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Agriculture, Environment, and Health

Agriculture, Environment, and Health: Sustainable Development in the 21st Century

Vernon W. Ruttan editor
Copyright Date: 1994
Edition: NED - New edition
Pages: 416
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  • Book Info
    Agriculture, Environment, and Health
    Book Description:

    Offers an interdisciplinary exploration of the implications of changes in institutional design and policy reform now underway at the global level. Ultimately, these changes will provide sustainable growth in agricultural production. Particular attention is given to the institutions that conduct research and implement changes in technology and practice in the fields of agriculture and health, as well as those that monitor the changes in resource endowments, the quality of the environment and the health, and productivity of the human resources employed in agricultural production.

    eISBN: 978-0-8166-8526-4
    Subjects: Business

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. Preface
    (pp. vii-viii)
    Vernon W. Ruttan
  4. Part I. Introduction

      (pp. 3-20)
      Vernon W. Ruttan

      We are in the closing years of the 20th century, completing one of the most remarkable transitions in the history of agriculture. Prior to this century almost all the increase in food production was obtained by bringing new land into production. There were only a few exceptions to this generalization—in limited areas of East Asia, the Middle East, and western Europe.

      In most of the world the transition from a resource-based to a science-based system of agriculture is occurring within a single century. Most of the countries of the developing world have been caught up in the transition only...

  5. Part II Setting the Stage
    (pp. 21-25)

    The challenges to the achievement of sustainable development are both technical and institutional. We are concerned in this book with how to provide families and communities with the knowledge and the technology needed to enhance agricultural production, sustain environmental resources, respond to environmental change, and gain access to the knowledge and materials that will enable them to lead healthy lives.

    In chapter 2 Kirit S. Parikh has responded to the challenge to explore demands that will be placed on the agricultural sector, arising out of population and income growth, to meet the food needs of their societies into the middle...

  6. Part III Agricultural Research, Resource Management, and Technology Dissemination
    (pp. 71-76)

    The two major sources of growth in agricultural production have been expansion of area cultivated into land that was not previously cultivated and more intensive production on lands already cultivated. Prior to the beginning of this century most increases in agricultural production came from expanding the area cultivated. During the last century an increasing share of the growth in agricultural production has come from more frequent cropping and higher yields on land already in cultivation.

    The development of agricultural research capacity has been the central institutional innovation leading to higher yields. In most presently developed countries substantial agricultural research capacity...

  7. Part IV Health Research and Health Systems
    (pp. 181-185)

    The health problems faced by many developing countries are more burdensome than those faced by many presently developed countries at comparable stages in their development. In the developed countries the historically important infectious diseases have declined to very low levels. These health problems have been replaced by the chronic and degenerative diseases of adult life, such as cancer, stroke, lung and heart disease, arthritis, and impairment of the central nervous system.

    Many developing countries have been denied the luxury of experiencing this epidemiological transition. Infectious and parasitic disease, nutritional deficiencies, and reproductive health problems are still responsible for a substantial...

  8. Part V Monitoring Global Change
    (pp. 257-260)

    Capacity to monitor the impacts of global change is exceedingly limited. Even in the most recent studies the complex interrelationship among changes in resource endowments, changes in technology, changes in human resources, and the productivity of land and people rests on an exceedingly weak empirical base.

    In chapter 10 Stephen L. Rawlins addresses the problems of developing adequate systems for monitoring changes in soil, water, and genetic resources. During the last decade there have been improvements in the capacity to observe and interpret global land-cover changes. An important start has been made in the estimation and mapping of indicators of...

  9. Part VI Perspective
    (pp. 339-342)

    The demands that will be placed on agricultural producers and rural society because of population and economic growth and resource and environmental change suggest a number of important shifts in agricultural, environmental, and health research priorities. If these priorities are to be realized, it will be necessary to both strengthen and achieve more effective articulation among national and international agricultural, environmental, and health research systems.

    In chapter 13, the research priorities that emerged both from the consultations that preceded the Bellagio conference and from the conference itself are outlined. The research priorities reflect a set of four generic issues that...

    (pp. 381-386)
  11. INDEX
    (pp. 387-401)