Minnesota History

Minnesota History: A Study Outline

THEODORE C. BLEGEN
Copyright Date: 1931
Edition: NED - New edition
Pages: 80
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5749/j.ctttt545
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  • Book Info
    Minnesota History
    Book Description:

    This valuable syllabus on Minnesota history is designed primarily as an aid to teachers, students, and study clubs. In the first twenty-four pages Dr. Blegen discusses the scope of Minnesota history and summarizes and classifies the historical materials available. The remaining pages begin with the Physical Basis of Minnesota Life and end with Minnesota Literature and Allied Interests. A topical outline, a series of questions and suggestions, and a list of references, are provided for each topic. The references are discriminating rather than exhaustive. The bulk of the material cites is published in Minnesota, but the publications of surrounding states, and even articles in Fortune and News-week are noted. -JSTOR: The Mississippi Valley Historical Review, Vol. 24, No. 1 (Jun., 1937), pp. 122-123

    eISBN: 978-1-4529-3732-8
    Subjects: Education

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. COMMENTS AND SUGGESTIONS
    (pp. vii-xiii)
  4. A TOPICAL CORRELATION OF MINNESOTA AND AMERICAN HISTORY
    (pp. xiv-xvi)
  5. TOPICAL OUTLINES
    • I. THE GEOGRAPHY OF MINNESOTA
      (pp. 1-2)

      1. Minnesota’s place in the large geographic areas of the united states

      2. Main surface features of the state and their effect upon its history

      Some effects of glaciation. Forest and prairie areas. Rivers and lakes. Water transportation as a factor in Minnesota history. Relation of forests, prairies, lakes, rivers, and climate to settlement.

      3. Important natural resources of the state

      4. Plant and animal life

      5. Meaning of the word “minnesota”

      1. Show on an outline map the following.—Towns: Grand Portage, Duluth, Brainerd, Taylor’s Falls, Marine (Mills), Stillwater, Mankato, New Ulm, St. Peter, Pembina, Hastings, Moorhead, Breckenridge;Lakes: Rainy, Lake of the Woods, Mille...

    • II. THE INDIANS OF MINNESOTA
      (pp. 3-4)

      1. Native tribes

      The Dakota, or Sioux, Indians. The Ojibwa, or Chippewa. Comparison of the two nations. Early intertribal relations.

      2. Aspects of indian life in minnesota

      Tribal organization. Villages and dwellings. Occupations. Food and clothing. Means of transportation. Warfare. Religion, dances, and games. Marriage.

      3. Effects of civilization on minnesota indian life

      1. Note the respective regions occupied by the Sioux and the Chippewa in Minnesota after 1825. Map in Folwell,History of Minnesota, 1: 80. Note also the locations of the more important Indian villages.

      2. Suggest some inventions or customs of the white men that altered the habits of life of the...

    • III. THE FRENCH RÉGIME
      (pp. 5-7)

      1. Qualities of the french of advantage in opening up the wilderness

      2. Early explorations of the west

      Champlain. Nicolet. Radisson and Groseilliers.

      3. Official explorations

      Talon, intendant. St. Lusson. Jolliet and Marquette. Frontenac, governor-general. La Salle. Accault and Hennepin. The discovery of the Falls of St. Anthony. Hennepin’s writings.

      4. Du luth

      Statesman-explorer. Mille Lacs, 1679. Meeting with Hennepin, 1680. Importance for French control of the West.

      5. Attempts at occupation

      Perrot and Le Sueur. Fort L’Huillier. Withdrawal. Reoccupation. La Perrière and the Jesuits; Fort Beauharnois; the Mission of St. Michael the Archangel.

      6. La vérendrye and his sons

      Expedition of 1731. The building of...

    • IV. BRITISH EXPLORATION AND POLITICAL CONTROL
      (pp. 8-9)

      1. British control and occupation

      The situation of the British in the West after the French surrender. The Proclamation of 1763.

      2. Robert rogers and jonathan carver

      The plans of Robert Rogers. The expedition of James Tute and the search for the Northwest Passage. The relation of Carver to Rogers and Tute. The extent of Carver’s travels in Minnesota. Carver’s book. His historical importance. The Carver claim.

