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How Social Movements Matter

Marco Giugni
Doug McAdam
Charles Tilly
Foreword by Sidney Tarrow
Volume: 10
Copyright Date: 1999
Edition: NED - New edition
Pages: 360
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  • Book Info
    How Social Movements Matter
    Book Description:

    We have all witnessed social movements and felt their effects-some subtle, others profound. This volume brings together well-known scholars to assess the impact of such movements over time in different countries, and on various segments of society. Contributors: Edwin Amenta, Paul Burstein, Donatella della Porta, Joyce Gelb, Vivien Hart, Ruud Koopmans, Hanspeter Kriesi, David S. Meyer, Kelly Moore, Dieter Rucht, Paul Statham, Sidney Tarrow, Dominique Wisler, Michael P. Young.

    eISBN: 978-0-8166-8793-0
    Subjects: Political Science

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. Foreword
    (pp. vii-x)
    Sidney Tarrow

    Marco Giugni, Doug McAdam, and Charles Tilly have put together a subversive reader. Everyone who has worked on social movements knows how important it is to try to understand their outcomes. Almost everyone admits the extreme difficulty of doing so. Some of us make halfhearted attempts anyway; others retreat to the tried-and-true terrain of studying movement origins; a few take refuge in phenomenology.

    Giugni, McAdam, and Tilly are braver souls. After obligatory curtsies in the direction of caution, they and their collaborators strike out boldly to detect, discriminate among, and define the outcomes of social movements. As if this were...

  4. Preface
    (pp. xi-xii)
  5. Introduction How Social Movements Matter: Past Research, Present Problems, Future Developments
    (pp. xiii-xxxiv)
    Marco Giugni

    On August 28, 1963, between 200,000 and 500,000 people (depending on who made the estimate of the crowd size) marched on Washington, D.C., to lobby for the civil rights bill that President John F. Kennedy had sent to Congress on June 19. It was the largest political demonstration in the United States to date. Although this massive protest was dubbed the “March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom”—thus combining civil rights and economic demands—the recent civil rights mobilizations in Birmingham gave demands for freedom much more emphasis than those for jobs. The march had been organized at a...

  6. Part I: Types of Consequences

    • 1 Social Movements and Public Policy
      (pp. 3-21)
      Paul Burstein

      Sociologists and political scientists are of two minds about the consequences of social movements. On the one hand, they believe that social movements have important consequences. As William A. Gamson noted in his path-breakingStrategy of Social Protest(1975; second edition, 1990), it makes sense to view social movement organizations (SMOs, which he called “challenging groups”) as part of the normal democratic political process only if they often achieve their goals—and, he concluded, they do. “The interest of many scholars in social movements stems from their belief that movements represent an important force for social change,” wrote McAdam, McCarthy,...

    • 2 Making an Impact: Conceptual and Methodological Implications of the Collective Goods Criterion
      (pp. 22-41)
      Edwin Amenta and Michael P. Young

      The impact of challengers and their collective action in democratic polities is only rarely studied (Garrison 1975, 1990; Piven and Cloward 1977; McAdam 1982; Kitschelt 1986; Amenta, Carruthers, and Zylan 1992; Jasper and Poulsen 1993; Amenta, Dunleavy, and Bernstein 1994; Tarrow 1994: chapter 10; Burstein, Einwohner, and Hollander 1995; Kriesi et al. 1995: chapter 9; see review in Giugni 1994). The reason for this is, in part, that theorizing and analyzing the impact of challengers is different from theorizing and analyzing their mobilization, which has been the focus of attention in scholarly work on social movements and collective action. It...

    • 3 The Impact of Social Movements on Political Institutions: A Comparison of the Introduction of Direct Legislation in Switzerland and the United States
      (pp. 42-65)
      Hanspeter Kriesi and Dominique Wisler

      Political institutions have been considered the most stable elements of opportunity structures, almost beyond the reach of social movements. This is not surprising. The framers of political institutions purposely design them to last and make it difficult for challengers to change them. The stability and duration of institutions is a value in itself, since they allow for long-term planning. Moreover, institutions also have built-in mechanisms that make them self-perpetuating. They tend to generate patterns of beliefs and preferences that sustain them, because wants and desires are conditioned by the perception of available opportunities: by the mechanism of “adaptive preferences,” one...

    • 4 Protest, Protesters, and Protest Policing: Public Discourses in Italy and Germany from the 1960s to the 1980s
      (pp. 66-96)
      Donatella della Porta

      A main effect of social movements is their ability to focus the attention of the elites and public opinion on the issue of protest rights. By definition, social movements aim at producing or resisting changes in their environment. Social movements do not limit themselves to challenge public decisions, but they often criticize the ways in which decisions are taken, asking for more citizen participation in decision making (see, e.g., Rochon and Mazmanian 1993). More and more often, social movement organizations interact with the public administration, presenting themselves as representatives of a “democracy from below” (Roth 1994; see also Dalton 1994)....

