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Migrants in Europe

Migrants in Europe: Problems of Acceptance and Adjustment

Copyright Date: 1969
Edition: NED - New edition
Pages: 208
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  • Book Info
    Migrants in Europe
    Book Description:

    Migrants in Europe was first published in 1969. In post-World War II years a move toward political and economic integration of Europe, exemplified in the formation of such organizations as the European Common Market and the European Free Trade Association, was initiated by high-level policy-makers. It was in no sense a popular movement with broad support. However, the European man in the street did gain economic benefits as a result of these arrangements and therefore did come to approve of them. But the political and social integration that goes along with economic integration calls for the international exchange of people and, ultimately, for a willingness on the part of national groups to allow all other national groups to participate in common elections or, alternatively, to grant political power to a supranational agency. Some interchange of people is now taking place, and the purpose of this study is to determine the extent of integration, suggest related problems, and draw generalizations to provide clues concerning the probable reaction to expanded forms of such integration in the future. The author stresses that without increased integration of people, the effectiveness of statesmen’s agreements would be limited, and if large-scale rejection of such integration develops, progress toward European unity will be nullified.

    eISBN: 978-0-8166-6427-6
    Subjects: History

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-viii)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. ix-2)
    (pp. 3-6)

    The movement during the post-World War II era toward a more politically integrated Europe has been created largely by high-level policy-makers. Some were idealists who believed that economic development and political stability could only be achieved in larger-than-national units. Others were opportunists seeking more power for their nations or responding to American pressures to develop greater European strength. Probably both the idealists and the opportunists were reacting to the threat of Russian expansionism and sought to secure their safety and independence by joining forces. These and other factors at first influenced only the leaders and made little impact on most...

    (pp. 7-32)

    Migration, as discussed in this volume, applies only to situations in which persons move across international boundaries and take employment, sometimes permanently but at least for a “season” (usually nine months). Excluded are tourism, study abroad, international meetings, diplomatic missions, daily frontier-crossing for work, and other situations in which there is usually no motive for the person who crosses the border to think of himself as a part of the country to which he moves. Most migrants, in the sense of the word as used here, expect to return to their home countries, but, as will be shown later, practically...

    (pp. 33-43)

    In order to consider the extent of the acceptance of foreigners and to ascertain factors associated with that acceptance the theory is proposed here that acceptance and integration of foreigners into a host society is a function of the following: (1) the openness of the host society; (2) the degree of attachment the immigrants feel to then: society of origin (that is, the inverse of this should be correlated with measures of acceptance into the host society); (3) the similarity of the cultures of the country of emigration and the country of immigration. This theory thus considers the variables of...

  6. 4 THE INDEPENDENT VARIABLES Openness of Policy toward Migrants
    (pp. 44-95)

    An article in an OECD publication summarizes some prominent facets of the problem of cross-national adaptation in Europe today:

    Between seven and eight million foreigners are living — and for the most part working — in the countries of Western Europe. A large number of the immigrants come from far afield, but even more significant than geographical distance is the social or cultural distance that separates many of the newcomers from the nationals: only about 15 per cent speak the same language, and more than half speak a tongue which belongs to a completely different linguistic family. An estimated one out of...

  7. 5 THE INDEPENDENT VARIABLES Nonpolicy Factors Affecting Acceptance and Adjustment
    (pp. 96-124)

    In this chapter an attempt is made to describe, and if possible measure, those characteristics of the cultures of the countries of immigration and emigration which have been hypothesized to influence the acceptance and adjustment of migrants, but which are usually not subject to deliberate control. Of course, the boundary line between what is and what is not subject to control or policy is somewhat arbitrary, but it does not make any appreciable difference to the research design of this study if a factor is placed in this chapter or in the previous one on policy — both include independent variables...

  8. 6 THE DEPENDENT VARIABLES What Happens to People
    (pp. 125-144)

    The dependent variables of adjustment include all the things which happen to the migrants after they arrive in the country of immigration (including their possible return to the country of emigration) which would not have happened to them if they had not migrated. Of course there are no data on some of the possible indexes of adjustment, but a number of unpublished and difficult-to-obtain statistics have been located which can be used to yield roughly comparable indexes of integration for the various European countries of immigration. Some data which would be relevant here — on participation of immigrants in “decompression chamber”...

    (pp. 145-154)

    From 1955 through 1966 at least eight million Europeans voluntarily left their homes to take up residence and work in another country of Europe. Most of these Europeans migrated from some southern country to some northern or central country. A couple of million among them have returned to their homelands, and another significant minority (perhaps a million) have become citizens of the country to which they had migrated. At the end of 1966 there were at least five million Europeans, plus their dependents, living and working as foreigners in European countries. The economic recession in the winter and spring of...

  10. Appendix A. SELECTED NEWSPAPER ARTICLES On Conditions for Foreign Workers
    (pp. 157-164)
  11. Appendix B. Synoptic Table of Differential Laws Governing Foreign Workers in the Countries of Immigration, 1965
    (pp. 166-174)
  12. NOTES
    (pp. 177-191)
  13. INDEX
    (pp. 192-194)