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Nazi Psychoanalysis v2: Volume II

Laurence A. Rickels
Copyright Date: 2002
Edition: NED - New edition
Pages: 360
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  • Book Info
    Nazi Psychoanalysis v2
    Book Description:

    In volume II, Crypto-Fetishism, Rickels demonstrates the surprising degree to which the Nazi moral system parallels that of psychoanalysis, particularly in their common projection and protection of homosexuality.

    eISBN: 978-0-8166-9226-2
    Subjects: History

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. I-IV)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. V-VIII)
  3. Foreword
    (pp. IX-XVI)

    ″If God had intended us to fly. . . ,″ the saying goes, or at least used to go. To be sure, the scope of Laurence A. Rickels′sCrypto-Fetishism, the second volume ofNazi Psychoanalysis, extends well beyond the question of how human beings might be made suitable for flying. Especially the idea of fetishism—in the form of a ″techno-mourning . . . that mourns even over those merely integrative moments in works of mourning and substitution″—both receives and reveals unexpected significance.

    As techno-mourning, fetishism isn′t about the identifiable or identified-with body. For one, it′s not about couples....

    (pp. XVII-XXII)
  5. Part Too

    • Time to Remember
      (pp. 3-4)

      In our first installment,Only Psychoanalysis Won the War, we followed the spread of psychoanalysis into all the departments and brands of psychological interventionism back to a PR origin in the success stories circulating by all accounts about the analytic healing of shell shock during the Great War. It was the start of what would become all the rage and range of Freud′s influence, namely, ″Greater Psychoanalysis.″ This was the main genealogical condition given for the promotion in Nazi Germany of psychoanalysis, even if by many other names, as major component in a blending of psychotherapeutic eclecticism that, as genre,...

    • Giving Up Which Ghost?
      (pp. 5-8)

      Since the fall of the wall (and the San Francisco earthquake on the other side of one bicontinental divide, drift, and slide) there′s been time to underscore what I take to be the most grievous side effect of the disappearance of Marxism: the growing disownership of psychoanalysis, even or especially in all the discourses or projects that owe what foundation they have to Freud′s science. This double disappearance act seems to me reflective and refractive of a split that emerged most fully perhaps by the 1930s, but which had been in preparation since World War I. I′m referring to the...

    • Keeping Up
      (pp. 9-12)

      Let′s catch up with ourselves by keeping up with Ernest Jones. In his 1944 address to the Joint Session of the American Psychoanalytic Association and the American Psychiatric Association, Jones recalls, by way of introduction, how before World War I psychoanalysis or medical psychology passed the Joint to neurology (the field in which pioneers Charcot and Freud were trained). ″Soon after the last war medical psychology in this country, led particularly by Dr. Brill, began to move more and more definitely towards the general body of psychiatry, helping thus to restore to the latter term its original signification of ′mental...

    • Take Off
      (pp. 13-18)

      The pressure that has been on, as a result of the repress releases of ″Nazi psychoanalysis,″ to rewire the transference connections can only rise higher with the psychoanalytic conception of fetishism. What pushes fetishism to the top of the line is, first, that it is a ready-made washing up out of the context that′s really a contest between the intrapsychic axis of interpretation and the social study of whatever external force is with interpersonal relations. What seconds the nomination of fetishism for a first forced entry into the uncanny cohabitation with National Socialism is that it′s the password for a...

    • Fetish Goes to War
      (pp. 19-21)

      In Freud′s theorization, fetishism only stays together as a loner concept as long as we do not see that it has already taken off from itself through the overlapping displacements that go into its formulation, and exchanged its home-alone activities for mascot status within group efforts. In the brief essay on fetishism, in other words, the bottom falls out of the discrete perversion onto disavowal, which then gives way to the defense formulation of splitting. This sliding scale of fetishism′s administration of defense also encompasses—that is, gets around—the content points of castration and melancholia. Thus the fixity of...

    • Halfway
      (pp. 22-30)

      We would have tracked back only halfway if we made only the one stopover at the uncanny. Freud′s first public/published encounter with the uncanny double in fact took place over the symptomatizing body of the psychological casualty of World War I. Same time, same station as the essay ″On ′the Uncanny,′″ Freud′s ″Introduction toPsychoanalysis and the War Neuroses″ characterizes the central conflict of war neurosis in terms of the internal doubling that pits one ego against the other one along this final frontier of defense. Fetishism and war neurosis are on one sliding scale of trauma internalization, but they...

