The Development of Reasoning in Children with Normal and Defective Hearing

The Development of Reasoning in Children with Normal and Defective Hearing

MILDRED C. TEMPLIN
Volume: 24
Copyright Date: 1950
Edition: NED - New edition
Pages: 160
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5749/j.cttttgv9
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  • Book Info
    The Development of Reasoning in Children with Normal and Defective Hearing
    Book Description:

    The Development of Reasoning in Children with Normal and Defective Hearing was first published in 1950. Minnesota Archive Editions uses digital technology to make long-unavailable books once again accessible, and are published unaltered from the original University of Minnesota Press editions. No. 24, Institute of Child Welfare Monograph Series This important study will prove helpful to educators, psychologists, clinicians, and all workers with the hard-of-hearing and deaf. Various types of reasoning ability were measured in children whose experience was limited by defective hearing, by residence in an institution, or by both of these factors, and comparisons were made with children whose environment was normal in one or both aspects. Subjects for the study included 850 pupils in state schools for the deaf, in special day classes for the defective hearing, and in public schools. Three different reasoning tests were used, and the scores of matched groups are compared and analyzed._x000B_

    eISBN: 978-1-4529-3842-4
    Subjects: Psychology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-2)
  3. I. INTRODUCTION
    (pp. 3-10)

    Because thought processes play an important role in man’s adaptation to his environment, they constitute a major area of psychological interest. Many kinds of intellectual functions are referred to as thought processes. Those described by such terms as problem solving, number concepts, language concepts, and the manipulation of symbols are generally grouped under the head of reasoning. The effectiveness with which reasoning is carried out varies from individual to individual and depends partly upon intelligence and partly upon knowledge and experience. Because reasoning is so important in learning and adjustment, studies of the factors which affect it are of both...

  4. II. THE EXPERIMENT
    (pp. 11-27)

    This study was designed to explore the adequacy of various types of reasoning of children and adolescents when their environment was restricted in several ways. The following hypotheses were set up to be tested:

    1. The restriction of the environment by either an intrinsic factor or an extrinsic factor will result in less adequate reasoning as indicated by lower scores on the reasoning tests.

    2. Reasoning becomes increasingly less adequate as the stimulation of the environment is increasingly restricted.

    3. The restriction of the environment has a differential effect upon reasoning according to the degree of dependence of each type of reasoning upon...

  5. III. ANALYSIS OF REASONING BY MATCHED GROUP TECHNIQUE
    (pp. 28-54)

    The most satisfactory measure of the net relationship existing between any variables is obtained when other related variables are controlled. To determine the relationship of the various types of reasoning measured with hearing loss and residence in an institution, other factors related to reasoning are controlled by using the technique of matched groups. The diagram of the design of the experiment presented in Figure 1 shows the subsamples from which the matched groups are drawn and the matching variables. Pairs of cases selected from the experimental subsamples were matched on sex, age within six months, grade placement within one grade,...

  6. IV. COMPARISON OF THE REASONING OF THE HEARING AND DEFECTIVE HEARING SUBSAMPLES
    (pp. 55-91)

    The reasoning tests used in this study are reported by the original investigators to be related to age, grade, or intelligence. The analysis of the matched groups in the present research showed a greater relationship between reasoning test scores and the intrinsic factor of hearing acuity than between test scores and the extrinsic factor of type of school enrollment. It was expected that the amount of increase in reasoning scores with increased age, grade, and intelligence would vary with the presence of the intrinsic or extrinsic factor restricting the environment. In order to compare the development of reasoning by age,...

  7. V. INTERCOMPARISON OF THE REASONING WITHIN THE EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS
    (pp. 92-105)

    The results of the analysis of the matched groups indicated that reasoning is more closely related to hearing acuity than to residence in an institution. In the analysis by subsamples this finding was substantiated, since the hearing subjects obtained consistently higher reasoning test scores than the defective hearing when the comparison was made by age, grade, or intelligence. Loss of hearing was found to be related to reasoning in both analyses. In order to obtain a better understanding of the similarities and differences in the reasoning of the hearing and the defective hearing, the hearing subsamples and the defective hearing...

  8. VI. WRITTEN LANGUAGE USED IN EXPLANATION OF THE DEUTSCHE QUESTIONS
    (pp. 106-116)

    The close relationship between language and reasoning is well recognized. The widely reported language retardation of the defective hearing is basic to this study. Specifically, the findings of Heider and Heider (16) on the language usage of the deaf served as the beginning for the present experiment. The assumption of retardation in the language of the defective hearing determined the selection of the reasoning tests in the present study. The reasoning tests used were chosen because of their varying dependence upon specific training and specifically upon verbal usage.

    Since the assumption of retardation in the language development of the defective...

  9. VII. THE DEFECTIVE HEARING
    (pp. 117-127)

    The defective hearing subjects have received lower scores on all of the tests of reasoning with the exception of one subtest, and have shown linguistic immaturity in their written explanations of the Deutsche questions. It is not only between the hearing and the defective hearing groups that these differences have been observed. In comparing the residential and day school defective hearing experimental groups, the scores of the day school group are quite consistently differentiated from those of the residential group. In some instances, the scores of the day school defective hearing are more similar to those of the hearing than...

  10. VIII. SUMMARY
    (pp. 128-137)

    This experiment was designed to study the influence of the restriction of the environment upon reasoning. The reasoning measured is dependent in varying degrees upon specific environmental training or experience. Explanation of the causes of natural phenomena, measured by the Deutsche questions, was selected as most dependent upon training or environment; verbal abstract reasoning, measured by the revised Long and Welch Test of Causal Reasoning, was chosen as next most dependent; and nonverbal abstract reasoning, measured by the Brody Non-Verbal Abstract Reasoning Test, was regarded as least dependent. Two types of environmental restriction were considered: (a) restriction by an intrinsic...

  11. BIBLIOGRAPHY
    (pp. 138-140)
  12. INDEX
    (pp. 141-143)