Balsam Fir

Balsam Fir: A Monographic Review

E. V. BAKUZIS
H. L. HANSEN
F. H. KAUFERT
D. B. LAWRENCE
D. P. DUNCAN
S. S. PAULEY
R. M. BROWN
R. E. SCHOENIKE
L. W. KREFTING
Copyright Date: 1965
Edition: NED - New edition
Pages: 468
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5749/j.ctttt5qs
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  • Book Info
    Balsam Fir
    Book Description:

    Professors Bakuzis and Hansen, with the assistance of a number of co-authors of individual chapters, present an exhaustive survey of the literature on the balsam fir, providing a coherent picture of the species and its place in nature and forestry practice. The balsam fir is used extensively in the pulp and paper industry, and it is known to millions as a traditional Christmas tree. In North America it is a major tree species in Canada, in the northeastern United States, and in the Great Lakes region. In the search of the literature, over 2000 sources were consulted and considerably more than half of them are cited in the book. The references, organized in an ecological framework, cover the period from the seventeenth century to the present. The authors have reviewed and integrated these data in a unified, but multipurposed, book. In the integration of the source material the authors also made contributions of their own. The book contains the following chapters: Botanical Foundations, Geography and Synecology, Ecological Factors, Microbiology, Entomology, Reproduction, Stand Development, Growth and Yield, and Utilization. Appendixes list fungi and myxomycetes and insects associated with balsam fir. There are 30 illustrations, including a frontispiece drawing by the noted nature artist Francis Lee Jaques. The book will appeal to a wide range of readers specifically concerned with forestry, including research workers, educators, entomologists, pathologists, and managing foresters, as well as conservationists and wildlife biologist in general.

    eISBN: 978-0-8166-6128-2
    Subjects: Technology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-xvi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. xvii-xxii)
  3. 1 BOTANICAL FOUNDATIONS
    (pp. 1-30)

    The botanical characteristics and variations of a species determine its relationships with other species and its reaction to the environment. These relationships are basic to the development of sound silvicultural and forest management practices.In spite of modern technological advances, botanical characteristics, especially the morphological, determine the technical properties of primary forest products and affect the processing of secondary products. Much of the information on the taxonomy and morphology of balsam fir is rather old. On the other hand, specific work on the physiology and genetics of the species has been started only recently.

    It is the purpose of this chapter...

  4. 2 GEOGRAPHY AND SYNECOLOGY
    (pp. 31-83)

    The range of balsam fir extends over wide areas that have been intensively investigated from the points of view of plant geography and synecology. Study has been largely centered in the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Region, where balsam fir is for the most part a minor species. Balsam fir comprises a far greater proportion of the forest composition in the Boreal and Appalachian regions, but in these areas geographical and synecological investigations have been much less intensive.

    There is a great lack of autecological information on balsam fir. Such information has been largely extracted from geographical and synecological studies and will...

  5. 3 ECOLOGICAL FACTORS
    (pp. 84-123)

    Most of the available information on the relationships of balsam fir to the different ecological factors is of a plant geographical or synecological character. The response of balsam fir to various factors in different regions has been observed primarily in mixed stands. Even in pure stands balsam fir competes with understory vegetation. It is well known that species under conditions of competition respond quite differently to environmental factors than when growing in isolation. No reports were found on trenching experiments or other attempts to isolate balsam fir from the competition of other species. The few physiological studies that have been...

  6. 4 MICROBIOLOGY
    (pp. 124-148)

    This chapter reviews an important segment of biotic factors involved in the ecology of balsam fir. It considers all microorganisms directly and indirectly associated with its reproduction and growth from the seedling stage to maturity, with its decomposition in the forest, and with the deterioration of its wood products.

    Early studies were primarily concerned with the taxonomy of the microorganisms and the gross effects produced in the host. Several decades ago principal emphasis was placed on the pathogenic fungi and the economic losses they produced. More recently, the physiology of the microorganisms and their ecologic relationships to each other and...

  7. 5 ENTOMOLOGY
    (pp. 149-177)

    Insects, like fungi, are among the biotic factors affecting trees and forest communities, and a consideration of their special relationships to balsam fir forms the subject of this chapter. Detailed information on insect taxonomy, morphology, population dynamics, and other specialized topics is not presented. However, some discussion of physiological processes inseparable from insect ecology has been included. Secondary processes initiated by insect activities are treated in the appropriate chapters; rots following budworm attack are discussed in Chapter 4, effects on reproduction and stand development in Chapters 6 and 7, and effects on the technical properties of wood in Chapter 9....

  8. 6 REPRODUCTION
    (pp. 178-209)

    Balsam fir silviculture is considered in this chapter and in the two following, Chapter 7 on Stand Development and Chapter 8 on Growth and Yield, with the latter having a strong mensurational character. Although most of the information on the fundamentals underlying silviculture has been discussed in preceding chapters, little attention was given to the influence of man’s action on the forest. Some authors consider the practice of silviculture as belonging to the group of biotic factors while others consider it separately under cultural factors. In this presentation, man’s activities in manipulating the forest are seen as a superimposed function...

  9. 7 STAND DEVELOPMENT
    (pp. 210-245)

    Stand development begins with the establishment of reproduction. It involves the development of stand structure, vertically and horizontally, by age, species, size, and crown class. The process is closely aligned with succession, especially secondary succession, with the growth of individual trees in stands, and with the growth of stands as a whole. Growth of trees and stands in terms of wood productivity is commonly expressed in the form of volume and yield tables. These and related problems will be discussed in Chapter 8. Viewed from a broad time scale, stand development is not only related to one growth and cut...

  10. 8 GROWTH AND YIELD
    (pp. 246-292)

    The general ecological background of balsam fir growth and yield was presented in Chapters 2 and 3, and some phases of stand structure were reviewed in Chapter 7. The present chapter is concerned largely with the basic mensurational aspects of growth and yield. Included within its scope are studies of the form and volume of individual trees; the composition, structure, and productivity of forest stands; area and age-distribution of spruce-fir stands; and growth and yield of balsam fir. Special attention is given to balsam fir volume and yield tables.

    Most tree-form data for balsam fir are rather old, although volume-table...

  11. 9 UTILIZATION
    (pp. 293-328)

    Properties of a tree species largely determine its specific utility. The utilization of balsam fir for pulp and paper is determined by its fiber quality, pulp yields, and pulp quality. The limited utilization of the species for lumber relates to its low density and small size. On the other hand, balsam fir makes a highly desirable Christmas tree because of its needle retention, color, shape, and fragrance.

    The properties of balsam fir which affect the extent of its utilization for specific purposes are treated in this chapter. Mostly this is concerned with the properties and utilization of wood, since the...

  12. PLATES
    (pp. 329-346)
  13. APPENDIX I. A TENTATIVE LIST OF MYXOMYCETES AND FUNGI ASSOCIATED WITH BALSAM FIR
    (pp. 349-361)
  14. APPENDIX II. A TENTATIVE LIST OF INSECTS ASSOCIATED WITH BALSAM FIR
    (pp. 362-367)
  15. LITERATURE CITED
    (pp. 368-415)
  16. INDEX
    (pp. 416-445)