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The Changing Structure of Europe

The Changing Structure of Europe: Economic, Social, and Political Trends

ROBERT H. BECK
HAROLD C. DEUTSCH
PHILIP M. RAUP
ARNOLD M. ROSE
JOHN G. TURNBULL
assisted by JEAN BELDEN TABER
Copyright Date: 1970
Edition: NED - New edition
Pages: 296
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5749/j.cttttddn
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  • Book Info
    The Changing Structure of Europe
    Book Description:

    The Changing Structure of Europe was first published in 1970. A group of University of Minnesota scholars representing various disciplines presents the result of a careful study of Europe in the mid-sixties and a look into the seventies. They examine the major economic, educational, political, and social issues both from an interdisciplinary standpoint and from the viewpoints of their respective specialties. The study is based on extensive travel and research. The book focuses on the question of integration among the nations of Europe -- its extent, the major factors in its success or failure, and the prospects for future developments which will favor or discourage such integration. Major attention is given to the operations of cross-national political, military, and economic organizations, including the European Coal and Steel Community, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the European Economic Community, and the European Free Trade Association, as well as some of the lesser cross-national entities. Harold Deutsch, a historian, treats political and military relations and institutions; John Turnbull, an economist, discusses economic structures and policies; Philip Raup, an agricultural economist, analyzes agricultural and related developments and institutions; Robert Beck, a professor of educational philosophy, examines educational establishments; and Arnold Rose, a sociologist, discusses social funds and the free movement of labor. Summarizing as it does the significant developments in the important concept of European integration, the book will be illuminating to the general reader and useful, as well, to specialists for its analysis of developments in areas other than their own.

    eISBN: 978-0-8166-6144-2
    Subjects: History

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Preface
    (pp. vii-viii)
    ROBERT H. BECK, HAROLD C. DEUTSCH, PHILIP M. RAUP and JOHN G. TURNBULL
  3. Table of Contents
    (pp. ix-1)
  4. Abbreviations Used in This Volume
    (pp. 2-2)
  5. CHAPTER 1 Introduction
    (pp. 3-8)

    Despite two world wars and the many lesser conflicts of the early twentieth century which pitted European nation against European nation, there was considerable in the way of integration on that continent before 1945.

    First of all there was a common heritage, a similarity of outlook and material culture that characterized nearly all European peoples in contrast to those in many other parts of the world. Second, there were the varied technical agreements, many worked out in the nineteenth century, that were resumed after each war as though they had never been interrupted: agreements for cross-national services (rail, bus, and...

  6. CHAPTER 2 Anniversaries and Balance Sheets
    (pp. 9-39)
    JOHN G. TURNBULL and JEAN BELDEN TABER

    The pattern of relationships among the nation-states of the North Atlantic community is many-dimensioned: cultural, diplomatic, economic, educational, military, technological, to mention but a few. The year 1967 saw anniversaries of two events which were critically important in shaping these relationships. The first of these was the twentieth anniversary of the launching of the idea for the Marshall Plan, a plan which enabled a war-devastated Europe to get back on its economic feet. The second was the tenth anniversary of the signing of the Treaty of Rome which brought into existence the European Economic Community, one of the boldest multicountry...

  7. CHAPTER 3 The Western Crisis of the Sixties
    (pp. 40-84)
    HAROLD C. DEUTSCH

    Since the first stirrings after World War II of a drive toward combination among the lands of the traditional West, there have been successive phases of advance and retreat, of achievement and setback, of high hopes and discouragement.¹ On the broad goal of finding the most effective forms of association there has been wide agreement. Differences have involved the type and degree of cooperation, the selection of roads and the distances to be traveled on them, the pace of advance, and the relationships among the travelers as well as between them and those not numbered in their company.

    In the...

  8. CHAPTER 4 The Course of Economic Integration
    (pp. 85-125)
    JOHN G. TURNBULL

    A capsule summary of the state of affairs in European economic integration, as they appeared in the years 1965–68, would include the following:

    Formal organizations existed — the European Economic Community, the European Free Trade Association, the Benelux Economic Union, the European Coal and Steel Community, the European Atomic Energy Community, and, in the East, Comecon, all were in being. Europehadorganized itself.

    If the two primary organizations of Western Europe — the eec and efta — are singled out, considerable accomplishments may be noted in the way of economic integration. To cite but two examples, efta reached...

  9. CHAPTER 5 Constraints and Potentials in Agriculture
    (pp. 126-170)
    PHILIP M. RAUP

    European agricultural policy has been conditioned for centuries by lessons learned in past wars. One of the most fundamental of these lessons has been the necessity to preserve a food-supply base. Even France, with one of the most favorable potentials in all Europe for producing a food surplus, entered the Common Market era with its agriculture insulated from external competition and dependent upon an elaborate network of state support. Georges Pompidou, then prime minister, concluded a long interview in September 1967 with the prophetic observation that France “is practically ungovernable,” leaving the clear implication that integration even within the boundaries...

  10. CHAPTER 6 The Harmonization of Education
    (pp. 171-191)
    ROBERT H. BECK

    In the twentieth century state-supported education in Western Europe has been characterized by a two-part system of schooling: compulsory education of the masses, ending at about ages 10–14, and a severely restricted secondary and higher education program oriented largely toward the humanities. Within this over-all pattern sharp differences between countries existed as each state’s school system stressed the national language (or languages), history, art, literature, and so on, and developed its own standards and institutional forms. By the late 1960’s, however, significant common changes were occurring, both programmatic and institutional, in response to the challenges of the modern world...

  11. CHAPTER 7 The Integration of People
    (pp. 192-220)
    ARNOLD M. ROSE

    The movement during the post-World War II era toward a more politically integrated Europe has been largely created by highly placed policy makers. Some were idealists, who believed that economic development and political stability could only be achieved in larger than national units. Others were opportunists, seeking more power for their relatively important nations or responding to American pressures to develop greater European strength. Probably both the idealists and the opportunists were reacting to the threat of Russian expansionism and sought safety by joining forces. These and other factors at first worked on a high level of leadership and made...

  12. CHAPTER 8 The Changing Structure of Europe
    (pp. 221-238)

    The age called “modern” has taken its character most largely from the thrust of European power and civilization onto the oceans and over the lands beyond. Europeans peopled North America and Australia, became the dominant social strata in South America, and made themselves masters of much of Asia and Africa. In this scarcely credible feat of self-assertion it was the nation-state that mobilized with such extraordinary effectiveness the cultural, economic, and military resources of the continent aptly called mother of empires. Yet within Europe itself again and again nation-state turned against nation-state; at length the capacity of European society to...

  13. Notes
    (pp. 241-263)
  14. Selected Readings
    (pp. 264-270)
  15. INDEX
    (pp. 271-286)