Talent and Education

Talent and Education: Present Status and Future Directions

E. PAUL TORRANCE EDITOR
Volume: 4
Copyright Date: 1960
Edition: NED - New edition
Pages: 224
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5749/j.ctttsxfx
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  • Book Info
    Talent and Education
    Book Description:

    Talent and Education was first published in 1960. Minnesota Archive Editions uses digital technology to make long-unavailable books once again accessible, and are published unaltered from the original University of Minnesota Press editions. The problem of identification, development, and utilization of talented young people is a matter of prime concern to all who are interested in the welfare of the individual and the future of the nation. This book, constituting a progress report on research related to the problem, will be of particular value to educators, psychologists, social workers, community leaders, and others who are engaged in the effort to make the most of our human resources. The volume contains chapters by a number of contributors drawn from various fields in elementary, secondary, and higher education. The contributors include John E. Anderson, Robert H. Beck, Florence N. Brumbaugh, Walter W. Cook, Willis E. Dugan, Dale B. Harris, Arthur J. Lewis, Catherine Cox Miles, Mary Pilch, Maynard C. Reynolds, Anne Roe, Merrill F. Roff, Paul C. Rosenbloom, Audrey Shechtman, and E. Paul Torrance. Orville L. Freeman, governor of Minnesota, writes an indtroduction. Among the topics discussed are the nature and scientific measurement of talent, the effects of life experiences on the development of talent, the enrichment of school curricula, special grouping and acceleration in the schools, psychological aspects of some of the problems, and Russian methods of dealing with individual differences. The volume is based on papers from an Institute on Exceptional Children held at the University of Minnesota._x000B_

    eISBN: 978-1-4529-3845-5
    Subjects: Education

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-x)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. xi-xii)
  3. Part I. Introduction
    • MINNESOTA’S INTEREST IN THE IDENTIFICATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND UTILIZATION OF TALENT
      (pp. 3-6)
      Orville L. Freeman

      Education is a major responsibility of the state, and a subject of great importance to most of Minnesota’s citizens. In our efforts to reach the goal of offering to all Minnesota children the best possible education, we recognize that equality of opportunity does not mean identical opportunity. We know that the educational programs we offer must be in tune with the changing needs of society, and with the varying desires and abilities of each individual.

      Minnesota has been able to make substantial progress in its services to exceptional children, especially for those who are mentally retarded or physically handicapped. We...

  4. Part II. Talented Individuals
    • THE NATURE OF ABILITIES
      (pp. 9-31)
      John E. Anderson

      The problem before me presents some difficulty in that I am expected to cover within the limits of this paper a century of research on human abilities, research which has modified our thinking and changed our practices, both as individuals and as a society, in many ways. Like many other fields of science, it is an area in which there now are firm and well-established principles based on replicated investigations along with controversies and problems on which research still goes forward.

      Practical interest in persons of high ability has varied from time to time. Between 1900 and 1930 there was...

    • THE PSYCHOMETRIC APPROACH TO THE STUDY OF TALENT
      (pp. 32-48)
      Merrill F. Roff

      A convenient way to discuss recent psychometric developments in relation to the identification, development, and utilization of talent is in terms of trends of current work, and research programs which illustrate and make concrete these trends. Without any pretense that such a list is complete, four main trends will be discussed here.

      The first of these is the increasing emphasis on differential prediction and the use of multiple tests for whatever predictions may be desired. It may be said that World War I gave an impetus to the widespread use of measures of general intelligence. World War II was marked,...

  5. Part III. Life Experiences as Talent-Evokers
    • CRUCIAL FACTORS IN THE LIFE HISTORY OF TALENT
      (pp. 51-65)
      Catherine Cox Miles

      Within the lifetime of many of us the concept of the IQ, of tested intelligence of identifiable talent, has come to be generally accepted as valid. This means that useful prediction can be made from suitable tests administered under controlled conditions and interpreted by qualified examiners. Test results of normal, well-adjusted individuals can serve directly for classification with respect to learning capacity in usual school situations and in many instances in industry and employment. The exceptions furnish problems for teachers and clinicians and challenge investigators to further and better planned studies of individual personalities and backgrounds.

      Terman (11) in proposing...

    • CRUCIAL LIFE EXPERIENCES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENTISTS
      (pp. 66-78)
      Anne Roe

      In this paper I shall not try to distinguish sharply between cultural or biological inheritance and experience. Such a distinction could not be exact, since the development of inherited attributes is conditioned by experience in living. We do, however, need to take into consideration some of the attributes with which a person comes into the world, and some aspects of the sociocultural situation into which he is born, before discussing the impact of particular experiences.

      I shall try to distinguish between what is necessary in terms of attributes or experiences, and what is only helpful, or what is detrimental. There...

  6. Part IV. Schools as Talent-Evoking Situations
    • ENRICHMENT OF SCHOOL CURRICULA
      (pp. 81-97)
      Arthur J. Lewis

      The public schools of America have a basic purpose of helping each child achieve the maximum development of his potential abilities. The program of education developed in America has come closer to achieving this goal than has any other educational program. Unfortunately, however, our schools have not been as effective in challenging the talented as they have been in challenging those of average or below average ability. Terman, in his early study on gifted children, was one of the first to point this out. In describing the achievement of the gifted students included in his study, he stated, “The school...

    • SPECIAL GROUPING
      (pp. 98-105)
      Florence N. Brumbaugh

      Fifty years ago discussions were being held about the advisability of special grouping. Change the words from “mentally retarded” to “gifted” and one will find almost the same arguments being used today. Statements based upon assumptions without evidence have been repeated so long that they have become stereotypes accepted as facts despite the research studies that have disproved many of them.