      3. From the revolution to the war of 1812

      The Quebec Act, 1774. The Treaty of Paris, 1783; the title to Minnesota East; land cession by Virginia. The Ordinance of 1787; David Thompson and his map....

    • V. THE FUR TRADE DURING THE BRITISH RÉGIME
      (pp. 10-11)

      1. The period of beginnings, 1760–1775

      2. Main areas of the fur trade

      3. Organization and methods of the trade

      Commercial hierarchy. Classes of men. Thevoyageur. Early companies. Rivalry of companies and expansion of operations. Peter Pond on the upper Minnesota, 1773–74. The Northwest Company. Kinds of furs. Trade goods. The credit system.

      4. Trading posts in minnesota

      The importance of Grand Portage. Fort Charlotte. Cadotte. Perrault and the post at Fond du Lac. Leech Lake. Sandy Lake. The situation in the Red River Valley. Alexander Henry the Younger.

      5. The end of british control

      The conflict of John Jacob Astor with...

    • VI. AMERICAN EXPLORATION AND MILITARY OCCUPATION
      (pp. 12-14)

      1. Jefferson and the acquisition of minnesota west

      2. Zebulon pike and his expedition of 1805–1806

      Instructions. Indian treaty. Journey to northern Minnesota. Leech Lake. General results.

      3. Erection of military posts in the upper mississippi valley

      Calhoun’s board of officers. Major Long, 1817. Thomas Forsyth, 1819. Leavenworth and the establishment of Fort St. Anthony, later Fort Snelling. Kearney, 1820. Early history of Fort Snelling.

      4. Explorers and expeditions, 1820–1849

      Expedition of Governor Cass, 1820: objects; routes; results. Long expedition of 1823; exploration of the Red River Valley. Giacomo C. Beltrami and his book. Schoolcraft and the source of the Mississippi, 1832:...

    • VII. THE AGENCY SYSTEM, INDIAN FEUDS, AND THE FUR TRADE
      (pp. 15-17)

      1. Lawrence taliaferro and the agency system

      Main problems of the Indian agent. His qualifications. Relations with Fort Snelling officers. Civilizing efforts.

      2. The sioux-chippewa feud

      The Fort Crawford conference, 1825, and the Indian boundary line. Nature of tribal warfare. Clashes between the two traditional enemies. Examples of primitive justice: the running of the gauntlet, 1827. Intertribal clashes in 1839 and 1842.

      3. The fur trade in the american period

      Nature, extent, posts, and outfits. The American Fur Company : range of its activities; work of Sibley; rivalries; independent traders. The problem of liquor in Minnesota Indian relations. Reasons for decline of the...

    • VIII. THE MINNESOTA INDIAN MISSIONS
      (pp. 18-19)

      1. The minnesota indian mission field

      Opened in the twenties following inauguration of new American governmental civilization plan. Sporadic earlier work by Canadian Catholics along the border.

      2. Contest among the sects

      Contest prior to Grant’s policy of 1869, among theChippewa: Presbyterians (Stevens), the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (Ayer, Hall, Boutwell, Ely, the Pokegama mission), Catholics (Baraga, Pierz, the Jesuits), Methodists (Clark, Brunson, Spates), English Wesleyans (Allen, Salt, Peter Jacobs), German Lutherans (Rabbit Lake mission), Episcopalians (James L. Breck); among theSioux: Coe and the Fort Snelling school, the Pond brothers, Stevens, the Lake Harriet mission, Williamson, Huggins,...

    • IX. SETTLEMENT IN MINNESOTA PRIOR TO 1849
      (pp. 20-21)

      1. Lord selkirk’s settlement on the red river

      Swiss and other colonists. The feud between the Hudson’s Bay Company and the Northwest Company. Union in 1821. The trek to the region about Fort Snelling.

      2. The beginnings of st. paul

      Evictions of settlers on the Fort Snelling reservation. The visit of Bishop Loras, 1839. Father Lucian Galtier. Early St. Paul history.

      3. The st. croix settlements

      Stillwater and the lumber trade.