    • Ghost Appearances
      (pp. 31-35)

      The pilot, both video and audio portions, was all along being sent to the other front, the front of the assembly lines of cyborg production: his body and sensorium were the first in the military-psychological complex to be technologized and nonmachinically merged with the internalized apparatus. In his 1933Defense Psychology, Nazi German military psychologist Max Simoneit put the pilot highest on the charts of the internal doubling and defense that Freud saw go down in 1918 in cases of war neurosis. According to Simoneit, self-observation is the crucial condition of all military preparedness and achievement; it is the capacity...

    • The Heydays of Radarr
      (pp. 36-39)

      The system devised by Lamarr and Antheil—known as frequency hopping—is now in extensive use in military communications. . . . So effective is the concept that it is now the principal antijamming device used by the U.S. government’s $25 billion Milstar defense communications satellite system. . . . While her husband may have considered her merely decorative, Lamarr learned a bit about weapons design during her three-year marriage to arms manufacturer Fritz Mandl. An idea stuck with her. Naval attack ships frequently wasted multiple torpedoes on a single target when one might do. . . . One solution:...

    • Another Allied Example
      (pp. 40-42)

      Gregory Bateson, who during World War II worked the internal or home fronts of psychological warfare on the Allied side of catching up with Nazi innovations, was invited to look back in 1966 and recall the big historical events that, in his review, had demonstrated the greatest determining force and staying power. It took just two to give us the worst and the best of times: the Treaty of Versailles and the introduction of cybernetics. The connection here is not just the personalized kind; it belongs to a stockpile of generic brands of gadget love that when reassembled one next...

    • One Four Five Beachwood Drive
      (pp. 43-59)

      In the United States during the late 1930s and early 1940s, a clash happened only to recur between Karen Horney′s (and Fromm′s and Sullivan′s) eclecticizations of Freud′s science and the so-called orthodox or conservative position in psychoanalysis, which found itself in unlikely alliance with the ″left-wing″ agenda of such analysts as Otto Fenichel. By recurrence I refer to the whole series of conflicts making up what already in 1914 Freud admitted to be the history of the psychoanalytic movement. Just before the conflict underwent displacement in or to the United States, there had been the struggle back in Germany that...

    • Cyber-Lacan
      (pp. 60-62)

      The turns Lacan gives cybernetics and psychoanalysis around their common ″axis″ in ″language″ highlight all the ″empty places″ that science′s clock power left unfulfilled. Contrary to the PR job, the exact sciences did not overcome the ritualized rapport of animistic man with the staying power of ″the real.″ Lacan lists cybernetics and psychoanalysis as co-occupants of one era of thought experiment. His calculation of their history can′t stop short with the start date of Norbert Wiener′s invention of the word or name, however, but must go behind that scene to meet the competition between clock science, on the long hand,...

    • French Dressing
      (pp. 63-64)

      When Elizabeth Roudinesco sweeps the Nazi era of French psychoanalysis with her searchlight, she finds only one collaborator doubly hiding out in his ″blind ambivalence″ (156): René Laforgue, founding father of French analysis. All the histories of the period hit on Laforgue as the one soft spot that French analysis had for collaboration with the Nazi occupation or cathexis. But one man′s ″ambivalence″ is, to another power, along for the drive that′s bigger than life. Why restrict attention to a bunch of certified analysts when assessing for the influence of psychoanalysis or its collaborationist prospects? Matthias Göring didn′t. Laforgue took...

    • The Games
      (pp. 65-70)

      The Olympic Games had already broken their 1916 date with Berlin. Even after the war, Germany first had to wait out a chance at the international competition and communion. But then the 1936 games were given, as restitution, a Berlin address, c/o the Weimar Republic. The showcasing of an end to World War I thus fell right into the rap or rep of Hitler′s Germany. Berlin′s postreunification bid for the millennial games (which sported plans for value-free incorporation of the existing facilities within a network of new stations of the crossing and passion) lost out to Sydney′s offer, Demeter style, to...

