Parent Education

Parent Education: The Northwest Conference on Child Health and Parent Education

EDITED BY RICHARD OLDING BEARD
Copyright Date: 1927
Edition: NED - New edition
Pages: 225
https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5749/j.cttttn22
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  • Book Info
    Parent Education
    Book Description:

    Parent Education was first published in 1927. Minnesota Archive Editions uses digital technology to make long-unavailable books once again accessible, and are published unaltered from the original University of Minnesota Press editions. This volume, containing papers read before the Northwest Conference on Child Health and Parent Education in 1927, includes a foreword by Lotus D. Coffman, President of the University of Minnesota. Parents who realize that “instinct” is insufficient equipment for fulfilling their responsibilities toward their children, and all others interested in the welfare of children will fund much valuable assistance in this collection of twenty-two papers. The contributors include such nationally known experts as: Henry F. Helmholz, Mayo Clinic; George Draper, Columbia University; Lydia J. Roberts, University of Chicago; Bird T. Baldwin, University of Iowa; Smiley Blanton, Vassar College; and Max Seham, Richard E. Scammon, and John E. Anderson, of the University of Minnesota.

    eISBN: 978-1-4529-3750-2
    Subjects: Psychology

Table of Contents

  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-ii)
  2. FOREWORD
    (pp. iii-iv)
    Lotus D. Coffman

    In whatever field science works, it works by piecemeal. It isolates some particular problem, and studies that problem without reference to all of its relationships or ramifications.

    Science has concerned itself pretty largely in the past with the study of inanimate things. Gradually, however, it has applied its methods to animate things. One of the very last things to be studied was the human being. At first the scientific study of man was confined pretty largely to heart beats, rates of circulation, reaction time, functions of various secretions, and the like. In time, however, scientific men began to integrate their...

  3. INTRODUCTION
    (pp. v-vi)
    Richard Olding Beard

    The Northwest Conference on Child Health and Parent Education, held in Minneapolis on March 8th, 9th and 10th, 1927, was the first gathering of its kind in this part of the country. It followed along the lines of similar conferences in New York, Chicago, and Los Angeles. It drew together some twenty-eight hundred people to listen to a remarkable group of speakers. The keen social consciousness of its hearers was apparent. It proved the appreciation of parents and teachers of the dawning of a better day in child development.

    From many who attended this singularly successful gathering and from some...

  4. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-x)
  5. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHILD
    • I. THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE HEALTHY CHILD
      (pp. 1-8)
      Henry F. Helmholz

      Certain standards have been generally accepted for the determination of the characteristics of the healthy child. Without going into great detail, I wish to outline for you the general conceptions of the normal, healthy child and at the same time to point out how difficult it is to maintain a final and absolute standard of health according to which a child must be judged.

      The characteristics of the healthy child can best be discussed from the physical and physiologic standpoints, which of course overlap, so that it is often difficult to classify characteristics definitely under one or the other heading....

    • II. THE PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHILD
      (pp. 9-23)
      Richard E. Scammon

      One of the striking results of the various programs of child study which are being carried out in this and other countries has been the recognition of a number of fundamental differences between the growing and the adult individual. One no longer thinks of the child as an adult in miniature—physically, socially, or mentally. But it is not so well recognized that in childhood itself there are several steps and stages, each of which shows profound individual characteristics. The transition between these stages may be gradual or abrupt. The steps themselves may be modified by many factors such as...

    • III. EFFICIENCY IN SCHOOL CHILDREN
      (pp. 24-29)
      Max Seham

      There are about twenty-five million children attending public school in the United States today. Of these, according to a recent estimate, as many as eight million, one third of the entire school population, are sub-efficient. They fail to do their work in school satisfactorily. They fail to respond adequately to demands at home. Some of these children, to be sure, suffer from physical defects. But investigations have shown that the results of physical defectiveness upon school progress are but slight. Neither does feeble-mindedness account for the large number of retarded pupils. The great problem, therefore, lies with the very much...

    • IV. THE CONSTITUTION OF THE NORMAL CHILD
      (pp. 30-37)
      George Draper

      To the physician, whose task is to attempt the solution of disease problems and to minimize so far as possible the sufferings of his patients, the topic of the normal child’s constitution is an unaccustomed one. Yet because his work deals with the expression of failures in adjustment between a living organism and its environment, he may be permitted to offer some remarks on the subject of the organism in general. No one will deny that the signs and symptoms of disease are evidence of conflict. The typhoid bacillus is not typhoid fever; neither is a human being typhoid fever....

    • V. THE HEALTH HABITS OF THE CHILD
      (pp. 38-53)
      Arthur B. Chandler

      The work of the nutritionist in the last few years first focused our attention on the extreme importance of the development of good health habits in the child. It was conclusively proved that the lack of them was responsible for much of the malnutrition found in so many school children. The difficulty of correcting this deficiency, when the bad habits had been present for a long time, forced greater and greater attention on the early years of childhood. About the same time, psychology underwent a marked change and focused much of its attention on the importance of proper habit formation....

