The Effect of Praise and Competition on the Persisting Behavior of Kindergarten Children

The Effect of Praise and Competition on the Persisting Behavior of Kindergarten Children

THETA HOLMES WOLF
Volume: 15
Copyright Date: 1938
Edition: NED - New edition
Pages: 150
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5749/j.cttttkt3
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    The Effect of Praise and Competition on the Persisting Behavior of Kindergarten Children
    Book Description:

    The Effect of Praise and Competition on the Persisting Behavior of Kindergarten Children was first published in 1939. Minnesota Archive Editions uses digital technology to make long-unavailable books once again accessible, and are published unaltered from the original University of Minnesota Press editions. No. 15, Institute of Child Welfare Monograph Series In this study of five-year-olds, an experimenting psychologist has gone beyond previous investigators and attempted to show what factors in the presentation of a task and also in a child’s permanent social field seem to be related to persisting behavior and motivation. Important for psychologists, school principals and teachers, and all who would understand the effect of incentives, is her finding that the nature of the task and – in at least some instances – the order of its presentation in a series have a marked effect on persisting performance._x000B_

    eISBN: 978-1-4529-3858-5
    Subjects: Psychology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-viii)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. ix-2)
  3. I. THE PROBLEM
    (pp. 3-4)

    This investigation was undertaken in an attempt to examine the effect of several controlled variables on persisting behavior. It was frankly exploratory, planned with the purpose of varying a number of conditions to determine the direction of their influence.

    Several general problems must be considered in connection with persisting behavior and the effects of incentives upon it. It is important to discover whether persisting behavior, under varying conditions, is fundamentally a general or a specific reaction. That is to say, do the relations among the individuals in a group remain the same from one condition to another, or do these...

  4. II. PREVIOUS EXPERIMENTS IN THE FIELD
    (pp. 5-19)

    Experiments in persisting or attending behavior with preschool subjects have become fairly numerous in the last half-decade. They have been variously called studies inattention span, interest span, perseverative tendency, persistence, andperseverance.

    The functional termpersisting behavioris used in the present investigation to avoid classifying the phenomenon as though it had an essential nature apart from the conditions affecting it. Theactivityof the organism is best expressed by aprocessterm. The way is then indicated toward a concept of functional variables of which this activity of the organism is a part.

    In earlier studies the definition...

  5. III. THE EXPERIMENTAL SETUP
    (pp. 20-33)

    In the present experiment it was necessary to limit the choice of tasks, incentives, and subjects by certain considerations. It seemed advisable to vary not only the kind of task falling roughly within a single type, but also the types of tasks. The reason for this lies in the hypothesis already stated that the effect of the incentive is altered by the nature of the task that is being performed. An attempt was made to find one task that would be a difficult, problem-solving, construction task, in which the subject could easily see his own progress. Although this type of...

  6. [Illustration]
    (pp. None)
  7. IV. ANALYSES OF GROUP RESULTS
    (pp. 34-73)

    The total results for each of the three incentive situations will be given in the first section of this chapter. These will be followed by a more detailed analysis of the tasks as they are related, first, to the incentives, and second, to one another. We shall then examine the relation of the persisting performances to the factors of sex, socio-economic status, age, and intelligence test scores. In the final sections we shall consider the findings from teachers’ ratings and home questionnaires.

    The figures in Table 3 represent the averages of the total performances of the twenty subjects in all...

  8. V. INDIVIDUAL CASE STUDIES
    (pp. 74-124)

    Up to this point we have been reporting the results that indicate the directions ofgroupbehavior under various conditions, as well as some of the possible reasons for high or low performances in any one of the incentive situations. This chapter will deal withindividualpatterns of persisting behavior and with some functional variables that do not appear in the group data.

    Naturally, the individual patterns of most of the children follow in general the incentive order for increasing effectiveness that is familiar to us now: working alone, working with praise, working with competition. We shall, however, find at...

  9. VI. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
    (pp. 125-127)

    Within the limits of the present study, the effectiveness of incentive situations increased for the group in the following order: first, task carried on without further incentive; second, with the praise of the experimenter; and third, with a group of four children among whom a competitive attitude was promoted by the experimenter. This order held in four of the five tasks presented, as well as for the total scores of all the tasks. In these four tasks no end or goal was set by the type of task, and they all offered either visual or kinesthetic evidence of the progress...

  10. APPENDIX I
    (pp. 128-129)
  11. APPENDIX II
    (pp. 130-133)
  12. BIBLIOGRAPHY
    (pp. 134-135)
  13. INDEX
    (pp. 136-138)