Men, Women, and Jobs

Men, Women, and Jobs: A Study in Human Engineering

DONALD G. PATERSON
JOHN G. DARLEY
WITH THE ASSISTANCE OF RICHARD M. ELLIOTT
Copyright Date: 1936
Edition: NED - New edition
Pages: 156
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5749/j.cttttmrm
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  • Book Info
    Men, Women, and Jobs
    Book Description:

    Men, Women, and Jobs was first published in 1936. Minnesota Archive Editions uses digital technology to make long-unavailable books once again accessible, and are published unaltered from the original University of Minnesota Press editions. Basing their recommendations on reliable tests of vocational aptitudes, the authors point the way to better vocational guidance and re-education, and to their use as weapons against unemployment. This is the story of a five-year investigation conducted as part of the work of the Employment Stabilization Research Institute of the University of Minnesota. The Institute’s Committee on Individual Diagnosis and Training (including experts in the fields of psychology, sociology, medicine, and economics) interviewed thousands of persons, and endeavored to discover why some were employed and others were not, and to devise means for the retraining and improved adjustment of those who were unemployed. This non-technical report includes scores of case histories and describes the tests used to determine whether persons had been doing the kind of work for which they were fitted by nature and training.

    eISBN: 978-1-4529-3817-2
    Subjects: Business

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-2)
  3. I. INTRODUCTION
    (pp. 3-8)

    On the morning of July 8,1931, John Jones,* a thirty-seven-year-old clerk who had been unemployed since the previous September, came to the Occupational Analysis Clinic of the Employment Stabilization Research Institute of the University of Minnesota. For three hours he worked at a long series of written and performance tests that were placed before him. After lunch he was given a complete physical examination, including blood tests, urinalysis, and hearing, vision, and strength tests. Before he left the clinic a trained interviewer spent almost an hour talking with him and getting a detailed record of his work history, his educational...

  4. II. TECHNIQUES AND TESTS
    (pp. 9-12)

    Before relating the story of results obtained from analyzing the records of some eight thousand employed and unemployed persons, it will be helpful to describe for the general reader not acquainted with them the various tests and techniques utilized in studying these individuals in the Occupational Analysis Clinic.

    The results of the intensive interview with each person studied were recorded systematically in an eight-page Occupational History Schedule—facts about the family background of the person, details concerning his education and training, a complete account of his work history, and a check list of descriptive terms to aid the interviewer in...

  5. III. A COMPARISON OF EARLY AND LATE UNEMPLOYED WORKERS
    (pp. 13-22)

    Unemployment is obviously a cumulative economic problem; not everyone is discharged at the same time. The labor market does not change overnight from the least possible supply of labor to the least possible demand for workers. As hard times continue, the ratio gradually shifts, until eventually the supply of workers far exceeds the demand. As the stream of unemployment steadily swells to alarming proportions, newspaper headlines tabulate the growing number as if each unemployed worker were an identical unit with every other. But are there not differences between the groups of those who become unemployed early and those who become...

  6. IV. SPECIAL TYPES OF UNEMPLOYED WORKERS
    (pp. 23-39)

    Besides disclosing differences between early and late unemployed workers, our case histories reveal the existence of special types of unemployed persons, among others the following: casual laborers who have always been drifters, turning from one short-time job to another; non-modal workers who have never shown enough persistence in a given line of work to justify a definite occupational classification; threshold workers or beginners who have little or no work experience and are therefore only on the threshold of a lifetime of job competition; physically handicapped workers; vocationally maladjusted workers; and unemployable persons. These “types” complicate the picture and disclose the...

  7. V. CHARACTERISTICS OF EMPLOYED WORKERS
    (pp. 40-49)

    In Chapter III evidence was presented that indicated that early unemployed workers were poorer employment risks in their specific occupations than late unemployed workers. These group-average differences in respect to the various items studied point to a kind of natural selection or survival of the fittest in job competition. Just how far does this process of natural selection go? Are late unemployed workers as different from employed workers as they are from early unemployed workers? Or does the tendency for the fittest to survive break down in later stages of the depression?

    From the standpoint of measured abilities it was...

  8. VI. RE-EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAMS
    (pp. 50-58)

    From the extensive case records of employed and unemployed individuals studied in the Occupational Analysis Clinic, it was possible to make an analysis of the training needs of adults. This analysis is timely because of its bearing on the oft-repeated suggestion that a panacea for unemployment is additional education and training. Adult education in particular has been pointed to as the solution of the difficulty.

    At the outset, neither accepting nor denying this generalization, we may well begin by asking specific questions. What kind of training should be provided? Should the unemployed workers be trained to go back into job...

  9. VII. THE ROLE OF EDUCATION IN OCCUPATIONAL ADJUSTMENT
    (pp. 59-71)

    High school graduates, college graduates, even holders of the coveted Phi Beta Kappa key presented themselves at the Occupational Analysis Clinic. Their arrival at the clinic was thought at first to reflect nothing more than the fact that the depression was no respecter of persons, that high-level and low-level workers alike were being caught in the tide of unemployment. But careful analysis of their case histories revealed another aspect of the problem. Many of these highly educated persons were found to be occupationally maladjusted. The accumulated evidence even suggested that our educational system itself was in part responsible for some...

  10. VIII. INDIVIDUAL DIAGNOSIS IN EMPLOYMENT PRACTICE
    (pp. 72-89)

    Up to this point we have been discussing the findings of a research undertaking. The present chapter recommends a program of individual diagnosis to be followed in the day-to-day activities of the public employment office. We begin with a brief account of the improved public employment offices developed by the Research Institute, which will give the necessary background for our description of occupational testing and individual diagnosis as a practical program.

    Free public employment offices in this country were largely an outgrowth of the federal employment service started and so successfully operated during the World War. Since that time various...

  11. IX. RESEARCH IN HUMAN ENGINEERING
    (pp. 90-124)

    The term “human engineering” implies a general scientific method, or analytical approach, that is more strict than our ordinary habits of thought. We cannot be content with guesses or vague general statements; we must dig out the facts and discover the relations that actually exist between them if we are to solve problems of human adjustment. Since the experimental approach that is characteristic of all science is the only one that gets at the facts in such fashion as to make their mutual relationships and their causes understandable, it is this approach that the modern personnel worker must use.

    It...

  12. X. THE COMPLETED PICTURE
    (pp. 125-135)

    In the preceding pages we have tried to present a non-technical account of what was done in one of the two main divisions (known as Project II) of the Employment Stabilization Research Institute of the University of Minnesota. Our sketch has grown considerably from the first introductory snapshot of the problems of John Smith. But in their very size and scope the problems of unemployment forced us to cover a wide area of human and industrial activity. John Smith—an unemployed worker—has led our investigators into every part of the maze of men and jobs. Now it is time...

  13. PUBLICATIONS OF THE EMPLOYMENT STABILIZATION RESEARCH INSTITUTE, UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA
    (pp. 136-142)
  14. INDEX
    (pp. 143-147)