    • VI. THE PREVALENCE OF NON-HUNGER AMONG CHILDREN AND SOME OF ITS CONTRIBUTING FACTORS
      (pp. 54-72)
      Lydia J. Roberts

      Hunger is perhaps the most dependable index of normality in the young and growing animal of any species. Every one who has observed young animals eat—pigs, calves, kittens, puppies, chickens—can readily recall the picture. They come running from every direction at the first signal that food is ready; they attack their food eagerly, pushing and scrambling over each other in their attempts to get the first and biggest bite; they eat steadily, greedily, through the meal, with no thought of anything else—unless to protect their food from some would-be thief; and they stop with an air of...

  6. THE CHILD AT HOME
    • VII. WHAT THE MOTHER MAY LEARN THROUGH DIRECTED OBSERVATION OF HER CHILD
      (pp. 73-86)
      Lovisa C. Wagoner

      It is one thing to look and another thing to see. To gaze with a sort of blind stare that yields little in the way of information is easy. Observation involves knowing what one is looking for as well as merely looking; in order properly to observe, one must know both how to look and what he can hope to see. Observation, then, is seeing with penetration.

      One of the pleasures of life is the watching of little children as they unconsciously busy themselves about their own affairs. Through such observation we may get insight into what is going on...

    • VIII. EARLY TRAINING AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE INDIVIDUAL
      (pp. 87-99)
      John E. Anderson

      In recent years, there is on every side a growing recognition of the importance of the early training of the individual. By early training, I am referring to the training of the child in the preschool period, that is, the period of early childhood. We have all of us read in the biographies of great men of the influence exerted by the home and are familiar with the word pictures of instruction beginning at the mother’s knee. But it is only recently that there has arisen any concerted attempt on the part of society to study the problems of the...

    • IX. THE HANDICAPPED CHILD IN THE HOME
      (pp. 100-104)
      Edward Dyer Anderson

      In considering the physically handicapped child, one is apt to think only of the crippled child. Unfortunately there are many other forms of physical handicaps among children. We have the child with defective eye-sight and defective hearing. We have the comparatively large group of children with cardiac trouble. There are also many children who have lessened physical efficiency because of chronic kidney disease. We have the diabetic. Then there is the large group of children who are called mal-nourished or fatigued. In studies made in the last few years this last group has been shown to be very large. It...

    • X. PROBLEMS OF GUIDANCE AND CONTROL
      (pp. 105-112)
      Ada Hart Arlitt

      Of the problems which child training presents, certain ones seem to come up for discussion in mothers’ conference groups more often than do others. The first of these is the wise administration of authority.

      In the administration of authority the parent should have in mind training the child to obey willingly while at the same time he trains him to think independently, to have initiative, to take responsibility, and in general to stand on his own feet whenever possible. He does not wish his child to do solely the things that he is told to do and to refrain from...

    • XI. DISCIPLINE
      (pp. 113-126)
      Smiley Blanton

      Theologians tell us that man was born in sin. Whether or not we accept this, it certainly is true that the infant is full of impulses which must be modified and directed if he is to become a healthy and successful adult. It is only when parents thoroughly understand the laws of discipline that they are able successfully to lead the child through the difficult period of childhood and adolescence. Discipline is often thought of as punishment. Punishment is sometimes necessary, of course, in order to break up unwise habits; but the most important function of discipline is not to...

    • XII. THE ADOLESCENT AGE
      (pp. 127-137)
      Borden S. Veeder

      I am asked to discuss in a brief half-hour a topic which has been the theme of countless years of thought and study. Necessarily such a discussion must be sketchy and limited. I shall make no attempt to discuss the problem of the individual adolescent. It is my purpose rather to try and make as clear to you as can be done in a limited paper the mechanisms of the physical and mental changes which take place during the adolescent years. Unless we have a clear understanding of the mechanisms of adolescence, our comprehension of the adolescent age is faulty...

  7. THE CHILD IN THE COMMUNITY
    • XIII. THE PLACE OF AUTHORITY IN CHILD TRAINING
      (pp. 138-141)
      William Hodson

      We are supposed to be living in an age when youth is rebelling against restraint and authority. If the pessimists are to be trusted, children have collectively, agreed to flaunt traditional morality and experiment with life as fancy may dictate. This alleged trend has inspired parents generally with a deep anxiety; the statesmen and the politicians of the land see the bloody hand of Bolshevism undermining the faith of the coming generation in democratic institutions. It is altogether a dark picture if taken seriously. The fact that of late many serious crimes seem to have been committed by a younger...

