foreword
    (pp. vii-xiv)
    BENJAMIN BENNETT

    If the first two volumes ofNazi Psychoanalysisare mainly about the origin and development of “greater psychoanalysis,” the war-born inner and outer space of Freud’s inescapability in the twentieth century, then the business of this final volume,Psy Fi, is mainly to suggest conclusions and extrapolations that have a bearing on our present condition. The basic story is not hard to follow. Because Nazi Germany, itself “one big science fiction,” coopted “the ultimate science fiction fantasy, that of replacement of reproduction (which is death in life) with a new and improved immortality plan, that of amoeba-like and technology-compatible replication,”...

  4. Achtung: A PREFACE TO NAZI PSYCHOANALYSIS
    (pp. xv-xxiv)
  5. Apart

    • It’s Back!
      (pp. 3-10)

      On all the sides—on the inside—of total war, the upward mobilizations of the intrapsychic model were along for a drive to control air power and airspace. A rapport with air space was being built from the internal body on out—all the way to the body of the group. Freud located the technophantasmic impulses of flight as belonging not only in the home but also to the bigger futures and time-shares that are up there, including military expansionism down the mediatic lines of sensorium extension and—really the same share of one fantasy—psychotic delusion formation, where the...

    • Werther Report
      (pp. 11-13)

      In 1938 scholar Herbert Schöffler declared Goethe’sThe Sorrows of Young Wertherto be “the first nondualistic tragedy of our psychic development” (180):

      The absolute value in this artwork is love between the sexes, and if this value cannot be attained, life becomes worthless. Aworthless life can, however, be discarded. . . . In the place of the formerly absolute value, the idea of God, another has stepped in, love between the sexes. (175)

      But this passion gets displaced in the work of its divinization; it gets displaced, son-of-God style, onto the Passion of suicide or, as Schöffler labels it,...

    • How Many Siblings
      (pp. 14-16)

      Eissler set up Goethe’s bond with his sister Cornelia as the standard edition of his object choice and frame of preference. For example, he carefully calculated that the onset of Werther’s decompensation is set on or by the date of Cornelia’s birthday (Goethe, 99).Wertherwas first conceived and executed on parallel tracks with the course of his sister’s initiation into reproduction, the race set going by her marriage in November 1773 to a certain Schlosser (whose name resonates with variations on “locking up”). By February 1774, when Goethe carriedWertherto term by term of fulfillment of the suicide contract,...

    • Same Difference
      (pp. 17-20)

      As a work of caution to culture critics against overusing latent homosexuality as a cure-all explanation for group or psychotic bonding over a longdistant woman’s body, Theweleit’sMale Fantasiesat the same time cannot pick up the frequency of ghosts in cases that do, however, come directly out of the loss or losses of World War I. Theweleit’s focus on identification is fixed on the sexual combo of merger and murderousness, but with a difference, with one substitution, please: he relocates the sister figure at the cathexis center of the para-Nazi fantasies shared by the soldier brothers. Theweleit makes his...

    • Conversion
      (pp. 21-27)

      In the suggestion box of literary studies a novel like Schenzinger’sHitlerjunge Quexhas been identified as belonging to the genre of “conversion,” which turns out to be another way of claiming for the Nazi novel aWertherlineage.Hitlerjunge Quex(1932) clearly falls in with a subgenre of novels of “German destiny” (the subtitle or caption regularly appended to them) including Goebbels’sMichael(1929) and Ewers’sHorst Wessel(1932). BetweenWertherand these destinal works a few marginalizations have gathered motivation and found completion within the system of displacementsWertherhad already inaugurated.

      In these late arrivals of the...

    • The Buff Object of Identification
      (pp. 28-30)

      Among the add-ons Goethe inserted the second time around, in the revising ofWerther, two reflect the pull of Werther’s desire: one presses forward the displacement implied in, and excluded from, the double occupancy of his attraction to the couple; the second tells us right-on just which libido pool furnishes the applicants for Werther’s “other” position. The second insert folded inside Goethe’s work of revision is a narcissistic prop: Lotte’s love for him, which he now feels is real, causes Werther to get down on his knees before himself and be his own deity. Being loved means his self-love is...