    • Trippy
      (pp. 71-73)

      The 1936 disagreement between the two transference travelers Kris and Lacan runs down the divide of the two approaches to World War II, which together, in their split-leveling, tune it in as media event. In Kris′s reading, the danger zone of propaganda refers to the new psycho-discursive state of propaganda beside itself, at once self-reflexive and dys-metafunctional, one that muddles the boundary between pro and anti: ″The anti-propaganda movement has become propaganda itself″ (″The ′Danger,′″ 20). Kris plots, as though developmentally, a difference between World War I propaganda and the psychological warfare that takes over where propaganda let us off...

    • On Turing
      (pp. 74-76)

      What also comes out of the clearance sale of World War II military secrets is a longer-term modern legacy that was along for the Polish emergency transmission of the original decoding machine for makeover by Alan Turing. Even or especially at the level and leveling of conceptualization, the crack of the code folded out from a couple of gendered transferences. The Polish analysts started out surveying the entire ″traffic″ of Enigma messages for the patterns of untranslatability given in repetitions:

      Sometimes it would happen that first and fourth letters would actually be the same—or the second and the fifth,...

  6. Reopener

    • Air Head
      (pp. 79-81)

      The extent of Freud′s entry into the military, psychological, and military-psychological establishments worldwide can be tracked through the outer reaches of its reception, which, after a delay, scored on the Allied side the kind of recognition associated with surprise attack. Take, for example, a U.S. report on the neuropsychiatric casualties of the Tunisian campaign in World War II that shows both the intake of Freud′s World War I intervention and the diversification that had gone into the war neurosis portfolio by 1943. It′s also symptomatic of a take by surprise that the direct connection to Freud everywhere in evidence in...

    • Into Africa
      (pp. 82-87)

      In 1939 Elly Beinhorn-Rosemeyer published the memoir of her ″28,000 kilometer flight to Africa,″Berlin–Kapstadt–Berlin, in a special subseries of the German Soldier Press (Deutsche Soldatenbücherei) devoted to ″adventures of pilots.″ She also filmed her spectacular flying tours, as in the movie she made in 1939 documenting her flight to India, ″30,000 Kilometers Solo Flight over Persia, Siam, and India.″ A 1940 flyer advertises her appearance at the screening of her short film at the Atrium in the Kaiserallee, Berlin, on 14 January. In print and behind the lectern, she was in the souvenirs-of-her-flights business again by 1952...

    • 1945: There’s Still a Place for Psychoanalysis
      (pp. 88-88)

      In his contribution to a textbook collection of essays by experts on the various medical therapies taught and conducted at the Berlin university clinics, M. de Crinis gives us the ″Therapy of Psychic Illnesses.″ This sixteenth edition, published in 1945, is still pretty much the same as the thirteenth edition, in 1942, into which major changes were introduced on account of combat experiences. When it comes to psychosis and psychopathy, treatment is not so much of the diseases as treatment of the afflicted patient (423). De Crinis cannot overemphasize the seriousness of symptoms of psychic illnesses; they are often life-threatening...

    • 1945 Allied-Style
      (pp. 90-92)

      In the August 1945 issue of theBulletin of the U.S. Army Medical Department, an extract from an article by Charles Miller on ″delayed combat reactions in Air Force personnel″ appeared under the title ″Psychotherapy with Pentothal Narcosis.″ The news flash concerns the efficacy of the drug treatment, and the article is not impressed, if the treatment stops short of synthesis and integration. What′s more, abreaction under the influence right away gives the therapy a false focus fixated on some recently past event in the patient′s military career, often to the exclusion of a fuller exploration of earlier pasts, but...

  7. Taking Apart

    • Air Defense Mechanisms
      (pp. 95-99)

      Walter Ludwig hears the call for the development of military psychology in ″the unique psychic structure that every weapon possesses″ (129). Psychic capacity for empathy gets us together with our comrades and all of us into machines. What′s required is a ″reproduced self-observation″ as a teleguide within our techno-relations (136).

      A feeling of unity with others develops, a kind of collective ego, before which the individual ego-feeling pulls completely away. I encountered a particularly clear instance of this phenomenon in a flying unit, in which the comradeship was remarkably cohesive and strong. . . . It was the case here...

