Developing Partnerships

Developing Partnerships: Gender, Sexuality, and the Reformed World Bank

KATE BEDFORD
Copyright Date: 2009
Edition: NED - New edition
Pages: 328
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5749/j.ctttt2r0
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  • Book Info
    Developing Partnerships
    Book Description:

    A critique of how the World Bank encourages gender norms, Developing Partnerships argues that financial institutions are key players in the global enforcement of gender and family expectations. By combining analysis of documents produced and sponsored by the World Bank with interviews of World Bank staffers and case studies, Kate Bedford presents a detailed examination of gender and sexuality in the policies of the world’s most influential development institution.

    eISBN: 978-0-8166-7043-7
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-viii)
  3. ABBREVIATIONS
    (pp. ix-x)
  4. INTRODUCTION
    (pp. xi-xxxiv)

    In the spring of 2007 the World Bank—the world’s largest and most influential development institution—had a sex scandal. The most mainstream of commentators were talking about development institutions, sex, and money in the same sentence.¹ World Bank President Paul Wolfowitz was forced out of office on the grounds that he had used his influence to get his partner, development specialist Shaha Riza, a large pay raise when she was transferred out of the organization as a result of his appointment. In typically narcissistic Washington DC fashion, this scandal was known as Rizagate. Wolfowitz’s opponents—and they were many...

  5. 1 WORKING WOMEN, CARING MEN, AND THE FAMILY BANK Ideal Gender Relations after the Washington Consensus
    (pp. 1-34)

    When the world’s largest development organization moved beyond the Washington Consensus, it moved to a new gender approach as well. This chapter provides an overview of that process. It summarizes the Bank’s journey to the post–Washington Consensus as laid out in prominent speeches and documents emanating from its headquarters in Washington DC, and it analyzes that journey through a gender lens, considering how gender concerns figure in the transition and how gender policy is being reformulated. In doing so it seeks to link the Bank’s macroeconomic debates to its shifts in gender policy. This may appear a peculiar focus...

  6. 2 THE MODEL REGION REMODELS PARTNERSHIPS The Politics of Gender Research in Latin America and the Caribbean
    (pp. 35-64)

    This chapter explores how the Washington DC approach outlined in chapter 1 affects regional policy. What did the Bank’s journey to the new development model look like from a regional perspective, and how should the connections between macroeconomic shifts and changes in gender policy be understood regionally? I focus on the work of gender staff in the Bank’s Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) region to answer these questions, since this is a key site for debates about the need for a post–Washington Consensus dealing with inequality, poverty, and institutional reform. In particular, the Bank’s LAC staff invoked the notion...

  7. 3 FORGING PARTNERSHIPS, SIDELINING CHILD CARE How Ecuadorian Femocrats Navigate Institutional Constraints in World Bank Gender Policy
    (pp. 65-98)

    This chapter traces the World Bank’s gender activities down to the country level, moving from analysis of policy documents to the experiences of policymakers. It aims to shed light on theimplementationof the Bank’s gender interventions, exploring how staff make sense of their work, how they try to fit gender into Bank’s organizational mandates, and how such mandates constrain policy output. I focus on policy entrepreneurs working in the Bank’s Ecuadorian resident mission, an important site for debates about LAC gender policy. I suggest that the Bank’s Ecuadorian gender staff are positioned as neither insiders nor outsiders, occupying a...

  8. 4 ROSES MEAN LOVE Export Promotion and the Restructuring of Intimacy in Ecuador
    (pp. 99-126)

    I suggested in previous chapters that better links need to be made by researchers between the Bank’s macroeconomic agenda and its gender policy if we are to more comprehensively understand the complex interaction between market-restructuring processes and the reform of intimacies. Here I turn to the gendered and sexualized nature of the Bank’s policy-based lending in Ecuador, focusing on export promotion in general and the flower industry in particular. Although trade liberalization and export promotion loans are usually analyzed as gender neutral, there is a clear awareness within the Bank that both are connected to gender concerns through their effects...

  9. 5 CULTURES OF SAVING AND LOVING Ethnodevelopment, Gender, and Heteronormativity in PRODEPINE
    (pp. 127-160)

    Between 1998 and 2004 the World Bank lent US $25 million to the Ecuadorian government for PRODEPINE, a loan oriented to indigenous and Afro-Ecuadorian communities. In this chapter I use PRODEPINE as a case study of how gender, sexuality, and race and ethnicity intertwine in a Bank-supported project, hereby aiming both to take gender and sexuality seriously in ethnodevelopment and to take ethnodevelopment critically as a heteronormative project. Put bluntly, sexuality saturates PRODEPINE. The loan is a site for mestiza feminist investment in an idealized, authentically indigenous sexual equality; a site for defense of male dominance read as gender complementarity;...

  10. 6 HOLDING IT TOGETHER Family Strengthening in Argentina
    (pp. 161-200)

    In November 2001 the Bank approved a US $5 million loan to Argentina for a social capital promotion and family-strengthening project entitled PROFAM. This was another manifestation of the Bank’s new advice on gender policy, in that PROFAM sought to empower poor women through work, include poor men as fathers and responsible partners, and shore up poor families in order to secure economic recovery. In this chapter I explore how the loan was developed and implemented, paying particular attention to how itchangedas the Bank and the state responded to the economic and political crisis experienced by Argentina in...

  11. CONCLUSION
    (pp. 201-216)

    Developing Partnershipsopened with a disjuncture between effusive commentary about sex in terms of Paul Wolfowitz’s removal and widespread silence about the use of development resources to actively reconfigure poor people’s intimate attachments. I intended to intervene in that space, to extend our debates about how sexuality is relevant to development. I asked what we might learn about international political economy by looking at how intimacy is governed by the world’s largest development organization, hereby seeking to interrogate the scope and nature of recent changes to development hegemony through a gender and sexuality lens. To conclude, I wish to briefly...

  12. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    (pp. 217-218)
  13. NOTES
    (pp. 219-244)
  14. BIBLIOGRAPHY
    (pp. 245-286)
  15. INDEX
    (pp. 287-292)
  16. Back Matter
    (pp. 293-293)