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Identities, Borders, Orders: Rethinking International Relations Theory

Series: Borderlines
Volume: 18
Copyright Date: 2001
Edition: NED - New edition
Pages: 360
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  • Book Info
    Identities, Borders, Orders
    Book Description:

    Informed by current debates in social theory, these contributors take up a variety of substantive, theoretical, and normative issues such as migration, nationalism, citizenship, human rights, democracy, and security. Contributors: Didier Bigo, Lothar Brock, Chris Brown, Neil Harvey, Martin O. Heisler, Rey Koslowski, Friedrich Kratochwil, Ronnie D. Lipschutz, Richard W. Mansbach, David Newman, Antje Wiener, Frankie Wilmer.

    eISBN: 978-0-8166-9173-9
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. Acknowledgments
    (pp. vii-viii)
    Mathias Albert, David Jacobson and Yosef Lapid
  4. Introduction Identities, Borders, Orders: Nudging International Relations Theory in a New Direction
    (pp. 1-20)

    “What makes the world hang together in the international sense?” asks John Ruggie. He goes on to credit this question with guiding him on his influential and innovative journey to better international relations (IR) theory (1998, 1). To understand why this deceptively simple question could perform such a formidable role, one needs to situate it in the context of what is still the accepted mode of asking questions in International Relations. Such an exercise reveals that IR’s dominant discourses have long precluded a sense that something may be seriously problematic, or genuinely puzzling, in the way in which our international...

  5. I Rethinking the “International”: IBO Clues for Post-Westphalian Mazes
    (pp. 21-28)

    This volume is premised on the idea that the road to a better theory of international relations passes through the intersections of the IBO triad. Seriously pursued, however, this road leads also to a near evaporation of the “international” as a coherent or worthwhile theoretical destination. At the beginning of the new millennium, thinking the international through IBO terms is tantamount to rethinking it. To be sure, there is still an “inter” and a “national” out there. Processes of integration and globalization have been largely matched, and perhaps exceeded, by co-occurring processes of fragmentation and disintegration. And whatever evidence there...

  6. 1 What Keeps Westphalia Together? Normative Differentiation in the Modern System of States
    (pp. 29-50)

    The new inconclusiveness of social practice that Habermas exposed to academic debate in the early eighties is still with us. If anything, things have become even more complicated after the East-West conflict has ended. As a response, issues of “culture and identity” have been meeting with a rapidly growing interest in post–Cold War theorizing on international relations (Assmann 1993; Deudney 1996; Dyer 1993; Falk 1990; Haas 1993; Lapid and Kratochwil 1996; Said 1993; Walker 1990). “Similarly, following a period of hostile indifference to ‘ideational explanations’ the time for ‘ideas’ seems to have come around once again in International Political...

  7. 2 War, Violence, and the Westphalian State System as a Moral Community
    (pp. 51-72)

    Much of global politics has been constructed on claims that people’s dominant political identity is that of citizen/national and that sovereign boundaries demarcate a familiar (and often related) “us” from an alien and other “them.” In such a world of billiard ball states, security or the regulation of violence—the raison d’être for the state and its monopoly on the legitimate use of force—consisted of protecting “us” and “our” property and interests against threats generated externally by “them.” During the twentieth century, the acceleration of state interdependence, and with it the increasing interpenetration of peoples’ identities and interests, has...

  8. 3 (B)orders and (Dis)orders: The Role of Moral Authority in Global Politics
    (pp. 73-90)

    The War over Kosovo is history! The Allies won! The Kosovars revenged! Serbia punished! Justice served! Peace in our time! Right? Perhaps. In this chapter, I propose that standard arguments about geopolitical stability, human rights violations, and “rogue” states provide an insufficient explanation for NATO’s decision to launch the Fifth Balkan War. Rather, the rationale is to be found, as Foucault might have put it, in a Western (and especially American) drive to impose its morality on nonbelievers through “discipline and punish(ment).” By bombing the remnants of Yugoslavia into submission, the NATO allies redrew the boundaries of market morality, bringing...

  9. 4 The Möbius Ribbon of Internal and External Security(ies)
    (pp. 91-116)

    For some time now, a number of those studying conflicts, strategy, international relations, or the police and the evolution of crime have made the same observation: internal and external security (traditionally two separate domains that were essentially the concern of different institutions, police and army), now appear to be converging regarding border, order, and the possible threats to identity, linked to (im)migration.

    The IBO triangle seems to be at the heart of the discussion concerning security. Security is not only a state affair, it is a boundary function. But this observation of a growing interpenetration between internal and external security...

  10. 5 Borders and Identity in International Political Theory
    (pp. 117-136)

    Neither modern political theory nor international relations theory has an impressive record when it comes to theorizing the problems posed by borders, frontiers, and identity. In the case of Anglo-American liberal political theory, the dominant tendency is to regard political life as regulated by some kind of contract, and the bounded nature of the society that contains the “contractors” is generally uninvestigated. Nonliberal approaches, on the other hand, focus more explicitly on the community, which, in principle at least, involves a greater awareness of the importance of borders—however, the impact of global social and economic change means that the...

