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Clinical and Social Psychology

Clinical and Social Psychology: Research Instruments in Social Gerontology, Volume 1

David J. Mangen
Warren A. Peterson
Toshi Kii
Robert Sanders
Copyright Date: 1982
Edition: NED - New edition
Pages: 672
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  • Book Info
    Clinical and Social Psychology
    Book Description:

    Research Instruments in Social Gerontology, Volume 1: Clinical and Social Psychology was first published in 1982. The increasing number of older people in the United States has served to focus attention upon the processes of aging and the effectiveness of social programs for the elderly. In order to plan effective programs, accurate social measures are necessary. Now, more than ever before, researchers require conceptually explicit instruments designed to assess individual and social behaviors, attitudes, and traits in the elderly population. This is the first in a three-volume series designed to serve the needs of researchers, evaluators, and clinicians in assessing the instruments used in the field of aging. The measures review in Volume 1 focus on the cognitive reactions of older people to aging and on the assessments of aging made by people who are not yet old. This volume also contains the series introduction which explains the methods used for evaluating the instruments and assesses the status of gerontological measurement today. Each chapter is devoted to instruments in a particular subject area such as intellectual functioning, personality, self-esteem, and ethnic group identification. Most chapters are composed of three parts. First, there is a concise narrative review of the major theoretical concerns and measurement strategies within that particular research domain. The second part is a collection of abstracts, each of which presents a conceptual definition and a description of a specific instrument together with data about samples, reliability, validity, scaling properties, and correlations with age. Whenever possible the instruments themselves constitute the third part of the chapter. Research Instruments in Social Gerontology will be helpful as a source for appropriate instruments, as a guide to developing new measures, and as a benchmark in the field -- to reduce duplication of previous work. Volume 2 covers role participation and role structure, and Volume 3 deals with demography, social policy, and health concerns.

    eISBN: 978-0-8166-5521-2
    Subjects: Psychology

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. Preface
    (pp. vii-x)
    David J. Mangen and Warren A. Peterson
  4. How to Use These Volumes
    (pp. xi-xii)
  5. Contributors to Volume 1
    (pp. xiii-2)
  6. Chapter 1 Introduction
    (pp. 3-24)
    David J. Mangen, Warren A. Peterson and Robert Sanders

    In 1976 the Midwest Council for Social Research in Aging (MCSRA) was awarded a contract from the U.S. Administration on Aging “to gather and analyze research protocols, instruments, and measurement scales used in the field of aging” (AoA, 1976). The functions of this project were to compile and evaluate instruments and to establish a handbook of measurement.

    The need for such a handbook arises from the recent increase in research and the proliferation of measurement devices in the field of aging. This increase in information has made it difficult for people working in the field to keep up with current...

  7. Chapter 2 Intellectual Functioning
    (pp. 25-78)
    Carol J. Dye

    As early as the 1920s, studies comparing the intellectual performance of older adults to younger adults were written. One of these first reports, that of Foster and Taylor (1920), anticipated later developments in the assessment of intellectual functioning within elderly populations. Foster and Taylor compared the performance of a group of normal older adults (50 to 89 years old), a group of young adults, and a group of school-age children on the Yerkes-Bridges Point Scale. This intelligence scale was derived from the Binet and differed from that test mainly in the method of administration. Foster and Taylor’s data indicated a...

  8. Chapter 3 Personality
    (pp. 79-144)
    Carol J. Dye

    Most assessments of personality in older adults have used tests developed with, and applied to, young and mature adult populations. Apparently, it was assumed that the same dimensions were suitable for assessment over the adult span of life and that tests appropriate to young adults were legitimate tests for assessing personality in older adults. Actually, results from tests of older individuals have indicated a basic stability and continuity, in that, when changes in personality do seem to have occurred, they are likely to reflect shifts in the relative importance of the variables measured. Instead of the appearance or disappearance of...

  9. Chapter 4 Adaptation
    (pp. 145-194)
    Eva Kahana, Thomas Fairchild and Boaz Kahana

    Current interest in understanding the process of adaptation to crises and events of adult life has led to a recognition of the need for better description, conceptualization, and operationalization of the diverse behaviors involved in the coping process (Hamburg, Coelho, and Adams, 1974). Because of the relative newness of this area of study, a comprehensive review of the use of the construct of adaptation within psychology, sociology, and gerontology is necessary for providing a theoretical background for describing efforts in measuring coping and adaptation. It should be noted that this review of the work being done on coping and adaptation...

  10. Chapter 5 Morale and Life Satisfaction
    (pp. 195-240)
    William J. Sauer and Rex Warland

    Research into the determinants of morale and life satisfaction in the elderly population has occupied a central role in the development of social gerontology. The pioneering study of Cavan and associates (1949) took as its central focus the measurement of adjustment, and this interest has continued unabated until the current time.

