Adaptive Strategies and Population Ecology of Northern Grouse

Adaptive Strategies and Population Ecology of Northern Grouse: Volume II. Theory and Synthesis

Arthur T. Bergerud
Michael W. Gratson
Copyright Date: 1988
Edition: NED - New edition
Pages: 408
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5749/j.cttttm7w
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  • Book Info
    Adaptive Strategies and Population Ecology of Northern Grouse
    Book Description:

    The first volume contains eleven studies of eight grouse species; the second contains primarily the work of Bergerud, which utilizes the evidence in the first volume to advance theories of behavior and offer new demographic insights.

    eISBN: 978-0-8166-8236-2
    Subjects: Zoology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-xvi)
  3. Part II Theory and Synthesis
    • 12 A Genetic Explanation for Ten-Year Cycles of Grouse
      (pp. 423-438)
      R. E. Page and A. T. Bergerud

      With the exception of a few specific cases, there is still no general answer to the question “Why do populations of animals cease growing and not continue to increase without limit?” (Pielou 1977, Krebs 1978b). Population ecology as science has no universal paradigm under which it operates (Kuhn 1962, Lakatos & Musgrave 1965).

      Dennis Chitty (1958) proposed an encompassing theory, that all animals have the ability to self-regulate their population levels below resource limits. The theory was intuitively appealing, but initially was not sufficiently precise to provide much direction for research programs, or to allow falsification by empirical testing. Pitelka...

    • 13 Mating Systems in Grouse
      (pp. 439-472)
      A. T. Bergerud

      The evolution of mating systems can be best understood by determining the fitness costs and benefits of various reproductive options available to individual males and females (Wittenberger 1979), within the framework of sexual selection and parental investment theory (Darwin 1871, Trivers 1972). Such an approach permits the environmental constraints impinging on the options to be identified, leading to an integrated theory (Wittenberger 1979).

      Mating-system theory is well advanced in the study of birds, and the grouse (Tetraonidae) has received special emphasis (Wiley 1974, Wittenberger 1978, Bradbury 1981, Oring 1982). It is especially intriguing that all three ptarmigan species—white-tailed ptarmigan...

    • 14 Survival and Breeding Strategies of Grouse
      (pp. 473-577)
      A. T. Bergerud and M. W. Gratson

      The first rule of natural selection is not to maximize reproduction, but to stayalive. Grouse must choose activities that maximize survival before they can proceed to those that maximize lifetime reproduction. The solution to these twofitness problems, to live and to breed, depends upon the evolution of satisfactorylife-history strategies and tactics through the survival of fit individuals. A strategymay be defined as “a set of rules that determines which of several alternative behavioral tactics is employed to solve a particular problem or to achieve a particular goal,” and a tactic as “a behavior pattern within a a species repertoire that...

    • 15 Population Ecology of North American Grouse
      (pp. 578-685)
      A. T. Bergerud

      The first synthesis of the demography of North American grouse was thirty years ago when J. J. Mickey (1955) reviewed the then current literature. His review emphasized census methodology, the age and sex structure of populations, and the question of fluctuations and cycles in the numbers of grouse. Johnsgard (1973) also reviewed the current literature, but emphasized life-history characteristics of species. In the past ten years, wildlife biologists have been actively counting grouse, determining the sex and age composition of the living and the dead, calculating mortality rates, and searching for nests. Radiotelemetry has allowed biologists at last to find...

    • 16 Increasing the Numbers of Grouse
      (pp. 686-734)
      A. T. Bergerud

      A tendency of management biologists is to proceed on the basis that if there is more habitat, it follows that there will be more grouse. It is true that habitat is the template for population growth, but it is only a necessary, and not a sufficient, precondition. Mortality rates are generally fixed by the predator-cover complex in which grouse live. For a population to increase, breeding success must be greater than that needed to stabilize numbers. The strategy of management should be to improve reproductive success.

      The format of this chapter generally follows the topic outline discussed by Aldo Leopold...

  4. References
    (pp. 735-780)
  5. Index
    (pp. 781-809)
  6. Back Matter
    (pp. 810-810)