Learning Theory in School Situations

Learning Theory in School Situations

ESTHER J. SWENSON
G. LESTER ANDERSON
CHALMERS L. STACEY
with an Introduction by T.R. McCONNELL
Volume: 2
Copyright Date: 1949
Edition: NED - New edition
Pages: 108
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5749/j.cttttfq3
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  • Book Info
    Learning Theory in School Situations
    Book Description:

    Three research studies conducted for the dual purpose of testing the effectiveness of certain teaching methods in the learning of elementary school pupils and of contributing to the theory of how learning proceeds. Ms. Anderson compared two methods of instruction in fourth-grade arithmetic--the teaching of meaningful generalizations and drill. Miss Swenson dealt with the effect of teaching meaningful generalizations upon retroactive inhibition and transfer of training. Mr. Stacey tested Throndike’s Law of Effect, using five different methods of instruction in five sixth-grade classes.

    eISBN: 978-1-4529-3736-6
    Subjects: Education

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-ii)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. iii-iv)
  3. INTRODUCTION
    (pp. 1-8)
    T. R. McConnell

    In calling for an aggressive attack on problems of learning theory at the human level, Hilgard takes the position that “… a psychology limited to animals below man will always fall short.”¹ He points out also that the results of learning experiments are functions of many variables, including the nature of the situation or task; the motivation of the subjects, that is, what they are trying to do; how the learners proceed; and how the outcomes are measured. Furthermore, the results of experimentsmaybe limited to the particular conditions under which learning took place. He objects, therefore, to the...

  4. ORGANIZATION AND GENERALIZATION AS FACTORS IN LEARNING, TRANSFER, AND RETROACTIVE INHIBITION
    (pp. 9-39)
    Esther J. Swenson

    The chief purpose of this investigation is to study learning, transfer of training, and retroactive inhibition as they appear in the learning of the one hundred addition facts by second-grade children taught by three different methods of instruction, the chief variable among methods being the degree of emphasis upon organization and generalization in the learning process. Stated somewhat differently, this experiment aims to throw light upon the interrelationships among (a) learning during instruction, (b) transfer of training, (c) retroactive inhibition, and (d) organization and generalization as factors affecting the learning of arithmetic.

    It is hardly necessary to point out the...

  5. QUANTITATIVE THINKING AS DEVELOPED UNDER CONNECTIONIST AND FIELD THEORIES OF LEARNING
    (pp. 40-73)
    G. Lester Anderson

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine experimentally the differential effect of two instructional procedures upon achievement in arithmetic. The two instructional procedures were based on field and connectionist theories of learning.¹ The general objective of the experiment was to investigate the hypothesis that learning which emphasizes understanding and generalization is more efficacious than learning which emphasizes the relative discreteness of the elements of knowledge and skill. Although the results include an analysis of the relative effects of two instructional procedures upon several of the measurable outcomes of arithmetic instruction, the most important specific problem was to determine the...

  6. THE LAW OF EFFECT IN THE RETAINED SITUATION WITH MEANINGFUL MATERIAL
    (pp. 74-103)
    Chalmers L. Stacey

    The principle purpose of the present experiment is that of studying the law of effect in the retained situation with meaningful material when learners are supplied with varying amounts of information or guidance.

    The participation of the behaving organism in a learning situation may range from a relatively low degree of self-discovery up through increasing degrees of self-discovery. Also, the situation may range from non-structured or non-meaningful material (the correct response being abitrarily chosen) up through increasing degrees of organization to that which is highly structured. Lastly, guidance or information may range from a state of non-guidance up through various...

  7. Back Matter
    (pp. 104-104)