    • The Body of His Work
      (pp. 31-35)

      In their origin, art and technology are just an alternation away from each other: the alternation between sublimation and the other defensive measures metabolizes in techno-fantasy a homosexual predisposition that is back with every crisis in reproduction. The machine connection is born out of same-sex spirits. In Freud’s studies of Leonardo Da Vinci and Schreber, the return engagements of repressed homosexuality give rise to the emergency projection of delusional technologies. Freud’s rereading of the Prometheus myth ascribes technology’s origin (primally conceived as control of and access to energy) to the ambiguation (repression, sublimation, or projection) of homosexuality. The eternal flame...

    • Gotta Read Goette
      (pp. 36-39)

      InBeyond the Pleasure Principle, it is within a certain ring of the Goethe name that the contestants face off in the ring of life versus death. First there’s Weismann, to whom not only Freud gives a reception. But then: “Some writers returned to the views of Goette . . . who regarded death as a direct result of reproduction” (SE, 18:47). In Goette’s name, Freud joins in the writing of a kind of bildungsroman of evolving relations with doubling or reproduction in which death develops or becomes but is not a natural. In Goette’s words:

      The natural death of...

    • U.S. Is Them
      (pp. 40-44)

      Recognition by the Nazis of an eternally and internally fluctuating borderline between homoeroticism and homosexuality called in the kind of all-out (preemptive and intrapsychic) surveillance that at the same time required nonphobic tolerance of all the facts of life. Time-sharing in groups or species appreciation of mutual identification would be the other way to fill out this prescription. That’s how the perversion package deal with war neurosis or psychopathy was forwarded to U.S. military psychology in 1941 via the U.S. Committee for National Morale’s survey. Attention was ordered to the details of Leonhard Fritzsching’s analysis of the “psychology of desertion”...

  6. Higher and Higher

    • Plane Talk
      (pp. 47-53)

      First there was Abram Kardiner’s study of the chronic cases of war neurosis he had treated from 1922 to 1925. They had outlived the First World War but perhaps not their usefulness for treating cases in new wars. The second edition of 1947 also looks back, looking after cases from another concluded war, but in prep again for belated applications to situations coming at you, the same or entirely new. It was a completely new edition, revised beginning in 1943, in collaboration with Herbert Spiegel (and thus right after the other Spiegel’s tour of collaboration research duty with Roy Grinker)....

    • Lights! Action! Cut!
      (pp. 54-58)

      For a postwar (1949) collection on delinquency and acting out—with the prison or camp titleSearchlights on Delinquency—Edith Jacobson gives study room to her time as political prisoner in Nazi Germany. It was a time when she was abandoned by international psychoanalysis because she had broken ranks and risked whatever stability psychoanalysis could rescue from the new regime in Germany when she harbored a subversive political affiliation. At first Ernest Jones, as always a gentleman, was gallantly on top of things right away with an international campaign to rescue her in the planning or already in the works....

    • Double Burial
      (pp. 59-64)

      To support her observation of initial regressions experienced by all inmates upon impact with the arrest, Jacobson cites Andreas Bjerre, a Swedish psychologist who, already before the First World War, had specialized in criminology, which at the time was one of the newest areas into which German psychology was extending its expertise and influence, largely in competition with psychoanalysis. In his most famous work,The Psychology of Murder, Bjerre’s style was Adlerian-macho, all opposed to sexological readings, since the bottom line in all cases was so evidently unfitness or incurable terror of existence. He takes note of, only to dismiss...

    • Therapists for Heyer
      (pp. 65-71)

      From 1940 to 1943, G. R. Heyer was charged withHippokratesreadership, with spreading the German Institute for Psychological Research and Psychotherapy’s takeoff on something old, something new, in a series of letters, chips off the old workshop. Heyer was telling the colleagues out there how he did it again, always short-term work but with depth-psychological charge, and then as the show progressed, colleagues would send in reports of their own success stories, which Heyer would air with a brief precis from the sponsor of the highlights to look for in the as-live audience participation. Even the general practitioner can...

