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In Place/Out of Place

In Place/Out of Place: Geography, Ideology, and Transgression

Tim Cresswell
Copyright Date: 1996
Edition: NED - New edition
Pages: 216
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  • Book Info
    In Place/Out of Place
    Book Description:

    In Place/Out of Place seeks to illustrate the ways in which the idea of geographical deviance is used as an ideological tool to maintain an established order. Cresswell looks at graffiti in New York City, the attempts by various “hippie” groups to hold a free festival at Stonehenge during the summer solstices of 1984-86, and the Greenham Common Women’s Peace Camp in Berkshire, England.

    eISBN: 978-0-8166-8567-7
    Subjects: Population Studies

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. Acknowledgments
    (pp. vii-viii)
  4. Part 1. The Terrain of Discussion:: Definitions, Concepts, and Arguments

    • Chapter 1 Introduction
      (pp. 3-10)

      There are many instances in our everyday existence when we use the wordplace.On some occasions we use it to refer to a building or a location—a rendezvous or site of significance. On other occasions the wordplaceturns up in common phrases such as “a place for everything and everything in its place” or “know your place” or “she was put in her place.” In these expressions the wordplaceclearly refers to something more than a spatial referent. Implied in these terms is a sense of the proper. Something or someonebelongsin one place and...

    • Chapter 2 Geography, Ideology, and Transgression: A Relational Ontology
      (pp. 11-28)

      Geography has traditionally been ignored in critical theory. Class, gender, and race are often treated as if they happened on the head of a pin.¹ There is no intention here to supersede or somehow replace discussion of social processes. Rather I hope to add to these important discussions in a critical way. A discussion of the role of the geographic environment—the power of place — in cultural and social processes can provide another layer in the understanding and demystifying of the forces that effect and manipulate our everyday behavior. It should be read in addition to, rather than instead of,...

  5. Part 2. Heretical Geographies

    • Chapter 3 Heretical Geography 1: The Crucial “Where” of Graffiti
      (pp. 31-61)

      The scene is New York City as it enters the 1970s. This was to be a troubled decade for the world city. The city budget was steadily heading into a large deficit and the infrastructure was crumbling. The city was on the slippery slope leading to the famous fiscal crisis of 1976. Under Mayor John Lindsay and Mayor Abraham Beame increasingly severe “austerity measures” were imposed on the city, leading to a rapid and highly visible decline in its physical fabric. Fifty-one bridges faced collapse, and many of the city’s six thousand miles of sewers threatened to do the same....

    • Chapter 4 Heretical Geography 2: The Sacred and the Profane — Stonehenge and the Hippy Convoy
      (pp. 62-96)

      In the midsummer of 1992 the newspapers of Britain were awash with grim stories of thousands of (mostly young) people referred to as “newage-travellers.”¹ They were meeting in Wales for festivals, traveling in cars, caravans, and buses. TheDaily Mail,a solidly right-wing British tabloid, had sent an undercover reporter to explain this phenomenon. The reporter stayed with the travelers in the county of Powys. His report, which appeared on 28 July, was headed, “Once it was a verdant hillside, now an army of 20th century no-hopers has turned it into a mire of nihilism.” Under this, in still bigger...

    • Chapter 5 Heretical Geography 3: Putting Women in Their Place — Greenham Common
      (pp. 97-146)

      Deep in the heart of England there lies a town called Newbury. It is a town in the “home counties” — an area extending west of London across the south Midlands. It is an area often represented in caricatures of rolling hills and grazing sheep, a green landscape dotted with small English towns and villages worn by history. Old weathered stone pubs and churches surround village centers and flat green cricket grounds, which are decorated with white-linen-clad players every weekend. It is a bucolic scene that attracts tourists and home buyers alike. Narrow roads wind through the fields flanked by hedgerows,...

  6. Part 3. Conclusions

    • Chapter 6 Place and Ideological Strategies
      (pp. 149-162)

      The geographical ordering of society is founded on a multitude of acts of boundary making — of territorialization — whose ambiguity is to simultaneously open up the possibilities for transgression. In order to fully understand the range of a society’s geographical values, it is enlightening to map out geographical deviance and transgressions. By concentrating on the marginal and the “low,” the “other,” we achieve a novel perspective upon itscentralworkings. The geographical classification of society and culture is constantly structured in relation to the unacceptable, the other, the dirty. Graffiti, the Greenham protest, and the Stonehenge convoy help define the delineations...

    • Chapter 7 Place, Transgression, and the Practice of Resistance
      (pp. 163-176)

      The fact that space and place are useful surrogates for more direct forms of power leads to an interesting, albeit unintended, consequence. Robert Sack has pointed out that, for a variety of reasons, space is often used to control people and things.¹ A father who wants to stop his restless child from breaking valuable plates can either explain in detail the problems that arise when small hands handle big plates, or he can, to the same effect, declare the kitchen a “no-go-zone.” Capitalist bosses can control workers by controlling the space of production. Police can keep a watchful eye on...

  7. Notes
    (pp. 177-196)
  8. Index
    (pp. 197-200)
  9. Back Matter
    (pp. 201-201)