The Mental Growth of Children From Two to Fourteen Years

The Mental Growth of Children From Two to Fourteen Years: A Study of the Predictive Value of the Minnesota Preschool Scales

FLORENCE L. GOODENOUGH
KATHARINE M. MAURER
Volume: 20
Copyright Date: 1942
Edition: NED - New edition
Pages: 150
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5749/j.cttttgc1
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  • Book Info
    The Mental Growth of Children From Two to Fourteen Years
    Book Description:

    The Mental Growth of Children from Two to Fourteen Years was first published in 1942. Minnesota Archive Editions uses digital technology to make long-unavailable books once again accessible, and are published unaltered from the original University of Minnesota Press editions. This discussion of the development and application of the Minnesota Preschool Scales includes detailed accounts of the statistical analyses used, follow-up studies, and a number of case histories, as well as a review of previous work in the testing of infants and young children. Covers a 12-year period during which trained examiners tested the same children at stated intervals. 1,350 tests were used in the standardization of verbal and nonverbal forms. Test standing on the Minnesota scales showed correlation with standing on tests given at the completion of high school.

    eISBN: 978-1-4529-3783-0
    Subjects: Psychology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-x)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. xi-xvi)
  3. PART I. CONSTRUCTION OF THE MINNESOTA PRESCHOOL SCALES
    • I. HISTORICAL SURVEY
      (pp. 3-18)

      Although mental tests for school children first appeared shortly after 1900, those for preschool children are of more recent origin. The purpose of the early tests was to distinguish between feebleminded and normal children in school, in order that the feebleminded might be segregated and given special training suitable to their needs (Binet, 1905, 1908, 1911; Goddard, 1910, 1911a, 1911b). Once the usefulness of the tests had been demonstrated, the work was carried further: first, in the checking and revision of tests for school children; second, in the extension of the testing method to a wider age range. The First...

    • II. STANDARDIZATION OF THE SCALES
      (pp. 19-25)

      The formulation and standardization of the Minnesota Scales for Preschool Children occupied about five years. As soon as the study of the Kuhlmann-Binet scale, mentioned in the preceding chapter, was completed, the construction of a scale to be used with children from the ages of 18 months to 5 years was begun. The earlier study had shown the necessity for careful selection both of the tests and of the children to be tested as well as the desirability of using more refined statistical methods in the compilation of results.

      Much preliminary work was done in making the first selection of...

    • III. THE SELECTION OF THE TESTS AND THEIR ARRANGEMENT
      (pp. 26-34)

      In the selection of the tests for the Minnesota Preschool Scales it was natural that Goodenough’s (1928) work on the 1922 Kuhlmann revision of the Binet should be given the greatest weight. However, other studies were reviewed with care and the final scale represents a combination of test items and ideas gleaned from many sources. There follows a detailed discussion of the selection of each of the tests included in the final scale.

      In almost all scales since the time of Binet, pointing out different parts of the body has been used as a test for very young children. In...

    • IV. DERIVATION OF THE SCALE VALUES
      (pp. 35-48)

      In the earlier scales for measuring mental ability the mental year, or the amount of change in mental ability corresponding to a yearly change in chronological age, was used as the unit of measurement. No consideration was given to the fact that the mental year might vary at different levels of chronological age. The usual method of scoring, which takes as a basal age the year at which all the tests are passed and adds to that basal mental age a proportionate number of months for all tests passed above it, implies an equality in the mental year throughout the...

  4. PART II. THE PREDICTION OF LATER STATUS FROM ERLIER STATUS
    • V. SOME THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS AND THEIR PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS
      (pp. 51-53)

      The study of human mental growth is a task beset with many difficulties. Of the two possible approaches to the problem, the first, which has been most commonly employed in the past, consists of selecting a fairly large number of cases at successive age levels and applying to these cases whatever tests or other measuring devices are regarded as valid indices of mental differences within the area selected for study. This procedure, known as thecross-sectionalmethod, is dependent for its validity upon several assumptions: that the sampling of children at each age is representative of a series of populations...

    • VI. RELATION BETWEEN EARLIER AND LATER STANDING ON THE MINNESOTA PRESCHOOL SCALES
      (pp. 54-64)

      In few areas of psychological investigation are the problems of measurement so closely bound up with the problems of prediction as in the study of mental development during childhood. Undoubtedly, the widespread attitude that mental measurement is chiefly for the purpose of prediction is a direct outgrowth of the fact that mental tests were originally devised, and have been chiefly used, as bases for practices involving the handling of children over extended periods of time. Unless it could be demonstrated that the tests were measuring something that was sufficiently stable to persist throughout the allotted time period, these devices would...

