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Student Counseling in Japan

Student Counseling in Japan: A Two-Nation Project in Higher Education

BY Wesley P. Lloyd
Copyright Date: 1953
Edition: NED - New edition
Pages: 224
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  • Book Info
    Student Counseling in Japan
    Book Description:

    Student Counseling in Japan was first published in 1953. The democratization of Japan during the allied occupation following World War II brought fundamental changes to that country’s system of higher education. As traditional authoritarianism gave way to more democratic relations between professor and student, Japanese educators recognized the need to develop more effective student personnel services in their universities. They turned for technical assistance to American specialists, and the project described in this volume, the Japanese Universities Institutes on Student Personnel Services, was the result. The institutes, conducted in Japan under the direction of Wesley P. Lloyd, then dean of students at Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, were attended by faculty representatives from nearly all the Japanese colleges and universities. The institute staffs included six Americans, in addition to the director, and a larger number of Japanese professors. Dr. Lloyd describes the planning of the institutes, the administrative procedures and operation, the academic content, and related projects and activities. He evaluates the project and recommends next steps for student personnel services in Japan. From its beginning as a hope expressed by Japanese university officials to their Ministry of Education and to the Civil Information and Education Section of the Supreme Command Allied Powers, through many months of effort to its successful conclusion, the project represented a high degree of international cooperation. This account is significant, therefore, to all who are interested in the furtherance of international understanding through the exchange of ideas and education, as well as to specialists in the fields of counseling and other student personnel services and to those with a special interest in Japan’s culture and society.

    eISBN: 978-0-8166-6351-4
    Subjects: Education

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-xii)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. xiii-2)
  3. CHAPTER 1 Studying Student Needs in Japanese Universities
    (pp. 3-8)

    AS EACH Japanese student entered the conference room, he bowed respectfully to his professors. He bowed also to members of the American faculty who were visiting the Japanese university. This gesture of respect was more than an introductory greeting—it was a symbol of the dominant spirit and tradition of Japanese education.

    Historically, the student in Japan has shown deep and ceremonious respect for the professor. It seemed to the American visitors that the present-day students, both in gesture and in word, were paying utmost deference to their professors. Yet to the Japanese professors, who in earlier years had become...

  4. CHAPTER 2 The Educational Setting
    (pp. 9-18)

    IT IS often said that Japanese higher education is taken from the German pattern. This half-truth fails to recognize the historic feudalism of the Orient and the civil law concept of authority from which the present pattern of Japanese education grew. Yet, if we disregard origins for the moment, it is not inaccurate to say that academic life in Japan has, through the decades, been characterized by a scholastic formality between professors and students that has its counterpart in the German system.

    In Japan, more than in the United States, research and the classroom lecture have tended to crowd out...

  5. CHAPTER 3 Early Planning
    (pp. 19-26)

    FEW international projects in education have been sponsored with more appropriate preliminary planning than were the Japanese Universities Institutes for Student Personnel Services. The pattern that brought them into existence could be used with effectiveness in future programs of similar type in other countries.

    Soon after the project was conceived and funds had been raised for its operation, technical counsel was sought from professional educational organizations in the United States. On February 12, 1951, the chief of the Reorientation Division of the Department of the Army and appropriate staff personnel met in Washington with officials of the United States Office...

  6. CHAPTER 4 Administrative Procedures and Operation
    (pp. 27-64)

    IN THE administration of the Japanese Universities Institutes for Student Personnel Services there were no ready-made formulas to follow. The project was unique to the time and place. Thus the experience, training, and insight of the faculties, bolstered by generous contributions from officials of the Ministry of Education, could be given full play in developing appropriate administrative procedures.

    In setting up the Institutes the resources of the American faculty were of primary importance in the specialized work of establishing courses and methods in a technical field. The American educators were frankly informed that the substance of the actual course had...

  7. CHAPTER 5 Academic Content of the Institutes
    (pp. 65-96)

    NO COMPREHENSIVE discussion of the subject matter treated in the Institutes will be attempted in this chapter. The thirty-seven morning lectures covering twenty areas of emphasis have been condensed into one volume, translated into Japanese, and published by the Ministry of Education.* Supplementing the printed volume are section reports and individual notes of the participants, many of which were mimeographed and distributed during the Institutes. These are on file in the Ministry of Education offices. The picture of the Institutes presented here is not complete, however, without at least a summary of the areas of subject matter considered by the...

  8. CHAPTER 6 Institute-Related Projects and Activities
    (pp. 97-123)

    THERE was evidence at the beginning of the work that the Institutes alone could have little effect on the establishment of new concepts and practices of student personnel services in Japan. Merely to introduce such training to one or two members of a faculty of each university was insufficient to meet the critical need. By July 1951 it was evident that the Institutes had received the enthusiastic support of the Steering Committee, officials of the Ministry of Education, and a few university presidents. It was equally evident that the larger body of Japanese educators were passive regarding it and had...

  9. CHAPTER 7 Evaluating the Project
    (pp. 124-139)

    MAJOR contributions of the Institutes can be determined most accurately several years after the end of the project. No attempt was made at complete evaluation during the year when the program was in operation. There were certain phases of evaluation, however, that could be done more appropriately at that time than later. Conditions immediately following the Institutes, and even during the sessions, were ideal for a study of the attitudes of participants, faculties, and educational agencies toward the principles and procedures of the Institutes. And it was not too early to detect certain concrete results.

    We will consider in this...

  10. CHAPTER 8 Next Steps in Student Personnel Services in Japan
    (pp. 140-158)

    DURING 1951–52 Japanese educators gave more thought and attention to student personnel services than to any other single factor in the operation of higher education in Japan, with the possible exception of the annual life-preserving struggle to guarantee operating budgets. The year’s effort was shared by a faculty of American specialists who, in addition to their technical contributions, studied general problems of university operation as they relate to student services. In the course of the year’s work the visiting faculty from the United States developed not only a friendly interest but also a genuine concern for the future progress...

  11. CHAPTER 9 From Philosophy to Practice
    (pp. 159-166)

    AT THE end of the year of the Institutes in Japan the American faculty returned to their university posts in the United States. There they could look with perspective on the developing field of student personnel work in Japan—and with fresh vision on student services in their own nation, which has been a pioneer in the field.

    In contrast to the rapid progress during one year in Japan, these services had developed slowly over the years in the United States. Yet the general trend is now a common one in the two nations. It has come to focus in...

  12. APPENDIX I Explanatory Statement Given by the General Director on the Meaning of Student Personnel Services
    (pp. 169-170)
  13. APPENDIX II Steering and Advisory Committees
    (pp. 171-172)
  14. APPENDIX III Faculty Members and Adviser - Interpreters
    (pp. 173-173)
  15. APPENDIX IV Participants in Institutes for Student Personnel Services
    (pp. 174-178)
  16. APPENDIX V Participants in the Presidents’ Conferences
    (pp. 179-185)
  17. APPENDIX VI Participants in the Deans’ Conferences
    (pp. 186-189)
  18. APPENDIX VII Letter from the Chief of CIE to Japanese University Presidents
    (pp. 190-191)
  19. APPENDIX VIII Newsletter of December 10, 1951
    (pp. 192-193)
  20. APPENDIX IX Constitutions of Japanese Personnel Associations
    (pp. 194-195)
  21. APPENDIX X Program for Regional Workshops
    (pp. 196-197)
  22. APPENDIX XI Participants in Pusan Conference
    (pp. 198-198)
  23. Index
    (pp. 199-204)