Skip to Main Content
Have library access? Log in through your library
The Life and Works of the Troubadour Raimbaut D’Orange

The Life and Works of the Troubadour Raimbaut D’Orange

Copyright Date: 1952
Edition: NED - New edition
Pages: 244
  • Cite this Item
  • Book Info
    The Life and Works of the Troubadour Raimbaut D’Orange
    Book Description:

    The Life and Works of the Troubadour Raimbaut D’Orange was first published in 1952. This scholarly work presents all the can be gleaned from history and literature concerning the twelfth-century Provencal troubadour-prince, Raimbaut d’Orange. There is a section on Raimbaut’s historical background, another providing an analytical study of his poetry, and a third giving the Old Provencal texts of the poems with variants, English translations, and notes. Texts of a apocryphal works, summaries of biographical documents and the text of the Provencal vida are given in appendixes. There are also a glossary and an index of a proper names from the poems. Previous studies of the troubadours have been largely based on the romantic concept of their lives. This study assembles existing factual knowledge and relates it in historical perspective to the troubadour’s epoch and environment.

    eISBN: 978-1-4529-3671-0
    Subjects: Language & Literature

Table of Contents

Export Selected Citations Export to NoodleTools Export to RefWorks Export to EasyBib Export a RIS file (For EndNote, ProCite, Reference Manager, Zotero, Mendeley...) Export a Text file (For BibTex)
  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-viii)
  2. Table of Abbreviations
    (pp. ix-x)
  3. Table of Concordance
    (pp. xi-xii)
  4. Table of Contents
    (pp. xiii-xiv)
  5. Part One. The Historical Raimbaut d'Orange

    • 1. Introductory
      (pp. 3-3)

      The lives of the troubadours have, until recent times, been viewed through a glamorous prism, which has distorted them and dressed them with romantic colors. Until a few years ago, it was customary to start a troubadour's life with his Provençal vida, made up almost entirely of the love affairs of the poet as invented by a biographer who knew little more than we of the real facts of the poet's life. Even after modern scholars had shown that the vidas were, in the main, delightful but unhistorical fiction, students of Provençal letters still unconsciously followed the same method which,...

    • 2. Printed and Manuscript Sources
      (pp. 3-6)

      Raimbaut d'Orange, as both a feudal lord and a troubadour, belongs to the two spheres of history and literature. In consequence, some notice of his life occurs in a considerable number of books; but when we analyze the alleged facts of his life, we find them few in number and of disputed authenticity. If, in particular, we try to trace these biographical data back to documents (disregarding for a moment the Provençal vida and statements in works of Raimbaut or other troubadours) we find that the number of early sources used by either historians or literary critics is pitifully small....

    • 3. Raimbaut’s Times
      (pp. 7-10)

      With the source material thus marshalled we can reconstruct much of Raimbaut d'Orange's life, although we are still far from anything like a complete biography. First I intend to trace in broad lines the historical environment in which the troubadour lived.

      Previously Raimbaut's activity was always thought to have centered uniquely in the Principality of Orange, while now it clearly appears from our documents that Omelas was another focus of equal importance. Raimbaut's activities in these two areas were interwoven with the destinies of two families, and to understand their position in the feudal world is to comprehend his also....

    • 4. Raimbaut’s Family
      (pp. 10-13)

      We have seen that Raimbaut d'Orange followed the policies of Montpellier and Baux,¹ who both usually took their course from Barcelona. He was particularly dependent on his guardians because of the death of both his parents during his early years. It is probable that he could scarcely remember his mother. She made her will in 1150 and probably died soon thereafter,² when Raimbaut, the child of her old age, was probably six years old, and certainly not more than nine.

      Tiburge's family was originally from Nice.³ Her grandfather had inherited Orange in 1046. Her father, also named Raimbaut d'Orange, took...

    • 5. Raimbaut’s Economic Position
      (pp. 13-17)

      If we turn to Guillaume d'Omelas' will and read the sonorous phrases by which he makes Raimbaut his heir to the "castle of Omelas, with all its dependencies and towns, farms, bailies, and to the castle of Montarnaud, and to the castle of Poupian, and to the castle of Poujet, and to the castle of Frontignan, and to the castle of Villeneuve, and to the 'forcia' and fief of Mireval, and to the castle of Pignan, with all that in the aforesaid regions and in their dependencies I have, or am supposed to have, or any man or any woman...

    • 6. Raimbaut’s Household
      (pp. 18-18)

      Any nobleman had in addition to his vassals a large group of dependents to collect his rents and to administer those castles and lands in the immediate domain of their lord.¹ A list of Raimbaut's own feudatories can be made from the homages done to him and from the men who went security for him when he mortgaged his lands. There were some thirteen of these people — Amalric,² Ermengaus,³ Raymond Guillaume,⁴ and Rostang,⁵ all from Pignan; the three castellans of Omelas, Berenguer d'Omelas,⁶ Raymond Fournier,⁷ and Hugues d'Albaigna;⁸ as well as Armand d'Omelas,⁹ Pierre de Lavérune,10Pierre de "Roca...

    • 7. Raimbaut’s Military Position
      (pp. 19-20)

      While we can place Raimbaut in his times and see his relations with the important forces of his days, we cannot, of course, give a year by year account of his activities. Let us consider some of the military events of his day which must have interested him and in which he might have been involved.

      To what extent he took part in war we can only conjecture; but my impression is that Raimbaut had no great zest for military activity. He mentions war or the weapons of war in some of his works, offering, for example, to take arms...