    • VII. CORRELATION BETWEEN THE MINNESOTA PRESCHOOL SCALES AND THE MERRILL-PALMER SCALE
      (pp. 65-70)

      In the Manual of Instructions for the Merrill-Palmer scale (Stutsman, 1931, p. 106), its author points out that “it is impracticable to use the intelligence quotient with the Merrill-Palmer test scale. At the different chronological-age levels the range of IQ’s at —2.5σ varies from 58 to 70. At —2.0σ it varies from 66 to 79 and at —1.5σ from 74 to 83. . . . At the other end of the distributions the variation is even greater. At +2.5σ the IQ varies from 122 to 165; at +2.0σ from 119 to 154 and at +1.5σ from 114 to 141. It...

    • VIII. PREDICTION OF STANDING ON THE 1916 STANFORD-BINET FROM THE MINNESOTA PRESCHOOL SCALES
      (pp. 71-77)

      It has been our practice to have children brought to the institute for annual testing at a date corresponding as closely as possible to the midpoint between birthdays. For various reasons it has not always been feasible to adhere to this rule as closely for children of preschool age as for older children, a fact that accounts for the less rigidly controlled age groupings used in reporting findings on the preschool tests.

      The Stanford-Binet test (1916 revision) was given at annual intervals to children who had previously been enrolled in the institute’s nursery school, as well as to a fairly...

    • IX. PREDICTION OF STANDING ON THE 1937 STANFORD-BINET FROM THE MINNESOTA PRESCHOOL SCALES
      (pp. 78-81)

      To date few comparisons of the correlations between the 1916 and 1937 revisions of the Stanford-Binet and other measures of intelligence have appeared in the literature. Terman and Merrill (1937) report correlations ranging from +.85 to +.90 for various age groups. Traxler (1941) reports a somewhat closer agreement between the IQ’s earned on the fifth revision of the Kuhlmann-Anderson group test and the 1937 revision than was found for the 1916 revision. A similar difference in favor of the 1937 revision appeared when the fourth edition of the Kuhlmann-Anderson test was used. However, the differences are small, the sampling of...

    • X. PREDICTION OF STANDING ON THE ARTHUR SCALE, FORM I, FROM THE MINNESOTA PRESCHOOL SCALES
      (pp. 82-89)

      The scale of performance, or nonlanguage, tests devised by Dr. Grace Arthur (1930, 1933) is widely used in clinical testing. Because it is an individual test that makes no demand upon language usage and involves only a minimal degree of language comprehension, the scale has been found particularly valuable for use with children whose knowledge of English is limited and with those suffering from marked defects of speech or hearing. As a matter of fact, although the instructions are usually given verbally, if necessary they can be communicated for the most part by pantomime.

      Although two forms of the scale...

    • XI. PREDICTION OF STANDING ON COLLEGE ENTRANCE TESTS FROM THE MINNESOTA PRESCHOOL SCALES
      (pp. 90-92)

      Over two hundred of the children who were given the Minnesota Preschool Scales before the age of 6 have now completed high school. The University of Minnesota Testing Bureau has for some years administered the American Council on Education college entrance examinations to all Minnesota high school students toward the end of their senior year. Through the courtesy of Dr. John Darley, director of the bureau, records of our subjects who had been given these tests were made available for study.

      A word of explanation is necessary before presenting the figures. In order to make these comparisons as rigid as...

    • XII. SIGNIFICANCE OF A DIFFERENCE IN STANDING ON THE VERBAL AND NONVERBAL SCALES
      (pp. 93-97)

      In Chapters VI–IX inclusive it was shown that in spite of the lower weighting that has been assigned to the nonverbal scale in computing the total score, in spite of its shorter range of effectiveness, its smaller number of items and its somewhat lower reliability as computed at the time of standardization, this scale nevertheless affords a prediction of later standing on well-known tests of intelligence that is as good as or better than that provided by the verbal scale. The superiority of the nonverbal scale is marked in respect to its correlation with the two other scales making...

    • XIII. INDIVIDUAL CASE STUDIES
      (pp. 98-112)

      The great majority of our cases show only such fluctuations in mental status from one measurement to another as may be expected to result from variations in test content at different ages, unequal degrees of cooperation on different occasions, marginal successes and failures, and similar factors that probably can never be brought under perfect control. For these children the changes in IQ from one test to another are commonly not large and show no consistent tendency.

      Occasionally, however, a case is found in which the variations in standing from one occasion to another show a trend that is too consistent...

    • XIV. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
      (pp. 113-118)

      Almost fourteen years have elapsed since the first steps in the construction of the Minnesota Preschool Scales were taken. That changes in our point of view toward tests and testing should have occurred since that time is natural, perhaps inevitable. Certainly such changes have taken place. It seems pertinent, therefore, in concluding this report, to devote a few paragraphs to the contrast between our earlier concepts and those that have emerged as a result of more recent studies by ourselves and by our contemporaries.

      Even as early as 1928 the distinction between measurement and prediction of mental growth had been...

  5. APPENDIX IQ-Equivalents for the Merrill-Palmer Tests
    (pp. 119-123)
  6. BIBLIOGRAPHY
    (pp. 124-126)
  7. AUTHOR INDEX
    (pp. 127-127)
  8. SUBJECT INDEX
    (pp. 128-130)