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Ferns of Minnesota

Ferns of Minnesota

Illustrated by Wilma Monserud
Copyright Date: 1980
Edition: NED - New edition
Pages: 176
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  • Book Info
    Ferns of Minnesota
    Book Description:

    A comprehensive identification guide. Includes information on habitats, advice on transplanting, distribution maps, silhouette drawings of each species, and an illustrated glossary.

    eISBN: 978-0-8166-8164-8
    Subjects: Botany & Plant Sciences

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. [i]-[vi])
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. [vii]-2)
  3. Introduction
    (pp. 3-14)

    Ferns are a conspicuous part of the vegetation in Minnesota except in the prairie region. There they are few both in species and in numbers, as would be expected of a group that thrives best in a cool, moist climate and mostly in shaded places. In many suitable areas, especially in the northeastern and southeastern parts of the state, the ferns are the most abundant plants of the ground cover. This book is intended as a guide to the identification of the kinds of ferns, supplying at the same time information on the habitat preferences of the species and their...

  4. Pteridophyta
    (pp. 15-20)

    The ferns and fern allies comprise the plant phylum Pteridophyta, comparable to the seed plants (Spermatophyta), mosses (Bryophyta), and algae, fungi, and lichens (Thallophyta). A more recent classification places all the ferns and fern allies in the same phylum as the seed plants (Tracheophyta) but in separate groups under it. In any case, these spore-bearing vascular plants form a traditional and practical group.

    In Minnesota there are 9 families of Pteridophytes, including a total of 26 genera and 72 species. In addition to the species, the varieties, forms, and hybrids make a total of 98 different kinds included in this...


    • ADDER’S-TONGUE FAMILY (Ophioglossaceae)
      (pp. 21-33)

      Roots fleshy; stem short, erect, subterranean, bearing a single leaf (rarely more) divided into a fertile spike or panicle and a sterile expanded blade; leaves folded in the bud; sporangia large, naked, sessile or nearly so; spores of one kind. (Glossary Plate 1, p. 19)

      1. Veins free; blade, with rare exception, divided; sporangia (except in dwarf plants) borne in a panicle (Fig. 23) .....Botrychium(p. 21)

      1. Veins forming a network; blade entire; sporangia borne in a spike (Fig. 24) .........................Ophioglossum(p. 32)

      Leaves one to a plant (with rare exceptions); the sterile portion (blade) pinnately divided, sometimes...

    • FLOWERING FERN FAMILY (Osmundaceae)
      (pp. 33-38)

      Roots fibrous; stem a massive compact rhizome, the crown exposed; leaves numerous, pinnate-pinnatifid or bipinnate, large, completely or partially dimorphic, with stipules at the base of the stipe; veins free; leaves coiled in the bud; sporangia relatively large, naked, short-stalked, borne on highly modified pinnae; spores of one kind, green. (Glossary Plates 1 and 2, pp. 19 and 20)

      Represented in Minnesota by a single genus.

      1. Leaf entirely fertile, brownish, hairy ......O. cinnamomea(p. 36)

      1. Leaf entirely or partly sterile, most of the pinnae green and expanded .................................................2

      2. Blade bipinnate, fertile pinnae, if present, at the apex...

    • WATER CLOVER FAMILY (Marsileacae)
      (pp. 38-38)

      Stem slender, extensively creeping, bearing leaves at intervals; leaves with a long petiole and a blade composed of four fan-shaped pinnae; the highly specialized sporangia-bearing organ, the hairy sporocarp, borne on the rhizome near the base of the leaves; spores of two kinds borne in separate sporangia.

      Represented in Minnesota by a single genus and species.

      This is a very distinctive species; the leaves are hairy and resemble a four-leaved clover.

      It has been found in ephemeral prairie pools in the southwestern corner of the state.

      Distribution: Saskatchewan to Minnesota, south to Horida and Mexico....

