Grain Storage

Grain Storage: The Role of Fungi in Quality Loss

Clyde M. Christensen
Henry H. Kaufmann
Copyright Date: 1969
Edition: NED - New edition
Pages: 172
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5749/j.ctttt0jg
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  • Book Info
    Grain Storage
    Book Description:

    The deterioration or spoilage of stored grain is a problem of serious dimension, both from the standpoint of the financial balance sheet of those engaged in commercial grain enterprises and as a formidable factor in the worldwide fight against hunger. In this useful book the authors present practical information, in non-technical language, about the causes and methods of preventing the deterioration of stored grains and seeds. The emphasis is on the role of fungi but material also is included on problems with insects, mites, and rodents in connection with grain storage. The fungi are of prime importance since not until recently have they been recognized as a major cause of loss of quality in grains and seeds. Even today many of those who deal with grains, from warehouses to management personnel, fail to realize that fungi may play a decisive role in their operations. The book will be of special interest and value to grain merchants and processors, grain elevator managers and operators, grain inspectors, agronomists and agricultural economists concerned with crop production, and many others in agricultural or food processing fields._x000B_

    eISBN: 978-0-8166-6188-6
    Subjects: Technology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. PREFACE
    (pp. v-viii)
    C. M. C. and H. H. K.
  3. Table of Contents
    (pp. ix-2)
  4. 1 THE PROBLEM OF LOSSES IN STORED GRAINS
    (pp. 3-16)

    Grains and seeds constitute a major source of foods and of raw materials for industrial processing. In 1966 there were produced in the world about 10,100,000,000 bushels of wheat and 377,450,000,000 pounds of rough rice (rice grains with the hulls on), equivalent to about 260,000,000,000 pounds of milled rice (rice seeds divested of the hulls), nearly all of which was used for human food (6). In the same year the world production of corn (maize) was about 8,500,000,000 bushels, used for food for man and domestic animals, for the manufacture of industrial and potable alcohol, and for processing for starch...

  5. 2 CHARACTERISTICS OF FIELD AND STORAGE FUNGI
    (pp. 17-35)

    Work over the past thirty years has established beyond all doubt that some of the fungi that invade stored seeds have a tremendous influence on the grade, condition, and keeping quality or storability of grains. Acquaintance with these fungi and understanding of how and where and why they grow is desirable for those who deal with stored grains and seeds, because one of the requirements of good storage is the prevention of growth of these fungi. Those who would like more background information on fungi than can be given here may consult two books (10, 15) that serve to introduce...

  6. 3 MEASUREMENT OF MOISTURE CONTENT
    (pp. 36-49)

    Accurate knowledge of the amount of water in grains and seeds is important for two reasons: (1) in merchandising, because the water is being bought and sold at the same price as the grain of which it is a part; (2) in storage, because moisture content is a major factor in storability, chiefly because of its influence upon the growth of storage fungi. The chapter “Moisture and Its Measurement” in the bookStorage of Cereal Grains and Their Products(29), published in 1954, consists of 42 pages of text and 93 references, which indicates the importance that cereal chemists attach...

  7. 4 HEATING AND RESPIRATION
    (pp. 50-64)

    The problem of heating of stored grains probably is as old as the practice of storing grains, but only very recently have we learned the causes of heating, the processes involved, and how it may be prevented. The magnitude of losses suffered from heating and accompanying spoilage in stored grains and grain products is not known, and probably would be difficult or impossible to determine. However, a couple of case histories may serve to indicate the nature and consequences of heating in stored grain.

    Plate 2 illustrates the final product of heating in a commercial bin of soybeans. The bin...

  8. 5 GERMINABILITY, DISCOLORATION, AND FAT ACIDITY VALUES
    (pp. 65-75)

    High germinability is required in seeds to be used for planting, for malting, and for the production of edible sprouts; not only must the percentage be high but the germination also should be rapid, uniform, and vigorous. In grains or seeds used for flour, starch, oil, or other products, germinability usually is of little moment, and does not enter into grading, although for wet milling corn of high germinability is preferred. Seeds that are obviously discolored or that have discolored germs are rated by inspectors as damaged, and so discoloration of either the embryo or the entire seed or kernel...

  9. Illustrations
    (pp. None)
  10. 6 MYCOTOXINS AND GRAIN QUALITY
    (pp. 76-93)

    Mycotoxicoses are diseases of animals (including man), caused by consumption of foods made toxic by fungi. These diseases undoubtedly have always been with us, but only recently have they come to be recognized as potentially important in the health of man and of his domestic animals. In 1882, nearly a century ago, a paper was published describing a disease of horses suspected of being caused by consumption of moldy feed (70), but little attention was paid to it. At that time probably few veterinarians even knew that there was a field of study such as mycology, and certainly no mycologist...

  11. 7 EVALUATION OF CONDITION AND STORABILITY
    (pp. 94-107)

    A practical means of evaluating the condition and storability of given lots of grains and seeds would be of great benefit to all those concerned with marketing, storage, and processing of grains and seeds and their products. So long as the causes of deterioration were unknown, and grain was thought to have an “urge to heat and germinate in the spring” regardless of where or how it was stored, or some lots of grain were thought to have mysterious but unexplained “inherent tendencies” to spoil, little progress could be made in predicting storability. Until very recently grain elevator personnel did...

  12. 8 DRYING, AERATION, AND REFRIGERATION
    (pp. 108-122)

    Much grain is harvested with a moisture content too high for safe storage. Sometimes this is a result of moist weather at harvest, but in regions where the relative humidity is high at night, with or without the deposition of dew, even in relatively dry weather grain harvested in early morning may have a moisture content 5%-10% above that harvested in midafternoon. We found differences greater than that in sorghum seed collected from different parts of the same heads at the same time — the grain collected about 8:00 A.M. from the top of the heads of several plants had...

  13. 9 INSECTS, MITES, AND RODENTS
    (pp. 123-140)

    Nature and extent of losses. Insects take a terrific toll of stored grains and seeds; according to an FAO report of 1948 (99), in 1947 the losses of breadgrains and rice throughout the world totaled about 33 million tons, enough to keep 150 million people alive for a year. It was estimated that at least 50% of this loss was due to insects. Such losses are not new, by any means, and their magnitude probably is much less now, as a percentage of the harvested crop, than was the case before control measures became an integral part of grain handling...

  14. References
    (pp. 141-148)
  15. Index
    (pp. 149-153)