      4. Settlement at st. anthony falls

      Natural advantages. Franklin Steele. Sawmilling. Town beginnings.

      5. Relative advantages of early minnesota settlements

      Trade relations with the Red River settlements. Importance of the Mississippi. General settlement situation...

    • X. THE MAKING OF MINNESOTA TERRITORY
      (pp. 22-23)

      1. Changes in jurisdiction over minnesota

      Minnesota East: part of Northwest Territory to 1800; in Indiana Territory to 1809; Illinois Territory to 1818; then Michigan Territory.Minnesota West: provided for by federal enactments for Louisiana Territory; under governor and judges of Indiana Territory, 1803–05; under Louisiana officials, 1805; part of Missouri Territory, 1812–21; position uncertain after 1821; attached to Michigan Territory for “temporary government” in 1834. Thus Minnesota West and East united. Both regions in Territory of Wisconsin, 1836–38. Minnesota West a part of Iowa, 1838; East remained with Wisconsin. Iowa a state in 1846, establishing Minnesota’s southern...

    • XI. MINNESOTA TERRITORY AND THE INDIAN PROBLEM
      (pp. 24-25)

      1. Land situation after the cessions of 1837

      The abortive Doty treaties. Land hunger. Attempt to bring about a treaty in 1849.

      2. Treaties of traverse des sioux and mendota, 1851

      Luke Lea and Ramsey. Steps leading to the signing of the treaty of Traverse des Sioux; extent of cession; reservation; what the Sioux got; the trick of the traders’ paper. The treaty of Mendota; allegations of fraud; amendments and ratification. Difficulty of securing Indian consent to amendments. Final settlements.

      3. Other indian relations

      The Pembina treaty. Chippewa cessions of 1854 and 1855. The story of the half-breed tract, 1830–54. The Winnebago...

    • XII. TERRITORIAL GROWTH
      (pp. 26-27)

      1. Population in 1849 and 1850: origins and distribution

      2. Opening of the “suland”

      Surveys. Pre-emption. Sales of land. Status of the squatter before and after 1854. The land claim associations.

      3. How people got to minnesota from the east

      Completion of the Chicago and Rock Island Railroad to the Mississippi in 1854. The railroad excursion of that year. The general immigration situation in the fifties. Progress of the westward movement.

      4. Official and unofficial advertising of minnesota

      The immigration agency in New York. Advertising pamphlets. Problems and methods of territorial “boosting.”

      5. Increasing immigration after 1854

      6. The growth of towns

      St. Paul, St. Anthony-Minneapolis,...

    • XIII. PIONEER LIFE AND CUSTOMS
      (pp. 28-29)

      1. Frontier democracy and pioneering

      Restlessness. Mingling of classes, sections, races. Types of pioneers. Voluntary associations for common purposes. Sod huts, log cabins, frame houses. Household furniture; commodities; clothing; prices. Women and their tasks. The farmer and his implements; methods of tilling the soil; crops. Game and hunting. Amusements and social relations.

      2. Aspects of pioneer culture

      Personal journalism; Goodhue and theMinnesota Pioneer. Pioneer attitude toward education. Harriet Bishop. Hamline University. The incorporation of the University of Minnesota. The Minnesota Historical Society, 1849. Lyceums and lectures. Relations with the outside world. Frontier religion. Religious leaders. Puritanism. The “Sabbath law.” The Maine...

    • XIV. THE TRANSITION TO STATEHOOD
      (pp. 30-31)

      1. Territorial politics

      Preponderance of Democrats. Factions and their leaders. The rise of the Republican party. Politics from 1855 to 1857. Rival schemes for carving out a state from Minnesota Territory. Gorman. The plan for removing the capital. The enabling act.

      2. Party politics and the constitutional conventions

      Issues. Methods by which agreement was reached. The constitution. Ratification.

      3. Anticipating statehood

      Sibley as governor. Position of the first legislature. Election of Rice and Shields as United States senators. Legislation.

      4. The struggle in congress for the admission of minnesota

      Entanglement with sectional controversy. Kansas and the Lecompton constitutions. Debate over the admission of Minnesota;...