    • Shock Talk
      (pp. 72-76)

      In the April 1943 issue of theConnecticut State Medical Journal, the article “Pennsylvania Psychiatrist Talks on Shell Shock” contains a couple of slips that add up to the message that it’s shell shock that’s all talk. Before the rundown of emotional conflicts can be reiterated in print, another claim has appeared: “The most common mental casualty in modern warfare is the ‘shell shock’ of the newspapers, or war conversation hysteria” (“Pennsylvania Psychiatrist,” 274). That’s from the PR sphere of the preconscious. A more unconscious message is transmitted in Calvin Drayer and Stephen Ranson’s “Combat Psychiatry.” Just a slip of...

    • Columns
      (pp. 77-81)

      After filling his column with advice for another colleague in the provinces, Heyer comes to a new request for a referral. Yes, the German Institute in Berlin does maintain a list of therapists and therapeutically trained or compatible physicians everywhere in Germany. But there’s no one in the correspondent’s area. “We leave it up to you to judge whether it is right and desirable that psychotherapists should be so sparsely represented in our Fatherland” (1169). It’s the pre-1933 materialism of institutions (and this one blanket condemnation has medical schools covered too) that is still resisting what’s new. Today one should...

    • Writing a Letter to Heyer
      (pp. 82-90)

      Another letter to Heyer follows in the column’s reprints: it’s a lecture to parents about different psychological types (Jung style), which help us reframe many difficulties with which one type seems to be careening into the need for disciplining. The introverted type must learn to value what she has, but not to flee too deeply inside it: the extroverted side exists, too, and needs more support (although it’s not a question of delicate balance). In the opening phase of life, the extroverts have it easy; the introverts find their fit in the golden years. The introverts need more time, patience....

    • The Hand-Me-Down Book
      (pp. 91-95)

      In November 1949 theBulletin of the U.S. Army Medical Departmentwas in a position to issue a supplemental number entitled “Combat Psychiatry: Experiences in the North African and Mediterranean Theaters of Operation, American Ground Forces, World War II.” It served as the standard handbook of psychiatric care during the Korean War. In Korea, which did see a drop in what all agreed had been an alarmingly high rate of psychiatric discharge on the U.S. side of the Second World War, some of the psychosocial patterns that were discovered and elucidated back then in interpretation of the degrees of fortitude...

    • Heyer and Heyer
      (pp. 96-104)

      It’s time, and this time Heyer turns the column over to the presentation of a parapsychological case that might well have ended up serving as a sideshow exhibit of the occult if it hadn’t been for psychotherapy (including, in particular, autogenic training). In his opening memo, in which he introduces the colleague who sent in the letter about the therapy, Heyer declares his own interest in the occult but stresses that it’s really important that one exclude all other factors first, which is what this case exemplifies.

      The boy hears things when alone in the house, but no real cause...

    • Humanities
      (pp. 105-107)

      In 1928 Franz Carl Endres was looking forward to the next round. War may still be a science in theory but in practice, it’s an art(Kunst):

      Tactics are therefore so closely bound up with technology that they can hardly be separated any longer, not since the enormous development of modern artillery, the ever increasing replacement of the fighting human with the machine. . . . Battle tactics of a future war will be exclusively determined by the existing technological means. (51)

      Endres is plaintively aware that raw materials need to be in supply as great as the demand (71)....

    • It Just Takes Two
      (pp. 108-112)

      Among the true but few “psychoanalytic tales” Robert Lindner has in store for us by 1954 (observing thus the same time change from war to the fifties that characterizes Heidegger’s jet-lagged thoughts on technology or Lacan’s specular reversal of the neo between Germany and America), it just takes two, the “Gutter Führer” and the time traveler, to role-play the span of attention that the missing era of Nazi psychoanalysis has called to order. First there was Anton, a guttering headline who now walked the sick line in prison somewhere between possible malingering (the rep that precedes him pretreatment with Lindner)...

    • Aircraft That Cannot Be
      (pp. 113-121)

      In his eulogy of Lou Andreas-Salomé, Freud records the second fact of her life that makes the first one, her friendship with Nietzsche, after the fact:

      In 1912 she returned to Vienna in order to be initiated into psychoanalysis. My daughter, who was her close friend, once heard her regret that she had not known psychoanalysis in her youth. But, after all, in those days there was no such thing. (SE, 23:297)

      Psychoanalysis was not there, for example, when Nietzsche fell from his horse on the 1871 war front, a fall down the dotted lines of early separation from father...