  11. 6 Boundaries, Borders, and Barriers: Changing Geographic Perspectives on Territorial Lines
    (pp. 137-152)

    Geographers have traditionally viewed boundaries as lying at the very heart of their discipline. Since geography is concerned with the study of areal and spatial differentiation, the existence of territorial boundaries is taken as normative in the sense that the compartmentalization of social, economic, and cultural space assumes the presence of lines that separate these spaces from each other. The geographic literature in general, and the political geographic literature in particular, is replete with the study of boundaries as a category, building on numerous boundary case studies (Minghi 1963; Prescott 1987). While the bulk of this literature has focused on...

  12. II Rethinking the “Political”: Democracy, Citizenship, and Migration
    (pp. 153-160)

    Recognizing international relations as a subdivision of a broader field of political disciplines invites an interesting reformulation of John Ruggie’s puzzle. The question now becomes: “What makes the world hang together in the political sense?” Three observations make this question timely and relevant to our current concerns. First, recent developments have been no less, and perhaps more, cruel to the “political” than to the “international.” Long recognized as an essentially contested concept, scholars now wonder if even this minimal recognition is still warranted. “[I]s politics condemned to incoherence, and is political science condemned to incoherence, in a crosscutting, globalized world?”...

  13. 7 The Global Political Culture
    (pp. 161-180)

    The social organization of the world, it is now apparent, has become much more complex. Bordering has become more multifaceted of both geographic and nongeographic forms, of social, political, and economic characters. Political regimes (like human rights or the European Union) and ethnic or other forms of community and territorial states are no longer necessarily coextensive or congruent. Borders, in this broader sense, also designate inclusion and exclusion and, particularly with ethnic, religious, and other such communities, moral proximity and moral distance. It is at the interplay of these spaces or “territories”—moral, social, physical, economic, and so on—that...

  14. 8 Crossing the Borders of Order: Democracy beyond the Nation-State?
    (pp. 181-202)

    As processes of democracy are spreading across national borders, justifying authority as the main political function of democracy has become increasingly difficult to organize (Walzer 1983). Representative democracy within a political entity and based on a system of constitutionally entrenched shared values has become less feasible as processes of policy shaping and implementation, production, financial markets, and communication are no longer exclusively based on either national constitutions or international treaties. It is now increasingly problematic to draw on the norms embedded in the institutions of the liberal nation-state that have provided a stable framework for a principled relationship between a...

  15. 9 Demographic Boundary Maintenance in World Politics: Of International Norms on Dual Nationality
    (pp. 203-224)

    It is commonly assumed that the world’s population is divided among 189 states, each with its own passport used by individuals to prove his or her nationality¹ when crossing the border between one state and the other. Well, not exactly. People can be deprived of their nationality and become “stateless,” or they may acquire two or more nationalities. Individuals may acquire dual nationality at birth, through marriage, by claiming ancestral lineage, or through naturalization. Individuals with dual nationality may take advantage of the resulting conflicts of laws between states or suffer the consequences. Dual nationality often gives individuals full access...

  16. 10 Now and Then, Here and There: Migration and the Transformation of Identities, Borders, and Orders
    (pp. 225-248)

    If, as Rosenau (1997) has argued, our age is characterized by the interplay of globalism and localism, then transnational migration not only bestrides but also links these two forces.¹ It is at once a hallmark and catalog of the stresses, frustrations, and opportunities indwelling the forces of integration and fragmentation. Transnational migration significantly affects individual and collective identities, and it creates new identities. It can change the forms and meanings of borders within, as well as between, states; and it increasingly challenges, and sometimes recasts, domestic and international orders. Migration affects people and institutions at all levels, from the individual...

  17. 11 The Political Nature of Identities, Borders, and Orders: Discourse and Strategy in the Zapatista Rebellion
    (pp. 249-274)

    The armed uprising on January 1, 1994, by over three thousand Mayan Indians in the southern Mexican state of Chiapas took most observers by surprise. The Zapatista Army of National Liberation (EZLN) briefly occupied six towns in the central highlands of the state before retreating to bases in the Lacandon forest in the face of the federal army’s military offensive. The Zapatistas, who take their name from the peasant revolutionary Emiliano Zapata (1879–1919), issued a broad list of demands for “jobs, land, food, housing, health care, education, independence, liberty, democracy, justice, and peace.” Despite the Mexican government’s attempt to...

  18. Conclusion
    (pp. 275-292)

    The post–Cold War world continues in refusing to succumb to many of the theoretical designs that are on offer in the IR marketplace. The only factor that remains certain seems to be a continuing uncertainty as the prime defining characteristic of the presentconditio orbis.Such a situation provides fertile ground for arguments seeking refuge in concepts and solutions that promise at least some degree of certainty. These certainties need not take the form of simplistic concepts. They may be sought after in the form of complex research programs and designs. The ascendancy of a chronically ill-defined “constructivism” within...

  19. Bibliography
    (pp. 293-326)
  20. Contributors
    (pp. 327-330)
  21. Index
    (pp. 331-349)
  22. Back Matter
    (pp. 350-350)