    • Bomber Room Case No. 7
      (pp. 100-106)

      In 1940 Fritz Mohr reported receiving a letter from a former patient who wondered if there was a psychotherapeutic way for her breast-feeding ability to be restored to her, which the horror of witnessing children die in a north German city under English air attack had shut down. Could a purely physical disturbance be accessible to psychic intervention, she asked herself. Willpower alone will not get the milk to flow again, Mohr responded: but the image of its flowing can influence the body. Lie down two or three times per day, relax, and imagine that the milk is flowing. But...

    • Little Richard
      (pp. 107-111)

      While Anna Freud was creating under air war pressure a different child analysis that left the analysis of adults intact, Melanie Klein was changing the whole analytic frame from treatment of child patients on up. At the time of her analysis of the ten-year-old Richard, Klein, who, like her little patient, had left London for the country to keep out of range of the bombing, was lying low to prepare for another war, the one between Freudian émigrés and her brand of analysts. It was during the two-front war she faced beginning in 1940 that Klein pushed her transformation through,...

    • Emergency Island
      (pp. 112-123)

      For the British side effect of war, Louis Minski counts down the factors leading to shell shock in the wounded. The escape mechanism view won′t hold for those who have the wounds to prove it. Constitutional predispostion is most important. Number three is a direct strike in the object relation, the transferential frame on Emergency Island for processing what′s new in traumatization:

      A personal worry is often the final precipitating factor. For example, one patient who was wounded by a flying bomb in Belgium was perfectly all right until he realized that his family was in a part of this...

    • Bloody Freud
      (pp. 124-126)

      Lewis Yealland specialized in treating long-standing functional speech disorders during World War I. The patients that were sent to him as the last resort were already considered chronic cases; they were, moreover, veterans by that time of all the psychological interventions mobilized for the war, from ″hypnotism, psychoanalysis″ to outright ″electricity.″ ″It must be remembered, however, that faradism employed without suggestion and persistence in otherwise intractable cases will fail to produce recovery″ (3). Yealland′s suggestion is to exhort his patients superegoically in one-on-one group-psychological treatment, punctuating crowd appeals to the heroic ego over the cowardly one with a jab of...

    • Bion the Pleasure Principle
      (pp. 127-130)

      From World War I onward, Freud turned to the pathogenic intersections of the couple and the group. But as Bion realized right away, group psychology is not on its own only a symptom of disturbances within the formation of the couple but is, instead, the modern habitat within which we find ourselves acting and interacting symptomatically or, better yet, relatively free of symptoms.

      Another way to put it is that psychoanalysis stays with our inner other world and pushes us to the borderline where regression meets ego strength. But beginning in the 1920s, Freud came to realize that it is...

    • The Father’s Daughter
      (pp. 131-137)

      The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defense, the study that was Anna Freud′s metabolization of the double time (air war and heir war) of World War II, occupies ″the ego as the seat of observation″ (title of chapter 1). She sets up in her father′s footnotes an ego psychology that flexes a complexity (through the working of identification) comparable to what object-relations analysis had to offer. Ego psychology is not, for example, about the ego being in control. ″The various measures of defense are not entirely the work of the ego. Insofar as the instinctual processes themselves are modified, use...

    • Breaking Up and Making Up
      (pp. 138-144)

      Even though by 1946 the British Society, following Anna Freud′s lead, was reorganizing itself around the split ends of the ″controversy,″ the changes that the air war had introduced into both Anna Freud′s view of infant-mother relations and the Kleinian model (followed out from that wartime on in the work of object-relations analysts Bion, Fairbairn, and Winnicott) gave the bigger picture of reunified eclecticism. By air war time, Anna Freud came around to admitting some of the earliest inroads made by identification or unconscious fantasy that she had earlier and otherwise rejected outright in Melanie Klein′s thought (which, in turn...

    • Project Group Identification
      (pp. 145-146)

      In his contribution to the 1940 collectionThe Neuroses in War, Bion′s analytic guide to propaganda gives lines to a difference between Allied and German adminstrations that are notches above and below the belt of one intrapsychic development. Let impartiality be our guide Britannia (rather than dictatorial manipulation) in this new field of suggestion:

      Some means must be found by which morale must be maintained without in any way dictating the ends to which the individual uses the capacities which he is helped to retain in efficiency. In theory this means that for those who are concerned with the maintenance...