    • Panic Attack
      (pp. 122-126)

      The ad at the end of a later edition of Reinhold Eichacker’s 1924 science fictionPanicinforms us that the author has produced three novels, including this one, based on the “technological ideas” of Max Valier. The ad continues: “For the first time space ship and rocket plane are awarded literary treatment. The Opel factories have already constructed the rocket plane, and the first practical successes have made the whole world pay attention. Max Valier, the spiritual leader of the rocket plane is the inventor of these novels, the realization of which has been made possible by German spirit and...

  7. Mars Attracts

    • Siegerkraft
      (pp. 129-134)

      In 1934 Titus Taeschner publishedDer Mars greift ein, a title that rushes toward the anticipated final particle “an”—as in “Mars Attacks”—but surprise attacks us at that endpoint with “ein,” whereby it translates as “Mars Intervenes.” In the German tradition of outer-space fantasy, Mars “attracts.”

      First contact with the Martians was taken up by a German scientist after he split the atom and with the resulting force, which was with him, also split earth for Mars. That was the first giant step for mankind that the Martians were able to meet halfway (without their control-power assistance, the scientist’s...

    • The Psychotic Sublime
      (pp. 135-149)

      The affect “constellations” free to arise when aesthetics is not zoning restricted to address only the beautiful are still prefab prepsychoanalytic constructions, fortified against deep work on the strata and strategies of intrapsychic relations. No wonder that the sublime, the other bookend on the aesthetics mantle down the row of treatises from the beautiful, does not give entry into the analysis of the uncanny, noted by Freud the impurity or species most likely to be superseded by its more positive mutations within art and nature appreciation. Freud had a sense for how the sublime functioned in aesthetic theories to get...

    • The Schreber Garden of Eden
      (pp. 150-156)

      It was with the introduction of the theory of evolution that fantasy was free to grant invention or other sudden changes and chances the power to switch channels on evolutionary progress and fast-forward plant life or machines to the top of development. As soon as Darwin’s theory was out, his fans were hit by fantasies of parallel fast lanes of development that relocated the missing link to interspecial relations between humans and machines (see Samuel Butler’sErewhon). Evolution provided the context for imagining that thought can or must go on without the body, and that means beyond the retro, repro...

    • Projection Therapy
      (pp. 157-165)

      InMiracle of Flight, “The Movie about a German Pilot” commissioned by Hermann Göring, the wound is back for transmutation into wonder or miracle. A cute teenager (the same boy star ofHitlerjunge Quex) bonds with a pilot hero, who invites him to come to Berlin and stay in his bachelor digs. But then we see the boy with his mom make reverences before the photo of the dead dad, who was a pilot in World War I. In Berlin the pilot shows the boy and tells him about the mementos crowding his solo apartment like some mummy’s tomb. (We’re...

    • Wishing Wells
      (pp. 166-170)

      A division in reception switches channels to the two sides of world war, the sides first mobilized against each other, according to Freud’s lecture on worldviews, in the prewar traversal of English airspace by German aircraft. In his 1934Experiment in Autobiography, H. G. Wells notes his telepathic intervention in “things to come” through his 1908The War in the Air, “written before any practicable flying had occurred” (569), which describes total air war washing up out of the lead the Germans hold in aviation onto England and America. But before it’s a question of who started it, Wells’s narrative...

    • It’s Time
      (pp. 171-178)

      Kurd Lasswitz’s 1899Two Planetsfocuses on flight, the overcoming of gravity, its reversal in the form of wave power, steering, relations between pilot and flying machine. From Lasswitz and Schreber to Wernher von Braun and the 1943 blockbusterMünchhausenthere is a direct hit or fit of continuity comprising the German reception of air power. Whereas Wells’s reception stays with the new grounded group member and his air defense psychology, the German take prepares for the invention of the rocket, which is based on flight, and comes at the end of ongoing interrogation of the relationship between pilot and...

    • Dominik Gene
      (pp. 179-190)

      Hans Dominik: the name of a brand of German science fiction that, beginning in the twenties, made the genre appear at times, in Germany, like a one-man show. Born in 1872, just inside German unification and empire, he was even Kurd Lasswitz’s pupil in boarding-school math class. Dominik’s even more timely death in 1945 doubled or seconded all the other closures.