    • XV. PROGRESS IN TRANSPORTATION TO 1865
      (pp. 32-33)

      1. Early means and methods

      The pack, the canoe, the travois, mackinaw boats. Winter routes and overland trails. Red River carts and trade relations with the Red River settlements. Winter transportation.

      2. Rise and development of steamboating in the history of minnesota transportation

      3. Wagon roads

      The development of the southeastern section in the fifties. Mail and stagecoach service.

      4. The transcontinental railroad survey of 1853

      5. The minnesota and northwestern railroad company

      6. The land grant of 1857

      Routes. Terms. Legislation. Need of capital.

      7. The five million loan

      The amendment. Failure of the companies. Ultimate settlement.

      8. Actual construction

      St. Paul-St. Anthony, 1862. The Lake Superior...

    • XVI. MINNESOTA AND THE CIVIL WAR
      (pp. 34-35)

      1. The development of the republican party

      Opinion on the slavery controversy. Negro slavery in Minnesota. Jane Grey Swisshelm, an antislavery crusader. Ignatius Donnelly. Election of Ramsey as governor, 1859.

      2. The presidential campaign of 1860

      Issues. Attitude toward Lincoln. Visit of Seward. Results of election.

      3. Rice and wilkinson in the senate

      Their views on the slavery controversy, 1860–61.

      4. General conditions in minnesota on the eve of the civil war

      Population. Industries. The telegraph. Wildcat banking.

      5. The war

      Minnesota opinion. Ramsey’s response. The raising of troops; the “First Minnesota.” The contribution of the state to the military successes of the North....

    • XVII. THE SIOUX WAR
      (pp. 36-38)

      1. Backgrounds

      Traditional Indian policy of the United States. Land policy. Immigration, the westward movement, pressure of population, and white encroachments upon Indian lands. The agency system. The Inkpaduta massacre. Character of the Sioux. The policy of concentration.

      2. Immediate causes

      Poverty of the Indians after 1861. Delay in payments; demonstration at upper agency; subtractions for depredations; trouble at the Redwood agency. Reports of Union defeats in the South. The Acton murders. The final order.

      3. The indians on the warpath

      The campaign of 1862. Extent of the uprising. Massacres. Fort Ridgely, New Ulm, Birch Cooley, Wood Lake. The outcome.

      4. The aftermath

      The...

    • XVIII. THE PASSING OF THE FRONTIER, 1865–1890
      (pp. 39-42)

      1. The encouragement of immigration to minnesota

      The Indian menace gone. The Homestead Act. The westward rush. The swelling tide of immigration. Advertising activities of the state. The settlement propaganda of the railroads. Colonization companies.

      2. Increase of population, 1865–1890

      Leading elements. Increases by decades. The widening area of settlement. Development of the Red River Valley.

      3. Extending the railroad system

      The decline of steamboating and the passing of the cart trade. The rise of James J. Hill. Piercing the Red River Valley. The Northern Pacific. The rise of the Great Northern system. The network of roads by 1890.

      4. The golden era...

    • XIX. POST-WAR POLITICS AND THE GRANGER MOVEMENT, 1865–1876
      (pp. 43-44)

      1. Reconstruction problems

      Ratification of the thirteenth and fourteenth amendments. The attitude of Minnesota people toward the reconstruction issues in Congress. Minnesota and negro suffrage. The strength of Minnesota Republicanism after the Civil War. Election of 1867. Ignatius Donnelly. Election of Austin as governor in 1869. The Liberal Republican movement.

      2. Railroad regulation and the grangers

      The situation of the farmers. Complaints against the railroads and middlemen. The Patrons of Husbandry: origin and nature of organization; growth; social and educational program. Governor Austin and the railroad problem. The Antimonopoly party and the 1873 election. The reaction in 1874. Retirement of Ramsey as...

    • XX. THE RISE OF MODERN INDUSTRY, 1865–1895
      (pp. 45-47)

      1. Expansion, boom, and panic after the civil war

      Relation of the passing of the frontier to industrial progress : growth of population ; settlement ; expansion in railroad mileage; agricultural production ; lumbering. Growth and expansion. The panic of 1873 and its effects.