    • In My Side
      (pp. 147-149)

      In ″The Treatment of Psychoneurosis in the British Army,″ H. A. Thorner summarizes in 1946 the World War II therapeutic encounter with war neurosis from the analytic point of view (one incompatible, Thorner concludes, with group therapy): ″An account of the treatment of psychoneurotics under military conditions in the Army may serve a useful purpose at this time of transition. Under new and fast-changing social conditions similar methods may come to be applied to the civilian population. It is essential to get a clear idea as to what has been achieved, and what is beyond those methods which I shall...

    • Objection Relations
      (pp. 150-153)

      Edward Glover was the partial-objecting referee of the fight between the queens of analysis. But he took sides with the Freud genealogy, if only to protect the bogus original model of drives against the bogus innovations, the narcissism of small or Klein differences, which were being advanced along the lines of object relations. The conflict sensationalism of the Kleinians was expanding on contact with the actual war. Glover therefore gives the all clear out siren and tells analysts to stick to the only relations they know. In his 1942 survey of war neurosis research (″Notes on the Psychological Effects of...

    • There Was No Time like the Present
      (pp. 154-156)

      In no time, the Nazi Air Ministry encouraged the psychotherapy institute in Berlin to open a separate section devoted exclusively to the psychological problems going down in the air force. Göring′s son (or Göring′s nephew), who received his psychoanalytic training in Nazi Germany, specialized in treatment of war-neurotic disturbances in the relations of pilots with their planes. The Air Ministry was the first in the complex to put in the request that the institute take on homosexuality as a psychopathology that can be caused, prevented, and cured. Together with new improvements in the treatment of war neurosis and the application...

    • Kinder-Reich
      (pp. 157-168)

      Fritz and Elisabeth Künkel made a coproduction out of their 1936 manual on how to raise them now that you′ve reproduced them:The Raising of Your Children: Manual for Parents and Educators. Each partner of the couple gets one introduction, and one of two parts of the book; Fritz goes first with his intro, but part 1 belongs to Elisabeth. Fritz: if an individual complains that his environment is curbing his development, a closer look will throw this bawling back into his own court; his majesty limits his capacities and possibilities by keeping them only for himself (7).Volkrules:...

    • Soldierhood
      (pp. 169-184)

      Soldierhoodwas the psychotherapy mag for the pop-psychologicalVolkof readers really into healing andHeil-ing. The war′s arrest in 1942, its reversal fromBlitzkriegto war of attrition, also ″arrested the momentum that psychology and psychotherapy had achieved in the military″ (Cocks, 225). Nineteen forty-two saw the final issue ofSoldierhood. But an ″arrest″ is not necessarily the same thing as a complete reversal. The case of Klaus Conrad (and his students at Marburg University), as we will see further down these pages, demonstrates the arresting staying power of recognizably analytic models in frontline psychiatry even or especially after...

    • Let Me Introduce You
      (pp. 185-194)

      An extensive receiving line and welcoming committee was set up for the protection of psychotherapeutic interests and the projection of therapeutic correctness to the top of the holistic agenda of National Socialism. Internal reunification of the psychotherapies required at least as many remetabolizations as did the overall alliance with the new Germany. We begin reading the meter of reunification in the attempts made by complete outsiders to form compromise formations with a new upsurge of interest and investment in psychotherapeutic healing in the Reich. Thus by 1943, W. H. Becker could fill an article on the psychotherapeutic treatment of the...

    • Secret Wartime Report
      (pp. 195-197)

      Walter Langer was another psychoanalyst who got ″mixed up with an outfit like the Office of Strategic Services during wartime″ (Langer, 3). It was end of summer 1941, and he decided to volunteer for propaganda work, more out of the sense of restitution to be performed than on account of any know-how. Like Bateson, Langer had the sense that the war crime of the Entente propaganda had to be undone.

      I had never concerned myself with the problem of psychological warfare, but I had served overseas during World War I and had been far from impressed with our blatant psychological...

    • Heil Homosexuality
      (pp. 198-205)

      There′s the joke about two analysts in Berlin who meet on the street after 1933. One greets the other, ″Heil Hitler″ and the other says: ″No, you go ahead, I haven′t the time to heal him.″ This uncanny cohabitation of healing and hailing within a supersavior economy swims into focus on the bottom line of Nazi projections and does some more overlaps there with the production lines of the internal enemy or public enemy number one. The homosexual toed this line between scapegoat and mascot because the Nazis were getting with a program of ″transcending″ homosexuality to get themselves off...