      Everyone thought science fiction (like TV) was a Cold War, U.S. versus them exclusive. Yes, everyone knew the distant precursors, ancestral friendly ghosts, lonely at the top, Jules Verne and H. G. Wells. But in addition to the underground...

    • Countdown
      (pp. 191-202)

      By now the countdown is at 1930.Rubber Latexis the novel about industrial invention and espionage that’s just another day, not a future displacement. The cover for one of the women spies is that she’s a widow of an English major who fell in the world war, and therefore she’s still young enough to interest the mark (55). At stake are two procedures for making rubber latex that are competing for industrial adoption and priority. Fortuyn proposes electrosynthesis; his competitor, a certain Moran, proposes chemosynthesis. The chemical alternative is just one fallback in the elaborate French espionage network that’s...

    • Hotel Dominik
      (pp. 203-208)

      Rudolf H. Daumann writes his 1937Thin as an Eggshellaround the 1983 band of evil who dig into the earth to set off volcanoes and earthquakes at will. Asmall gang of Germans volunteer for the mission of saving the world. Soon there’s a first bombing attempt made on the German leader and the pack, which shows the hand of the enemy’s knowledge of their intentions. The bomb goes off in Hotel Dominik.

      The mad scientist Dr. Utrusque (whose name could be Pig Latin for Uterus) was instantly suspect to the German hero, Haller, who can give physiognomic and characterological...

  8. Doubles

    • Double Amnesia
      (pp. 211-214)

      In a series of works (novels and screenplays), Alfred Döblin joined and separated his psychiatric knowledge, the religious structures attending his sense of the end or the beginning, and an at once literary and mediatic commitment to modernity. His final work,Hamlet, is the place to begin rewinding the tapes around the rewounding of trauma that always carved out the inside view of his work in progress. He conceived the testamentary work while in Hollywood exile, and thus while becoming reacquainted with his own originally firsthand experience with shell shock during the First World War, but now in the more...

    • Hunger
      (pp. 215-221)

      It’s 1932, and Aldous Huxley conveyor-belts us with the future now: reproduction has been replaced by mass production or “hatching” (a term that, bombs away, is also Margaret Mahler syntonic), child rearing by conditioning (which begins its determinations already in the prehatched phase of development), and “God” by “Ford.” Reproduction as an individual’s birthright occupies, for the time being, only a disembodied “margin of safety”: while very few fertile ovaries are needed for downing-the-hatching of new generations, still many more are maintained for safety and for “good choice” (8). Where there’s selection there has to be the insurance coverage of...

    • Exile on War Neurosis
      (pp. 222-227)

      Franz Werfel, a conversion groupie like Döblin, but from south of the border, from Austria, captured his own Californian exile from Nazi Europe in a science fiction,Star of the Unborn. It’s all about a certain F. W., who dies while an exile from Central Europe, is buried in California, is beamed back up into life (in the future) by his old buddy B. H. (who is on another reincarnation), and on the subsequent days tours the California of the future. In California, gadget rules: a device brings the destination to you on its beam; no more shell-shocking transport in...

    • On the Second Date
      (pp. 228-234)

      That a couple of authors wroteWhen Worlds Collidealready starts rolling with the plotline. Two parallel worlds are swinging low; first they’ll swing by so close that little or few will be saved, then, on their second time around, one comes to knock out planet earth, the other to fly by so that a superselect few can hop on board in their spaceship. The new world was a planet like ours that was extinguished not with a bang but with the winter that comes without a sun. Now that the eccentric course that put it under ice is swinging...

    • Manuals
      (pp. 235-243)

      Resistance to the psychoanalyticRoman, or romance, in technology studies invests the same contexts of upward mobilization we too have been considering, in which all modernist trends are resituated in relation to their very own military complexes, but as final reckoning of Freud’s science as precisely lost or loser in this reshuffling of contexts or histories. The strategy of these readings is to go historic or genealogical, but only up to the point of their up-front phobia about inhabiting the frame of psychoanalysis. The resulting split-level, two-step, reproach styles with gadget-loving acknowledgment of the history of technology while remaining deep...