    • 8. Raimbaut’s Relations to the Literary World
      (pp. 21-25)

      A conventional manner of praising a medieval nobleman was to say that he was wise among wise men and foolish among the fools.¹ With this convention in mind Peire Rogier advises Raimbaut to be more foolish and not to make himself feared because of his learning:

      No·us fassatz de sen trop temer

      Per qu'om digua: "trop es senatz,"

      Qu'en tal luec uos ualra foudatz

      On sens no·us poyria ualer;

      Tant quant aurez pel saur e bai

      E·l cors aissi fresquet e gai,

      Grans sens no·us er honors ni pros.²

      Peire must be thinking at least partially of Raimbaut's early Marcabrunesque...

    • 9. Raimbaut’s Death and Heirs
      (pp. 25-27)

      The document which I have called Raimbaut's will is more properly the record of testimony given by witnesses of his death and their statements about the disposition he made of his lands.¹ Our troubadour died on May 10, 1173, at Courthézon, in the "old chamber" of his castle, parts of which are incorporated in a château which now occupies the center of the town. According to the testimony, Raimbaut was in his last illness when he disposed of his properties, giving those west of the Rhone to Adhemar de Murviel and Tiburgette, and those east of the river to Bertrand...

    • [Illustrations]
      (pp. None)
    • 10. A Second Raimbaut and the Countess of Die
      (pp. 27-30)

      While the history of Orange after the death of Raimbaut III is not our primary concern, we must give some consideration to at least one later ruler, Raimbaut IV, whose activities and poetic works have been easily confused with those of his great predecessor. Raimbaut IV was the descendant of Guillaume II, brother of our troubadour, who left two children, Tiburge IV and Guillaume III. The latter married Chauza, the widow of Raimbaut d'Agout, Lord of Apt, Gordes, and Caseneuve, by which first marriage she had already had a number of children. The only offspring of her second marriage seems...

  6. Part Two. Raimbaut's Works

    • 11. Questions of Authorship
      (pp. 33-36)

      Before studying the literary aspects of Raimbaut's production, we must first endeavor to establish the canon of his work. The number of disputed attributions is small.

      Poem 389, 24 is without question the work of the younger Raimbaut d'Orange. In it we hear of a "lady of Brion" who has a good influence on the inhabitants of the Valentinois (vv. 14, 25-30).¹ Ademar de Poitiers, Count of Valentinois (ruled 1188?-1230) married Phillipe de Faye, who possessed several castles in the Vivirais (Ardèche).² Brion was a domain of the Valentinois family located in the Vivirais, quite possibly one of the territories...

    • 12. The Chronology of Raimbaut’s Works
      (pp. 36-45)

      After thus eliminating from the poems ascribed to Raimbaut III those which I believe pertain to Raimbaut IV, it becomes necessary to study the remaining works to put them into their order of composition. For this purpose we can make use of the few historical allusions which enable us to place certain poems exactly, but we shall have to depend in the main on much less tangible evidence, such as allusions to the poet's age, the extent of his reputation, the quantity of his previous composition, his changes in literary style and versification, and finally the possibility of grouping together...

    • 13. Raimbaut’s Versification
      (pp. 45-52)

      The most weighty part of Appel's brochure on Raimbaut is his study of Raimbaut's technique in verse and its relations to earlier forms.¹ In résumé, Appel finds that Raimbaut continues many archaic practices, derived especially from Marcabru; but not content with mere imitation he increases even more the technical difficulties already found in the earlier troubadours. Appel demonstrates that Raimbaut emphasizes difficult and grammatical rhymes, word rhymes, isolated rhymes, and other elements which permit his virtuosity to manifest itself. In these trends he foreshadows Arnaut Daniel.

      We must re-examine closely the verse technique of Raimbaut's poems and then, by comparison...

    • 14. Raimbaut’s Language and Style
      (pp. 52-57)

      Since the troubadours' poems were copied many times before reaching the manuscripts in which we now have them preserved, we cannot be sure that unusual word forms are attributable to the authors themselves (and not to the copyists) unless these forms are rhyme words. The rhyme generally allows us to state with confidence what the troubadour's original word actually was. In addition, many of the most unusual words are apt to appear in rhymes, especially when the poet indulged In rimas caras.

      In Raimbaut's works there are many strange rhyme words, a number of which are unique, hence partially or...

    • 15. The Content of Raimbaut’s Poems
      (pp. 57-61)

      It is difficult to draw a line between style and content. I could deal with Raimbaut's wit and humor under style as well as under content. The reason I treat the subject here is that Raimbaut's humor is so frequently a vehicle of satire, and this is a question of ideas rather than methods.

      Literary satire is evident in a number of poems. Sometimes it takes the form of a direct attack, as when Raimbaut upbraids Giraut de Bornelh for having spoken ill of trobar clus,¹ or when Raimbaut chides both Giraut and the youthful Alfonso II of Aragon for...

    • 16. Raimbaut’s Rank among the Troubadours
      (pp. 61-62)

      Modern historians of Provençal literature are apt to point out the monotonous uniformity of the troubadours' subject matter and the overingenious methods of presentation by which the authors sought to give variety to their threadbare themes. But in spite of these denunciations of the group they often treat in a relatively kindly manner some of the worst offenders on both scores — unoriginality of material and overoriginality of style.

      Three good examples are Arnaut Daniel, Peire d'Alvernhe, and Giraut de Bornelh. All have the approval of modern critics, despite the faults common to the school. But — and this is...

  7. Part Three. The Texts of Ralmbaut's Works

  8. Appendixes

  9. Glossary of Words Discussed in the Notes
    (pp. 221-223)
  10. Index of Proper Names in the Poems
    (pp. 224-225)