    • Schultz Complex
      (pp. 206-210)

      J. H. Schultz was a good choice to prepare us psychologically for air-raid idealizations—as the ultimate therapy for true Germans—if only because his autogenic training (autogenes Training) was already such a hit the spot of self-soothing in a few easy lessons. This streamlined version of yoga, that plugs the old mastery into the recent history of hypnosis and suggestion, remains, together with the sceno-test, the seemingly value-free transmission from the era of one psychotherapy for all. Before the Nazis took over, he was close enough to psychoanalysis to be considered one of the ″wild″ ones (Hans von Hattingberg...

    • Council of Marriage
      (pp. 211-213)

      Schultz proposes the ″Psychic Reasons for Infertility.″ Psychic reason number one is a deficiency in the will to procreate (Fortpflanzungswille). But this number is dedicated to those who still come out sterile, unfruitful, even though theFortpflanzungswilleseems ″genuine and serious″ (22).

      Let us remind ourselves briefly of the basic facts of bodily function. Next to local functions, the whole oscillation [Gesamtschwingung] of the organism and that deep psychic, dissolving willingness to give oneself is also necessary so that the symphony of love can resonate in both equally and evenly. It′s just in this so important and so delicate area...

    • Mohr Therapy
      (pp. 214-218)

      The World War I experience on the front of greater psychoanalysis convinced not only Fritz Mohr that every psychic disturbance or aberration could be cured or adjusted, that most breakdowns could be avoided, and, finally, that a major portion of the so-called physical illnesses remained accessible to a psychic fix on treatment (″Aus der Praxis der Psychotherapie,″ 1119). In a series of articles published between 1915 and 1917, Mohr hails Freud′s war-conditioned contribution as a new energetic eclecticism in therapy culture ranging from the mobilizations of hypnotic suggestion and electroshock all the way to long- or short-term analytic therapy. Even...

    • Hands-on Reproach
      (pp. 219-226)

      It was Heinrich Himmler′s sense (inspired by Hans Blüher′s popular World War I work on the homosexual erection of extrafamilial institutions) that institutional life (especially as it was then being radicalized inside out through the Nazi revolution) was not naturally on the side of generation. And it was this sick sense that backed his all-out confrontation with the contagion of homosexuality. It was a projective affair. Out on the streets and down the corridors of institutions, the main target of the Nazi sweep was the very origin of homosexual excess (and access): mutual masturbation or, in short, masturbation.

      Before the...

    • The Women
      (pp. 227-232)

      Leni Riefenstahl has been likened to test pilot Hanna Reitsch as the other woman who did not fit a certain down-home model of Nazi antifeminism. Riefenstahl was into planes but left the flying to Udet, even when she was playing the pilot inSOS Eisberg.

      Action! We start—Udet flew a few loops, then cut the motor and headed toward the iceberg increasingly losing tempo. I closed my eyes, and when I opened them for a split second, it seemed to me that the iceberg was collapsing on top of us. Then came the crash—a spark and the machine...

    • Colonization
      (pp. 233-234)

      In Britain the air war occasioned a necessary remobilization of psychiatry, a bit of good luck that doesn′t stop there. What was accomplished thanks to the second chance world war gave British psychiatry should never again be one time or wartime only. Even or especially in peacetime, issues ranging from industrial concerns to all the conditions of group psychology will still need to be treated. For the future, John Rawlings Rees therefore recommends more of the same: a ″broader application of analytic understanding″ (137) to be administered by ″shock troops,″ ″mobile teams of well-selected, well-trained psychiatrists″ (133).

      On Emergency Island...

  8. Taking Part

    • Buffoonery
      (pp. 237-239)

      At the U.S. end of the war, Abram Kardiner′s work on war neurosis, which Judith Herman reset as the therapeutic standard for all the accounts she′s settling on behalf of psychotherapy, poses the male-to-male bond both as problem leading to the coming out of neurotic conflict and, inoculation style, as resource that contains the impact of trauma in self-protection and self-healing. This is pre-Oedipus: the male bond, the free gift that comes with military group membership, is now the only complex that′s up for treatment. In his 1949 report back from his World War II application of a happy medium...