    • Efficiency Pack
      (pp. 244-251)

      In 1944, following the reopening of analytic concessions made to the eclecticism of auxiliary techniques only useful in the short term or attention span of mass war conditions, Menninger points out the inside view of the mass psychic apparatus afforded through the small world after all of psychosis.

      The whole world is being shaken in an “acute psychosis”; and it is an opportunity, in fact, a responsibility, to study this psychopathology, to attempt to understand it, and, primarily, to make heroic efforts towards immediate therapy and plans for future reconstruction. . . . This war will probably cause a reorientation...

    • GI Joey
      (pp. 252-256)

      Bruno Bettelheim’s case study of Joey, the so-called mechanical boy, follows in the footnotes of Margaret Mahler and Victor Tausk. At one point Bettelheim makes a theoretical or therapeutic controversy out of overuse and under-understanding of “regression.” The upbeat point he makes about regression as always a simulation that’s at the same time a progressive breakthrough in relations with others, from early childhood through adolescence, is therapeutically correct. However, the theoretical frame he grants Joey represents, compared, say, to Tausk and Mahler, a literal regression. The anti-Oedipals, Deleuze and Guattari, have their field day with Bettelheim as though on one...

    • Family Program
      (pp. 257-264)

      A new air field of psychiatry, an incorporation formed with the whole of modern medicine, was opening up. In his 1943 article “How the Flying Fighters’ Doctor Is Made,” Eugen Reinartz presents the parallel universals of psychiatry and artificial flight:

      As difficulties appear, they naturally fall into the medical field and the practice of medicine has been most closely linked with aviation since its inception. One cannot, therefore, discuss the one without telling the story of the other, at least in part. This is produced by the very intimate relationship between certain basic principles of aviation medicine, the fact that...

    • Family Outing
      (pp. 265-274)

      J. L. Henderson and Merrill Moore are of two minds about how war neurosis happens. One mind is really open to the spectacular exception of the buddy’s death:

      The killing of a “buddy” is of great importance. It appears that every serviceman goes into war with the philosophy, “It can’t happen to me.” This belief is severely shaken when a man with whom he has so strongly identified himself is killed. In a sense it is “me” being killed, and so the death is intolerable. (355)

      A general comment about treatment that follows the death that tear jerks us around...

    • Therapy Values
      (pp. 275-284)

      With the absence of a leg to stand on, Edward attends the reopening of the spot he was already in with his parents. But the dropped bomb of absence also cuts off the leg of a journey around world conflict that was phallically propped up by his friend Jonny, who, innocently standing by, died in the blast that took the legs and brought back the legacy of their original absence. The first close call of transference that Edward accepts is to Jonny, whose dead body lies at the opening of the narcissistic precincts that crack under the hard shell of...

  9. Epilogue on Fire

    • Leave a Message, but Don’t Forget to Breathe
      (pp. 287-289)

      The No Smoking sign lit up first in the West. On the descent into Los Angeles, we still watch the swimming pools catch the rays of the setting sun. Down in the uncanny hideaway below that’s, lo and behold, precisely where we were to join the forget-together at what’s hip we find, on our decline into the west, a pooling of resources for having fun (yet)—that goes down and out to the body count. Every backyard has one: a body of water (bodies are, at the bulk rate, basically water) artificially contained and pumped up, through, and away with...

    • The Teen Age
      (pp. 290-291)

      With the advent of codependency, everyone started qualifying for support group psychology within an extended-family setting tuning in primal scenes of addiction or abuse. Substance or child abuse fills in the blanks and takes aim, in group, at the childhood that can only be found missing.

      The cure-all administered in AA groups gets at the heart of the problem and keeps it there: inside a free association that’s compatible both with the mass at large (what Christianity and techno-group formation have and hold in communion) and, case by case, with psychosis. The group therapy format takes its mainline compatibility with...

    • Middle Ages Crisis
      (pp. 292-295)

      According to Hall’s discovery or recovery of adolescence, the buff body of the group pumps up ultimately to pass a test of willpower. It was just a test that his own midlife criticism was able to pass on as will or testament. In 1901, at the local YMCA, Hall addressed one of the premier or pioneer groups of teens and midlife types to start working out this delegation.

