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Essentials of Cardiovascular Physiology

Essentials of Cardiovascular Physiology

Harvey V. Sparks
Thom W. Rooke
Original illustrations by ROBERT R. LORENZ
Editorial preparation of manuscript by JULIANNE O. ROOKE
Copyright Date: 1987
Edition: NED - New edition
Pages: 224
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  • Book Info
    Essentials of Cardiovascular Physiology
    Book Description:

    Essentials of Cardiovascular Physiology was first published in 1987. Modern cardiovascular physiology ranges from subcellular function to integrated responses that involve all of the body’s systems, yet medical students are usually given only a few weeks in which t master this diverse and complex subject. To help overcome these difficulties, Harvey Sparks, Jr., M.D., and Thom W. Rooke, M.D., have written an introductory text which can be read and understood in the two-to-three week period most curricula provide for cardiovascular physiology. Each of the eight chapters integrates basic science with areas of clinical relevance in the simplest, most succinct way for students of medicine, physiology, nursing, and pharmacology. The authors’ aim throughout is to select those facts and concepts that are essential to a solid initial comprehension of the subject. The numerous illustrations and flow diagrams will help students understand the complex interrelationships among factors regulating the heart and blood vessels -- and will also be useful for rapid review, because they cover most of the text’s major points. Each chapter includes references leading the student to expand treatments of individual topics, and from there to the original literature. The topics covered include: overall arrangement of the circulatory system, electrical activity of the heart, the heart as a pump, systematic circulation, neural and hormonal control of circulation, regulation of flow and exchange, regulation of blood flow in specific organs, and integrated cardiovascular responses.

    eISBN: 978-0-8166-5575-5
    Subjects: Health Sciences

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-ix)
  3. Figures
    (pp. x-xii)
  4. Tables
    (pp. xiii-xiv)
  5. Preface
    (pp. xv-xvi)
    H.V.S. and T.W.R.
  6. Acknowledgments
    (pp. xvii-2)
  7. Chapter 1 Once Around the Circulation
    (pp. 3-10)

    Almost every physiological process involves the maintenance of the milieu interieur (internal environment), orhomeostasis. This internal environment is determined by the composition of fluid surrounding the cells of various organs and tissues. Optimal cellular function requires that the characteristics of this fluid remain within certain limits despite wide variations in the external environment. Consequently, variables such as the partial pressure of gases, the concentration of many organic and inorganic substances, and temperature must be regulated with precision. In higher organisms, different regulatory functions are performed by anatomically separate organs and tissues; for example, the lungs regulate gas concentrations, the...

  8. Chapter 2 Electrical Activity of the Heart
    (pp. 11-42)

    The heart will beat in the absence of any nervous connections because the electrical (pacemaker) activity that generates the heartbeat resides within the heart itself. After initiation, the electrical activity spreads in a coordinated manner (electrical conduction) through a network of specialized cells and tissues distributed throughout the heart. The electrical activity reaches every cardiac cell rapidly and with the correct timing, thus enabling the contraction of individual cells to occur in a coordinated fashion.

    The electrical pacemaker and conduction properties of cardiac cells depend upon the ionic gradients that exist across their semipermeable membranes. This chapter describes how ionic...

  9. Chapter 3 The Heart as a Pump
    (pp. 43-78)

    The heart is a muscular organ that pumps blood throughout the circulation. It consists of a series of four separate chambers (two atria and two ventricles) that use one-way valves to direct blood flow. The ability of the heart to pump blood depends upon the integrity of the valves and the proper contraction of the muscular walls. An understanding of the physiology of cardiac muscle is therefore a prerequisite for understanding the performance of the heart as a pump. This chapter describes (1) the basic molecular mechanisms underlying the contraction of cardiac muscle, (2) various factors that can influence these...

  10. Chapter 4 Systemic Circulation
    (pp. 79-104)

    This chapter explores the physical principles relating volume, pressure, and the flow of blood in the systemic circulation. In addition, the determinants of the major systemic hemodynamic variables (such as arterial pressure, total peripheral resistance, and blood volume) will be addressed. These general principles form the basis for understanding the regulation of arterial pressure and blood flow to individual tissues, as will be discussed in subsequent chapters.

    Fluid flows through a rigid tube only when a pressure (P) gradient exists along its length; the volume flowing per unit time (F) is proportional to the pressure difference between the ends of...

  11. Chapter 5 Neural and Hormonal Control of the Circulation
    (pp. 105-130)

    Central blood volume and arterial pressure are regulated by a number of neural and hormonal mechanisms. Neural control involves both sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system. Blood volume and arterial pressure are monitored by stretch receptors in the heart and arteries. Afferent nerve traffic from these receptors is integrated in the brain stem, which leads to levels of activity in sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves that adjust cardiac output and total peripheral resistance to maintain arterial pressure. Sympathetic nerve activity and, even more important, hormones such as vasopressin, renin, angiotensin, aldosterone, and several others serve as effectors for...

  12. Chapter 6 Regulation of Flow and Exchange
    (pp. 131-154)

    Chapters 6 and 7 describe the regulation of blood flow and microvascular exchange in the various tissues of the body. This chapter deals with the components of the blood vessel wall, with special emphasis on the two functionally unique cells of the vascular wall, endothelial cells and vascular myocytes. It also deals with the principles of microvascular exchange.

    As the vascular tree branches, the anatomy and function of successive segments change. Figure 6-1 shows the basic structural features of each of the successive segments of the systemic circulation. Large arteries, like the aorta, have a thick wall that contains concentric...

  13. Chapter 7 Regulation of Blood Flow
    (pp. 155-176)

    This chapter describes the factors controlling the flow of blood through the various organs of the body. Organ blood flow is determined by the pressure drop across the organ and the resistance to blood flow offered by the vessels within it. All of the organs to be discussed, except the lungs and liver, are in parallel (see chapter 1) and are exposed to the same arterial pressure. In most situations the mean arterial pressure is held relatively constant by the neurogenic and humoral mechanisms discussed in chapter 5. Variations in organ blood flow are caused by changes in vascular resistance,...

  14. Chapter 8 Integrated Cardiovascular Responses
    (pp. 177-196)

    The previous chapters have provided the building blocks necessary for understanding how the circulation works as a whole. This chapter is intended to encourage thought about how these building blocks fit together.

    A key part of an integrated view of the cardiovascular system relates to understanding the relationship between cardiac output, venous return, and central blood volume. Consider the events that occur if the heart rate is suddenly increased by an artificial pacemaker (minimizing the changes in contractility that would accompany increased sympathetic neural activity). If the systemic circulation were a series of rigid pipes, the increased cardiac output would...

  15. Index
    (pp. 199-204)
  16. Back Matter
    (pp. 205-205)