      The public in general has become almost as hysterical as one man who recently telephoned and said, “Now that the Russians are upon us, I must give my child the best education possible.” This public, now demanding harder and...

    • ACCELERATION
      (pp. 106-125)
      Maynard C. Reynolds

      The controlling factor in most educational placement in this country is chronological age. Children enter kindergarten at the age of about five years and two months and progress year by year through the thirteen years of the public schools. Normally, they graduate from high school at about seventeen or eighteen, start college at eighteen, and graduate from college at about twenty-two.

      In this discussion the term “acceleration” will denote processes in which criteria other than chronological age become the regulators of educational advancement and in which selected children are advanced more rapidly or at younger ages than normal.

      It is...

    • A PSYCHOLOGIST LOOKS AT THE ISSUES
      (pp. 126-133)
      Dale B. Harris

      Most persons professionally concerned with education would probably agree on two basic considerations: first, that the goal of education is to allow each child to develop to the fullest all his capacities and talents; and, second, that educators today are becoming increasingly aware of the urgency of improving our identification, development, and utilization of talent.

      This sense of urgency grows out of our pressing need for intellectual leaders and for trained technicians. I suppose we would all agree, also, in our wish to avoid a one-sided crash program for the selection and training of certain specific abilities.

      There is undoubtedly...

    • THE TREATMENT OF INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN RUSSIAN SCHOOLS
      (pp. 134-146)
      Robert H. Beck

      In a very real sense individual differences are more ignored than treated in the schools of the USSR.

      This is not to say that Russian educators pay individual differences no heed. They do. There is differentiation in grading academic achievement. Pupils may earn marks ranging from a top of five to a low of one.

      Students whose ten-year record is preponderantly of fives and whose examinations at the end of the ten-year school are passed with fives will be awarded gold medals. Pupils at the lower end of the continuum of academic success will have to repeat grades if they...

  7. Part V. Brief Reports of Exploratory Studies
    • FOLLOW-UP STUDY OF GIFTED GIRLS
      (pp. 149-155)
      Audrey Shechtman

      Few if any studies of the gifted have concentrated on the attainments of the gifted girl after she matures and marries. At this point she vanishes from research reports as completely as she generally disappears from the job market. Since the routines of the domestic sphere are not usually very remarkable, this is understandable. Yet it should be of both significance and interest to learn how a person recognized as intellectually capable, socially active, and of broad interests adapts to and deals with the necessarily more confining role of housewife and mother. This study is focused on the behavior of...

    • FOLLOW-UP STUDY OF GIFTED HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES
      (pp. 156-164)
      Willis E. Dugan

      In 1954 a coordinated follow-up study was undertaken in five large suburban high schools. This cooperative study followed up all graduates in the participating schools for the years 1947, 1949, and 1951. Responses to the follow-up questionnaire were obtained from 1507 graduates, a response rate of approximately ninety per cent. Follow-up data on each of the 1507 graduates were coded on IBM cards. In cooperation with the University of Minnesota, one staff member in each participating school prepared a follow-up study report of their former students.

      In the current two-year period, 1957–59, the Graduate School of the University of...

    • PERSONALITY DYNAMICS OF UNDER-SELF-EVALUATION AMONG INTELLECTUALLY GIFTED COLLEGE FRESHMEN
      (pp. 165-172)
      E. Paul Torrance

      Educators have long recognized that much talent could be conserved if highly talented youngsters could achieve realistic self-concepts. Some years ago, many saw the testing and counseling movement as a solution to this problem. It was thought that we could “test them, tell them, and they would know.” Many counselors, teachers, administrators, and other workers soon observed, however, that the self-concepts of talented individuals who under-evaluated themselves could be quite stubborn. Many such individuals were found to discount not only test results but other data which should have been even more convincing. In tossing aside such evidence, they would explain...

    • THE ST. PAUL STUDENT DEVELOPMENTAL PROGRAM
      (pp. 173-180)
      Mary M. Pilch

      As is true with many other city school systems, St. Paul’s has been taking an especially intensive look at its curriculum provisions and methods of organization of subject areas. The schools are seeking to improve their techniques so as to bring about an increase in the intellectual stimulation of their academically talented students. They have undertaken to do this through the experimental approach; relating the organization of the experiment to the established provisions for all their secondary school students as they operate within the six junior high schools and the nine senior high schools.

      An experiment is generally undertaken to...

    • TEACHING GIFTED CHILDREN MATHEMATICS
      (pp. 181-186)
      Paul C. Rosenbloom

      In my class of gifted fifth and sixth graders, I wrote on the blackboard: 1 + 2 + 4 + 8 + 16 + . . . + 1024 = ? and told the children, “Add the first few numbers in this series and see if you can find a short way to add them all.” I had hardly gotten the words out of my mouth when little Susan shouted, “The answer is 2047!” I asked, “How did you get it?” She replied, “1 and 2 is 3, and 4 is 7, and 8 is 15, and the answer is...

  8. Part VI. Research on Identification, Development, and Utilization of Talent
    • ACTION AND RESEARCH IDEAS DEVELOPED IN SMALL GROUPS
      (pp. 189-198)
      Conference Participants

      1. Procedures for informing educational leaders and voters concerning measures coming up for legislation and how to support them should be devised. Assessment should be not only in terms of legislative support achieved but in terms of community attitudes, school climate for learning, achievement, and the like. One procedure would be to designate through some appropriate procedure highly qualified individuals to be responsible for leadership in their communities and to train these individuals for their responsibilities.

      2. Some programs for the gifted are developed and initiated by the school without collaboration with the community and others have grown out of community action...

  9. ABOUT THE AUTHORS
    (pp. 201-202)
  10. APPENDIX. ONE HUNDRED NOTABLE AMERICANS
    (pp. 203-205)
  11. INDEX
    (pp. 206-210)