    Despite this long tradition of interest, attention to the development of psychometrically valid and reliable instruments that measure morale, life satisfaction, and adjustment has been insufficient. Further, many attempts by scholars working in the field have tended to accept uncriticallyinstruments in developmentas established, and many have neglected...

  11. Chapter 6 Self-Concept and Self-Esteem
    (pp. 241-302)
    Linda M. Breytspraak and Linda K. George

    As Ruth Wylie has pointed out in her comprehensive reviews of research on the self-concept and related constructs (1968; 1974), there are many ambiguities and inconsistencies in the usage of the constructs self-concept and self-esteem. The variety of usages can be attributed both to the wide range of theoretical perspectives bearing on self-concept and self-esteem and to the variety of measurement orientations that result. Nonetheless, increasing convergences can be noted in the definition and measurement of these constructs; this is due primarily to the impact of several excellent reviews of this area of research (e.g., Wells and Marwell, 1976; Crandall,...

  12. Chapter 7 Death and Dying
    (pp. 303-382)
    Victor W. Marshall

    To be human is to be mortal, and many philosophers, especially the existentialists, have suggested that many aspects of our lives are shaped by this fact. It has been argued (e.g., Marshall, 1975a, 1975b; Munnichs, 1966; Neugarten, 1970; Vischer, 1967) that increasing age is associated with the increasing salience of human mortality for other aspects of the lives of individuals. Indeed, this idea is the justification for the chapter on death in a book concerned with measurement and aging. But age does not act in any automatic way to increase the salience of death (Marshall, 1975b). Instead, a number of...

  13. Chapter 8 Environments
    (pp. 383-414)
    Paul G. Windley

    This chapter reviews several research instruments that assess the relationship between older people and their large-and small-scale physical environments. The study of environment is by nature multidisciplinary, and operational definitions of the concept of environment vary among the social sciences. It is important to look briefly at these operational definitions in order to understand why the datagathering instruments in this chapter were chosen for review. This examination is followed by an interpretive discussion of two criteria necessary if research instruments are to be effective in investigating the relationship between the elderly and the physical environments in which they live. Next...

  14. Chapter 9 Ethinic Group Identification
    (pp. 415-436)
    Ron Manuel

    The impact of ethnicity on behavior in old age is an important area of study in social gerontology. This is due, in part, to the realization that neither theoretical understanding nor social intervention on behalf of the aged is likely to be successful unless variations in the sociocultural antecedents of present conditions among the aged are understood. This chapter focuses on the state of the art in measuring the social psychological impact of some of these antecedent cultural experiences among the aged. The chapter begins with a brief discussion of the concept of ethnic identification. This is followed by a...

  15. Chapter 10 Subjective Age Identification
    (pp. 437-462)
    Neal E. Cutler

    As Kastenbaum and Durkee noted (1964, p. 251), “If there is no single, dominant way in which old age is defined at present, then there is something to be learned from the particular way in which an individual interprets the term.” The concept of subjective age identification has at various times taken on various meanings. The first task in introducing the measures included in this chapter, therefore, should be to define the term. For the purposes of this review, subjective age identification is defined, somewhat narrowly, as an individual’s cognitive assessment that he or she is “old.” The concept of...

  16. Chapter 11 Life-Phase Analysis
    (pp. 463-532)
    Gunhild O. Hagestad

    In all societies, the human life span is divided into socially meaningful units through systems of age differentiation and age grading, which result in culturally recognized “punctuations of the lifeline” (Neugarten and Peterson, 1957). These socially created life phases have their associated rights, duties, and expected personal attributes. Furthermore, they divide a population into age-groups, whose relationships are structured and regulated (Riley, Johnson, and Foner, 1972). A social age system, as part of a society’s culture, is transmitted to members through socialization. The age system thus becomes internalized and is a major factor in the structuring of individual lives (Neugarten...

  17. Chapter 12 Perceptions of Old People
    (pp. 533-622)
    Donald G. McTavish

    Over the years since Dinkel‘s work on scaling children‘s attitudes toward their aged parents (Dinkel, 1944), there have been a substantial literature and a relatively large number of measurement approaches focused on the phenomenon variously referred to as “perceptions,” “attitudes,” “beliefs,” “common misconceptions,” “stereotypes,” and “orientations” about or toward old people or old age. Most of the literature expresses a concern about negative (and sometimes positive) ageist feelings people (including older people) have about the contemporary elderly. Usually, these emotional states are considered to be prior causes of society’s treatment of older people, which in turn affects the well-being of...

  18. Indexes
    (pp. 623-652)
  19. Back Matter
    (pp. 653-653)