      Remember that nowadays at forty, most men are either invalids or philosophers—invalids if they have done their work wrongly or are burned out with vice, individual or hereditary, and philosophers if...

    • Jung Frankenstein
      (pp. 296-298)

      To this day, the leading presupposition of adult-development theories— that there are phases of development that are at least equal to, but at last independent of, childhood development—still props itself up as inspired by Jung’s 1933Modern Man in Search of a Soul(in particular chapter 5, “The Stages of Life”). What underlies both so-called linear and dialectical theories of adult development is Jung’s early displacement of Freud’s emphasis on childhood (as the preprogram of all development) onto the more important process of growing up teenage going on adulthood (during which development happens not because it recurs but because...

    • Last Word
      (pp. 299-302)

      Kurt Lewin gave us a future peace of his mind. There are two things (really just one) to keep in mind if we are not again to lose the peace to the Germans:

      One can safely guess that Nazism is deeply rooted, particularly in the youth on whom the future depends. (555)

      If a sufficiently deep and permanent change is to be accomplished, the individual will have to be approached in his capacity as a member of groups. It is as a member of a group that the individual is most pliable. (565)

      Gregor Ziemer joins the rundown of “Fascist...

    • Primal Time
      (pp. 303-305)

      Erwin Reiss sets the coordinates for beaming up the genealogy of television— the one we’ve been “not seeing.” In 1979 a peep show, a retrograde technology, was left standing at the attention of Berliners right where in 1939 a so-called TV room(Fernsehstube)had attracted the local press of fans. Adorno was right on, it’s always the recent history we repress even as it just happens that flashes back discontinuously, catastrophically, as primal. That we continue to “not see” this primal time of the popular medium may amount to one of our bigger symptoms. Yearning, which in German is always...

    • Wonders Never Cease
      (pp. 306-319)

      In 1935 Eduard Rhein’sWonders of the Waves: Radio and Television Presented for Everymanappeared in a popular (“entertaining”) science book series that already counted books on artificial flight, physics, machines, chemistry, geology, biology, and the motor. (The book is one of Reiss’s archival digs, in particular for documenting the Nazi German cult of Nipkow, adopted “father” of television.) By the second chapter, we are listening in on a boy’s daily lessons in media technology given by his boss. He starts out naive. Thus he gets all confused by mention of hertz; he thinks it means heart because that is...

    • TV Services
      (pp. 320-323)

      In 1935 Göring, not Goebbels, was put in charge of the TV service, called, in its potentiality or totality,Fernsehwesen(which might be translated “TV essence” or “TV creature”). The führer’s memo handing the authority over TV in the first place to the head of air transportation (“in consideration of the special importance of TV service for flight security and national air defense”), to be exercised in conjunction with the minister of the postal service, gave rise to a conflict between Göring and Goebbels, which prompted Hitler’s addendum that same year. The entertainment value or channel of the new medium,...

    • A Couple More Drags
      (pp. 324-325)

      Nazi psychotherapy had come under the protective, projective wings of the air ministry not only because Göring’s cousin, who was also a Luftwaffe officer, was in charge of the Berlin psychotherapy institute. The technicians and clinicians saw the future of air war, and it prescribed, one, psychotherapeutic lubing of the pilot’s merger with the automatic functioning of his flying machine and, two, group therapy down in the air-raid shelters to give psychological preparation and protection where air defense would inevitably leave off giving flak to the enemy. The plane, the bomb shelter, the group therapy session, the TV room: these...

    • Up in Smoke
      (pp. 326-328)

      Three cigarettes on one strike of a match, and you’re out: that’s the blackout etiquette that began in the trenches of World War I. In the corner of every group-sizing and lab-spacing of human subjects promoted by the total wars (beginning with the American Civil War), we can follow the bouncing butt of the by now triumphant no-smoking campaign that has been waged most effectively or symptomatically in the air, across the airwaves of our home set, our family-formatted receptions. Looking down the double barrel of Nazi German investments in air power and TV, we find ourselves again in the...

  10. References
    (pp. 329-340)
  11. Filmography
    (pp. 341-342)
  12. Index
    (pp. 343-346)
  13. [Illustration]
    (pp. 347-348)
  14. Back Matter
    (pp. 349-349)