    • FLOATING FERN FAMILY (Salviniaceae)
      (pp. 38-40)

      Plants small, floating, or rooting in wet mud; stem branched; leaves with an upper and a lower lobe; sporocarps in pairs; sporangia highly specialized; spores of two kinds borne in separate sporangia.

      Represented in Minnesota by a single genus and species.

      This fern resembles a small hepatic or moss. It floats on water or may live stranded in wet mud. It is unique and will not be confused with any of the other species by anyone fortunate enough to find it.

      It grows in sloughs of the Mississippi River and in a pond near Minneapolis.

      Distribution: Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, and...

    • POLYPODY FAMILY (Polypodiaceae)
      (pp. 40-113)

      Roots fibrous; stem a compact or extensively creeping rhizome usually at or near the surface of the soil; leaves relatively large, without stipules, coiled in the bud, bearing on the underside small, long-stalked sporangia associated in groups (sori), these usually covered by an indusium, fertile leaves generally similar to the sterile, dimorphic inOnocleaandMatteuccia; spores of one kind. (Glossary Plates 1 and 2, pp. 19 and 20)

      Our largest family, represented by 17 genera and 34 species.

      1. Stipe divided at its tip into two rachises; blade fan-shaped, the pinnae arising from only one side of the rachis-branch...

    • [Illustrations]
      (pp. None)

    • HORSETAIL FAMILY (Equisetaceae)
      (pp. 114-134)

      Aerial stems erect from a deep, branched rhizome, mostly hollow, with an external silicon deposit, longitudinally grooved, jointed at the conspicuous nodes; branches and leaves borne in whorls at the nodes, the leaves much reduced to form sheaths; sporangia borne on specialized leaves in a terminal cone; spores of one kind. (Glossary Plate 3, p. 117)

      Represented in Minnesota by a single genus.

      Many species have branched and unbranched phases and various types of branches, erect or decumbent, simple or compound, and so forth. These forms have not been recognized, being generally considered to be ecological phases, several sometimes being...

    • CLUB MOSS FAMILY (Lycopodiaceae)
      (pp. 134-150)

      Stems creeping, often extensively so, branches upright, leafy; leaves relatively small, alternate or opposite; sporangia borne in the axils of leaves, these of the vegetative type or specialized and aggregated in cones; spores of one kind. (Glossary Plate 4, p. 133)

      Represented in Minnesota by a single genus.

      Some of the species are rather variable in characters of the branches, leaves, and cones. Many varieties and forms have been named, but some of these are certainly no more than individual or ecological variations. See Victorin, Les Lycopodinées du Quebec, Contrib. Lab. Bot. Univ. Montréal, No. 3, 1925, for an elaborate...

    • SPIKE MOSS FAMILY (Selaginellaceae)
      (pp. 150-153)

      Stems creeping, branches upright or ascending, leafy; leaves relatively small, alternate; sporangia borne in the axils of specialized leaves aggregated into cones; spores of two kinds borne in separate sporangia.

      Represented in Minnesota by a single genus.

      The thin leaves with toothed margins separate this species from the next. It is a small species and does not grow in large mats asS. rupestrisoften does.

      It has been collected in mossy places on Long Island and Big Susie Island near Grand Portage and at Grand Marais.

      Distribution: Greenland to Alaska, south to Marine, Michigan, Colorado, and British Columbia.


    • QUILLWORT FAMILY (Isoëtaceae)
      (pp. 153-158)

      Stem corm-like, short and erect, bearing awl-shaped, alternate leaves from the terminal portion and roots from the basal; leaves expanded at the base, the fertile ones with a large sporangium on the inner face; spores of two kinds borne in separate sporangia.

      Represented in Minnesota by a single genus.

      The species of this genus can be critically identified only by the megaspores that are borne in the sporangia at the bases of the leaves.I. echinosporavar.Brauniihas a spiny megaspore; the other two species have ridged ones. The megaspores ofI. melanopodaare about half the size (averaging...

  7. Index
    (pp. 161-165)