    • XIV. SOCIAL INFLUENCES IN THE LIFE OF THE CHILD
      (pp. 142-149)
      Frederick M. Eliot

      As soon as he is old enough to be aware of the fact that he is an individual living in a world of people, any child makes the discovery that there is a continual conflict between things he wants to do and the laws of the universe under which he must try to carry out his desires. This conflict, which is first discovered at a very early age, remains an important factor in the life of the individual throughout all the rest of his days. It seems to be in the nature of the universe itself, and the chief problem...

    • XV. THE COMMUNITY’S NEEDS IN THE HEALTH SERVICE OF THE CHILD
      (pp. 150-157)
      Samuel J. Crumbine

      A most superficial study of the causes of mortality in any community forces the conviction that for some time before the critical moment of birth, the life of the child has been so beset with the hazards of ignorance, of social and economic environment, and perhaps of faulty inheritance, as to make that life a veritable struggle for existence. The hazards of life in the trenches “over there,” beyond a doubt, were great. Of the total of nearly 5,020,000 commissioned officers and enlisted men in the army of the United States in the World War, over 50,500 were killed in...

    • XVI. SEX EDUCATION OF THE YOUNG CHILD
      (pp. 158-165)
      Sidonie Matsner Gruenberg

      It would have been impossible to discuss this subject with so large a group a comparatively few years ago. We had learned to speak about the need for social hygiene and, for some time before the war, some consideration had been given to the enlightenment of adolescents. But for the young child sex was not supposed to exist or to have any meaning. The change has come about quite as much through our increased understanding of the young child as through our increased understanding of the subject that Freud made respectable.

      To most people the topic suggests the need and...

    • XVII. THE VALUE OF STUDY GROUPS FOR PARENTS
      (pp. 166-172)
      Edith D. Dixon

      As yet we know very little about the value of the study group for parents. It is not a new medium for disseminating information, but whether it is the best medium for the discussion of child training questions is as yet uncertain. Some data are being collected, and in the near future we may be in a better position to speak more positively on the matter.

      In discussing this topic, “The Value of Study Groups for Parents,” I shall consider it under four headings. The first is the different groups of people to be reached by the study group; the...

    • XVIII. AN EXPERIMENT IN CHILD STUDY AND PARENT EDUCATION
      (pp. 173-180)
      Bird T. Baldwin

      The extensive study that has been made of defective children during the past decade, throughout this country and abroad, has helped to clear the ground and to suggest some methods of attack for the fascinating and profitable work on a more basic problem, the so-called normal child. It is, of course, more difficult to see the finer differences among normal children, to note how handicaps and how special defects may be removed and native abilities improved, than it is to observe marked abnormalities in children; but it is decidedly more interesting and important because with these normal children lies the...

  8. THE CHILD IN SCHOOL
    • XIX. THE PARENT AND THE SCHOOL
      (pp. 181-185)
      Margaretta Willis Reeve

      In connection with the topic assigned me in the discussion of the development of the child, “The Parent and the School,” three functions may be considered: first, preparation; second, information or education; third, cooperation. If a child is to be a musician, we see that hours of practice are duly observed, finger muscles are made supple, accuracy of tone and touch are developed. If one’s daughter is to be presented to society, there is a long period of training, in which she is taught to dance, acquires skill in sports, and is drilled in strict observance of etiquette. But how...

    • XX. WHAT THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS ARE DOING FOR CHARACTER EDUCATION
      (pp. 186-198)
      Georgina Lommen

      One who has the privilege of participation in the discussions of this Conference on any one of the many problems that relate to child welfare can be neither unmindful nor insensitive to the general “overtones” of criticism and dissatisfaction voiced against the work of the public schools of the state and of the nation. Certainly if school administrators and school teachers were to take seriously all the popular criticisms revealed in public discussion and in periodical literature this occasion would be one of very real humility for educators. Because the spirit of this Conference is essentially hopeful and forward-looking rather...

    • XXI. THE RELATION OF THE HOME AND THE SCHOOL IN PRESENT-DAY AMERICAN LIFE
      (pp. 199-204)
      M. V. O’Shea

      The home and the school are closer together in our country than elsewhere. Parents and teachers among us cooperate more actively and sympathetically in the instruction and training of the young than is the case in any other country. Parent-teacher associations are already very numerous throughout our country and new associations are being established everywhere. According to the speaker’s observation, the members of parent-teacher associations are sincerely devoted to the task of bringing the home and the school into more intimate relationships, to the end that both may be of greatest service in the physical, intellectual, social, and moral education...

    • XXII. THE MENTAL HYGIENE OF COLLEGE STUDENTS
      (pp. 205-212)
      Arthur H. Ruggles

      The fact that so large an audience is gathered to hear a discussion regarding the mental hygiene factor in education is a most significant thing. It shows the increasing interest in the mental factor in all educational programs, and it indicates a wholesome desire on the part of parents and educators to make provision for a wise program of mental health in the schools and colleges.

      The past few years have shown two things very definitely. First, when mental hygiene service is offered to college men and women, they accept it freely. Many thought in the beginning that its introduction...

  9. INDEX
    (pp. 213-215)