    • 5 Political Protest and Institutional Change: The Anti-Vietnam War Movement and American Science
      (pp. 97-116)
      Kelly Moore

      After taking a backseat to analyses of the emergence of political protest, the effects of widespread contentious politics are garnering renewed interest. Most studies of outcomes, however, still focus on the causes of policy outcomes, especially the state’s provision of economic goods and legal rights to protesting groups and their constituents (Amenta, Carruthers, and Zylan 1992; Burstein and Freudenburg 1978; Burstein 1979; Clemens 1993; Gamson 1990; Gelb and Palley 1987; Isaac and Kelly 1981; McAdam 1982; Piven and Cloward 1979; Schramm and Turbett 1983; Tilly 1978). Typically left unexamined are challenges to nonstate institutions such as medicine, art, science, law,...

    • 6 The Biographical Impact of Activism
      (pp. 117-146)
      Doug McAdam

      It has been common in recent years for movement scholars to lament the lack of systematic research on the impact or consequences of social movements (see McAdam, McCarthy, and Zald 1988: 727). But, as Marco Giugni’s introduction to this volume makes clear, there has actually been a great deal of scholarship on the general topic of movement outcomes. When one surveys this work, however, one is struck by the unevenness in the coverage of various kinds of impacts. Some kinds of consequences have been accorded a great deal of attention, while others have received short shrift. To oversimplify a bit,...

  7. Part II: Comparative Perspectives

    • 7 Feminist Politics in a Hostile Environment: Obstacles and Opportunities
      (pp. 149-181)
      Joyce Gelb and Vivien Hart

      During the 1980s and 1990s, the women’s movements of the United States and the United Kingdom have shared the experience of presenting a feminist agenda in an era of antifeminist governments. In this review of women’s movement activism in the late twentieth century, we contend that new stimuli and new opportunities have been important alongside the evident obstacles to achievement of movement goals. Both movements have indeed been severely challenged. Both can nonetheless claim changes in the political agenda and the achievement of policy goals that in some respects have advanced, not just defended, women’s political aspirations. Neither movement is...

    • 8 How the Cold War Was Really Won: The Effects of the Antinuclear Movements of the 1980s
      (pp. 182-203)
      David S. Meyer

      The cold war, a bipolar standoff between the United States and the Soviet Union that dominated international relations for more than forty years, ended suddenly in 1989. One by one, citizens in the former “buffer” states of Eastern Europe overthrew state communist governments, and the Soviet Union refused to intervene to enforce discipline. In November 1989, East and West Germans danced atop the Berlin Wall, the most visible symbol of the oppression of the cold war. Just two years later, the Soviet Union itself dissolved into component republics.

      The nuclear arms race, the centerpiece of the superpower rivalry, took a...

    • 9 The Impact of Environmental Movements in Western Societies
      (pp. 204-224)
      Dieter Rucht

      Like the labor movements that raised "the social question" during the second half of the nineteenth century and beyond, a new kind of movement has put “the environmental question” on the agenda of the last third of the twentieth century—and probably beyond. Whereas in retrospect it is obvious what impact the labor movements had, the effect of the environmental movements is less clear. Though much has been written about the environmental movements, no comprehensive study of their impact has been carried out yet.¹ What are the relevant dimensions to be taken into account? Does the movements’ impact differ significantly...

    • 10 Ethnic and Civic Conceptions of Nationhood and the Differential Success of the Extreme Right in Germany and Italy
      (pp. 225-252)
      Ruud Koopmans and Paul Statham

      Since the beginning of the 1980s, Western Europe has seen a resurgence of xenophobic and extreme-right mobilization, in the form of violent attacks on immigrant groups, neo-Nazi demonstrations, and the rise of extreme-right political parties. Though a lot of comparative work on these phenomena is available, much of it consists of edited volumes bringing together collections of single-country case studies (e.g., Baumgartl and Favell 1995; Merkl and Weinberg 1993; Hainsworth 1992). Truly comparative studies are few and far between, and so far there has been no systematic comparison of Italy and Germany.

      This omission is surprising, if one considers that...

  8. Conclusion From Interactions to Outcomes in Social Movements
    (pp. 253-270)
    Charles Tilly

    Born in Turkey, Benali Kalkan entered France without regular papers in 1982. During the next few years he started his own business, worked in a legally declared enterprise, developed fluency in French, and married a Frenchwoman. But he did not acquire legal residence in France. Within a decade of arrival, as a consequence, he became a major player in a vivid political drama.

    In 1989, the French government responded in a characteristic way to European Community (EC) agreements on immigration, to increased demands for asylum by immigrants from outside the EC, and to the rightwing National Front's exploitation of anti-immigrant...

  9. Bibliography
    (pp. 271-302)
  10. Contributors
    (pp. 303-306)
  11. Index
    (pp. 307-324)