    • Back in the U. S. of A.
      (pp. 240-242)

      R. C. Anderson is all afterglow on the upbeat: the war gave so many boys the opportunity to realize their wish to fly that it ″is as though all the little boys of a bygone generation who dreamed of being cowboys actually had become cowboys″ (18). (I take it these ghosts are friendly?) Back in wartime there were three types who really took to the skies: the lover of flying, the schizoid, and the psychopath. But fellow flyers will look on a true lover of flying as ″somewhat apart,″ too: ″They speak of him as ′having the bug,′ ′being plane-crazy,′...

    • Boring
      (pp. 243-246)

      In 1945Psychology for the Armed Servicesentered the college level as textbook for military psychology classes. The first words of ″Acknowledgments″ by editor Edwin G. Boring: ″This book has no author″ (x). In content if not in form, now more suitable for the 1945 public forum, the book had a service record as a 1943 handbook for use in the armed services that was the work of sixty correspondents. In fact the college version builds up on a service past entombed together with the unknown authors: ″It was based in first place upon the content furnished by the sixty...

    • Consensual Text
      (pp. 247-252)

      Neuropsychiatry in World War IIis an act on improv nightmare for resisters acting out independence that has no other grounds for declaration: ″Improvisation and empirical data were the keynotes of our therapy. Psychodynamic understanding of the significance of breakdown was not part of our armamentarium″ (U.S. Army,Neuropsychiatry, 2:461). Here are some more combos that label their psychoanalysis covers as originals, started from scratch, not off the record:

      Perhaps the most important contribution of military psychiatry of World War II has not been stated. This concerns the subtle or gradual orientation of psychiatry as a result of wartime experience...

    • Getting to Know You
      (pp. 253-255)

      In ″Dug-Out Psychiatry,″ Albert Mayers offers the hardest bulletin to bite and swallow:

      It is hard to imagine the American Army as an institution producing radical change in the field of psychiatry, but this is an accomplished fact. It has provided psychotherapy for the ″normal″ person—a vast change in psychiatric orientation—and it has used psychological methods in procuring better personnel, more skilled workers, and better oriented soldiers. It has also provided methods to improve and test group mental health. Finally, the lessons which have been learned in mental maintenance can be used in the greatest of all postwar...

    • Furer
      (pp. 256-259)

      Margaret Mahler′s ″pioneering task of trying to conceptualize childhood psychosis with the frame of reference of psychoanalytic theory″ (On Human Symbiosis, vii) is just a few beats out of sync with two corners of a context, Klein′s work with children and the next generation′s work with soldiers and teenagers. But before that, at the precursor level, there′s less ambiguity. Mahler gives Victor Tausk′s 1919 study of the psychotic delusion of machines of influence plenty of referrals. Tausk′s work is propped up by the immediate context of psychoanalysis meets shell shock (Tausk contributed two pieces to the war neurosis effort). It...

    • A Couple of Fetishes
      (pp. 260-262)

      InThe Spirit and Structure of German Fascism, Robert Brady diagnoses Nazi ″science″ as ″a fetish of ′co-ordinating′″ (39) at the out-of-focal point of many boundary dissolves. Inspiration or intuition and scientific truth do overlaps together as ″inspired truth″:

      All sciences and ″culture″ must be co-ordinated and made to serve the purposes of the ″leader,″ ″total,″ ″corporate,″ ″master″ (Herren) state. Propaganda is the method. Propaganda knows neither right nor wrong, neither truth nor falsehood, but only what it wants. (42)

      There is no ″objective,″ ″universal″ scientific validity: every science shows national and racial determination (the universal notion just belongs to...

  9. Parting

    • Mummy’s the Word
      (pp. 265-271)

      Burton Stevenson began organizing his war literature in 1915 around an affair of espionage. At the end of this tour of literature, in 1918, he entered the mummy complex where cinema, psychosis, and war traumatizations were conjoined at the rip and roar of psychological warfare. In his 1915Little Comrade: The Romance of a Lady Spy in the Great War, Stevenson focuses on an upsurge of all-maleness that will wrap up the woman agent in the cross-dressing of a wound: ″′How easy it is for a man to do things!′ she remarked to nobody in particular. ′Never speak to me...