      2. The flour-milling industry

      Rapid development after 1865. Revolution in milling processes. Minneapolis becomes the “Flour City.” The relation of milling to Minnesota economic history : lumbering; transportation; the “Soo Line”; grain marketing; agriculture; financial organization; manufactures.

      3. Towns, cities, and manufacturing progress

      Relation of milling to the development of a metropolitan center in Minnesota. Comparative growth of Minneapolis...

    • XXI. REPUBLICAN SUPREMACY AND THE REVIVAL OF AGRARIAN OPPOSITION, 1876–1896
      (pp. 48-49)

      1. The pillsbury régime

      Backgrounds of Governor Pillsbury. Elections and re-elections to the governorship. The Greenback party. The Donnelly-Washburn campaign, 1878. Hubbard succeeds Pillsbury. The appearance of Knute Nelson in Minnesota politics. The Nelson-Kindred campaign of 1882. The Sabin-Windom contest. Other phases of party politics.

      2. The farmers’ alliance

      The national background of the movement. Beginnings of the organization in Minnesota. Farmers’ problems: oversupply of wheat; low price; one-crop system; railroad rates; elevator charges. Demands for legislative redress. Remedial legislation of 1885. Railroad and Warehouse Commission. Election of 1886. Revision of railroad and warehouse commission act, 1887. Merriam elected governor, 1888. Washburn...

    • XXII. THE MODERNIZING OF SOCIAL AND INTELLECTUAL LIFE, 1865–1900
      (pp. 50-53)

      1. The breakdown of frontier isolation

      Social and intellectual effects of improvements in transportation. The spread of news : the growth of the press ; the improvement of postal service.

      2. The public schools and their development

      The administration of school funds. State supervision of education. The high school law of 1878. Opening of five normal schools between 1860 and 1902.

      3. The university of minnesota

      Foundations. The presidency of William Watts Folwell, beginning in 1869. Expansion under the presidency of Cyrus Northrop, beginning in 1884. The School of Agriculture. Professional departments. A widening field. Outstanding teachers.

      4. Denominational colleges

      Carleton (1870); Augsburg (1872);...

    • XXIII. THE TURN OF THE CENTURY, 1896–1905
      (pp. 54-55)

      1. The political situation after 1896

      The administration of Governor Clough.

      2. Minnesota in the spanish-american war and the philippine insurrection

      The outbreak of the war. The peace labors of Archbishop Ireland. The war labors of Cushman K. Davis. The response of the Minnesota people. The Minnesota volunteers and the story of the Minnesota regiments. Home activities. The return of the troops.

      3. The last indian uprising in the united states : the leech lake affair of 1898.

      4. The status of politics at the turn of the century

      John Lind and the fusion victory of 1898. The national election of 1900 and the...

    • XXIV. POLITICAL INDEPENDENCY AND TWENTIETH-CENTURY PROBLEMS
      (pp. 56-57)

      1. The political scene

      John A. Johnson: early career ; election to governorship, 1904 ; personal triumphs in 1906 and 1908; general administration and legislation; a promising career cut short, 1909. Adolph O. Eberhart. The primary law of 1912. Primary contest of 1914 and election of a Democratic governor, Winfield S. Hammond. Direct election of United States senators. Joseph A. A. Burnquist, governor, 1915. Signs of political independency in 1916 election.

      2. The world war

      Attitude of the people during the period of neutrality. The National Guard. Beginning of the war. Raising troops; military camps; training schools. The troops at the front;...

    • XXV THE MODERN COMMONWEALTH
      (pp. 58-60)

      1. Population

      Growth from 1900 to 1930. Elements and distribution in 1930.

      2. Transportation

      The railway system of the state today. Movement toward railway consolidation. Automobile bus lines. The trunk highway system. The “better roads movement.”

      3. Agriculture

      The progress of diversification. Products of the state as revealed in the 1930 census. Agencies cooperating with the farmer to better agricultural conditions.

      4. Industry, finance, and city growth

      Relative position of cities in 1930. The Twin Cities as a financial center. The Federal Reserve Bank and its district. Manufacturing. The status of flour milling. Duluth and the steel industry. St. Paul and the Ford plant....