    • Hi Ya Heidegger
      (pp. 272-277)

      Heidegger′s example of a plane as the nonobject of technology (that is, as the last stand of objecthood brought to us by technology) is on the same reserve list on standby as the mummy conceived as cryogenic placeholder of return or, in Freud′s manifest, as the identificatory control panel of projections. In short order, what Freud went on to address as group psychology, Heidegger located as the metaphysical emplacement of standing reserve (Bestand). The mummy is not an object except in the mode of its concealedness. Revealed, it, like the plane on the runway, lies in wait as ″standing-reserve, inasmuch...

    • Being in Therapy
      (pp. 278-282)

      The traumatic and war neuroses stood model for the expanded psychoanalytic view of libido, which, in crisis and down the preexisting divide between its shifting teutonic plates, could also go for the ego and absorb shocks ultimately to one′s self-esteem in a stricken, grief-stuck inner world where you start over, over and again, from scratch, from the traumatic scratch in the record. Narcissistic disorders, with melancholia and schizophrenia at the front of the line, could now be targeted in theory and practice. The war record of psychoanalysis, which opened up Freud′s second system, was the only lasting victory of its...

    • The 30 Percent Reich
      (pp. 283-286)

      InThe Analysis of Dreams, Boss gives H. Schultz-Hencke, who′s all alone with Erich Fromm under ″′neo-analytical′ dream theories,″ a fair shakedown, as another Heidegger student (pre the turning to therapy) who tried to extend ″Freud′s mechanistic philosophy″ of instincts to theexperienceof them, too. He came up with a sampling of ″instinctual experiences″ that add up to more than the Freudian life or death doubles.

      Surprisingly, Schultz-Hencke concludes that ″the fact that these ′existentialist,′ ′psychic,′ or ′universally human′ factors originate in ′biological instincts,′ in no way conflicts with their spiritual character.″ (Boss,The Analysis of Dreams, 61)


    • Hey Sullivan Man
      (pp. 287-292)

      In the big open book of the history of psychodynamic therapies, Harry Stack Sullivan, like Karen Horney, Erich Fromm, and Schultz-Hencke, counts as neopsychoanalyst. For the neo world war, he was fast-forwarded from his hospital strongholds to the national headquarters of the Selective Service to serve as psychiatric adviser. But outside the corridors of his interpersonal relations, the armed services were too vast, and never as preselected as his schizophrenics on the ward, for him to shrink down to interpersonal size. In one year and out the next, he urged ever more rigorous screening of selectees. Breakdown in the war...

    • Drama Psycho
      (pp. 293-297)

      J. L. Moreno was the kind of dyadic inventor (the adolescent kind) who never made it to the third basis of patent rights. All he could do was wait and see ″who shall survive,″ the title of his autobiography, which is thus left to wait for him, by proxy:

      I am like a fellow who makes daily deposits in the bank but whenever he gets a bank statement his account shows a deficit. He must suspect that the whole system of banking is wrong.

      When I was young I had the idea for a stage which is in the center,...

    • Dichten Denken Tanken
      (pp. 298-305)

      Klaus Conrad′s psychosis research has been brought up to mark an increase in psychoticization over neurotic conditions from World War I to the second one, and to measure the growing split, following Freud′s discovery of the ″internal enemy″ of war neurosis, between war and neurosis. The latter split mixes well with the former observation that war neurosis had changed psychopathology channels and started breaking out in the psychotic patches of personalities. The hysterical brands, in other words, began putting in a disappearance. In the meantime it was the organ speech of hypochondriacal or borderline psychotic retroflection that was on the...

    • Only One Thing Missing
      (pp. 306-314)

      To say out loud what he thinks—that everyone inside there knows his thoughts—would amount, case 56 admits to Conrad, to treason (92). How does the military read the thoughts of these patients? He doesn′t know exactly what the machines look like, but one patient wagers that it must be connected with light (91). Because everyone took him to be someone he wasn′t, case 54 conceded that it could easily have something to do with espionage (81).

      In the face of this stockpiling of a significance meant for the schizophrenic only, a kind of literalization (and shutdown) of reflection...

  10. References
    (pp. 315-326)
  11. Filmography
    (pp. 327-328)
  12. Index
    (pp. 329-332)
  13. [Illustration]
    (pp. 333-334)
  14. Back Matter
    (pp. 335-335)