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Processed Foods and the Consumer

Processed Foods and the Consumer: Additives, Labeling, Standards, and Nutrition

Vernal S. Packard
Copyright Date: 1976
Edition: NED - New edition
Pages: 372
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  • Book Info
    Processed Foods and the Consumer
    Book Description:

    In this comprehensive guide, Professor Packard discusses problems and answers questions of paramount importance to the consumer concerning processed foods that are sold in the marketplace. The book is an excellent text for course use in classes in food science or technology, nutrition, dietetics, institutional food management, and related courses. It is also a valuable reference work for those in food industries and regulatory and health agencies, and for the concerned public.

    eISBN: 978-0-8166-6388-0
    Subjects: Health Sciences

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-2)
  3. I Food Definitions and Standards
    (pp. 3-25)

    A standard of identity is much like a homemaker’s recipe. It prescribes the kind and amount of ingredients and, in some instances, certain cooking procedures. Sometimes, as in home cookery, the standard allows the option of adding given ingredients; you can use them or not, as you prefer. If the recipe is followed, if no unspecified ingredients are included, if none are left out, if the processing steps are followed to the letter, the product can be called by its food name, i.e., breakfast cocoa, cherry pie, orange juice, milk, canned figs, pasteurized process cheese, artificially sweetened fruit jelly, and...

  4. II Food Names
    (pp. 26-42)

    By definition a common or usual name is any food name, possibly coined, that accurately and directly identifies or describes the basic nature of a food or its characterizing properties or ingredients. Such a name cannot be misleading nor is it allowed to be confusingly similar to the name of another food “not reasonably encompassed within the same name.” Once established, a common or usual name remains uniform for all identical or similar products.

    Because a food name describes a food, to some extent a name establishes the composition of that food. But further than that, common or usual names...

  5. III Food Additives
    (pp. 43-59)

    In the home sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) is added to bread dough to make it rise. The commercial baker uses sodium bicarbonate, and it is a food additive. You shake salt over a buttery ear of corn fresh from the farm. The dairy plant operator adds salt to butter, and it is a food additive. Turkey dressing—a recipe for which you are particularly proud—calls for a gourmet’s mix of spices and seasoning. At Thanksgiving you dig out your recipe and mix the ingredients with anticipation and relish. Those same spices added to bread cubes by a “commercial” chef...

  6. IV Food Flavor
    (pp. 60-78)

    “Gee, that tastes good! It has such a good flavor.” With that simple statement of pleasure, heard so often, unfolds a story of humankind’s searches and researches almost from the time our early ancestors discovered fire and the sizzling good taste of a cave-side meal. And the search goes on, today as never before, while flavor, the chemistry of it, still remains much a mystery to those scientists whose job it is to analyze and formulate something that “tastes good.”

    Without becoming bogged down in technicalities, we should have some common ground of understanding in order to discuss flavor in...

  7. V Food Color
    (pp. 79-96)

    No Rembrandt or Picasso ever dealt with artistic tribulations any more complex than those commonly encountered by food coloring specialists. Problems associated with coloring food encompass difficulties most painters, whether Baroque, Renaissance, or modern surrealist, never dreamed of. For there is much more to coloring food than the subtle mixtures of hues and oils, more than design and setting, more than the application of paint to canvas. Also involved are questions of solubility, color fastness, and the influence of heat. No canvas was ever subjected to retort cooking at temperatures above boiling. Nor are canvases frozen and thawed, or spray...

  8. VI Food Preservatives
    (pp. 97-118)

    Strangely enough preservatives, especially chemical preservatives, are often regarded with suspicion. They are looked upon either as “chemicals” that should be avoided or as additives injected into foods as a cover for unsanitary practices in the food processing plant. As expected, a grain of truth undergirds such distrust. There are some potential health risks; a preservative can be used in lieu of appropriate routine sanitation. But there are health risks, too, if preservatives are not used. And a certain amount of poor sanitation in processing plants will exist whether or not preservatives are allowed. So it is the purpose, here,...

  9. VII Emulsifiers and Stabilizers (Binders and Thickeners)
    (pp. 119-125)

    Without emulsifiers and stabilizers—the mortar and cement, the chinking and plaster and glue that bind a food system together—the cooky crumbles, cakes fall apart, puddings become thin runny syrups, processed cheeses melt to shapeless blobs. Without them there would be few vegetable toppings, no milk substitutes, no lemon, custard, or banana cream pie. Without them shortening would come as an oily lard, mayonnaise a greasy mess looking like wheyed sour milk, ice cream with the texture of crushed ice cubes. If that isn’t bad enough, cheese slices would stick to the wrapper, both paperandicing would be...

  10. VIII Toxic Metals in Food
    (pp. 126-144)

    It is a paper-thin veil on which mankind survives, the veil, like that worn to protect Moslem ladies’ innocence, delicate, permeable, readily violated by rampant man. A few inches of soil—it is all that exists between mankind and oblivion. In and under this veil, in the earth’s crust, are found a number of metals. Some exist free and pure; some, because of their excitable nature, exist only in combination with other elements. Here and there lie deposits rich in metal-bearing ore, laid down over aeons of time and mined in sizable amounts only recently. An isolated pocket of iron,...

  11. IX Poisons and Antinutritional Factors in “Natural” Foods
    (pp. 145-168)

    In an interview on a well-known television talk show an expert on natural foods was asked how he determined whether or not a new-found food was safe to eat. The ensuing conversation went something like this.

    “I take the product to a nearby college,” the expert replied, “and have it tested.”

    “How do they do that?”

    “Oh, they feed it to animals—rats, rabbits, and guinea pigs.”

    “And if the animals live, you eat it?”

    “No,” the expert answered facetiously, “then I feed it to my three grandchildren and iftheysurvive, I eat it!”

    There are some truths to...

  12. X Natural/Organic Foods
    (pp. 169-177)

    A whole new food business has grown out of consumers’ misgivings about additives in foods. Classed generally as “health” foods, natural/organic products are booming, with gross sales predicted shortly to reach several billions of dollars annually. Looking back now on its origin and growth, we see that the natural/organic movement takes on all the characteristics of a revolution. It began as a revolt—a consumer revolt against the unknown in foods. The early proponents were zealots, willing to go it on their own at all costs, and as convinced of their cause as any true believer. The rebellion started, it...

  13. XI Nutrients, Nutrient Sources, and Label Information
    (pp. 178-219)

    Only a country exceedingly blessed with food resources could conceive, much less promulgate, a regulation requiring nutrition information on packaged foods. In no place in the world where food is in short supply could one imagine a regulatory effort of this kind, especially one seemingly destined to serve only that 10 to 20 percent of the populace interested in reading or using label information in any way. All consumers will bear the expense so one can only hope that increased cost and a tightening of American food supplies may in some way excite enough interest to assure a reasonable nutritional...

  14. XII Foods and Food Supplements, Their Labels and Use
    (pp. 220-245)

    If you’ve survived comfortably, and healthily, without knowing the nutrient content of the food you eat, you probably do not need to complicate your life with such facts. Except for special dietary ailments or needs, or for tightly controlling the cost of food, there is little reason to dwell on label information. Those nutrients now arranged in formal listings on food packages have long been present without the special recognition now provided. One has always been able to live healthily (assuming there are no special dietary needs) by the temperate use of varieties of food abundant to most Americans. Our...

  15. XIII Nutritional Quality Guidelines
    (pp. 246-262)

    A nutritional quality guideline (NQG) is simply a food processor’s guideline for establishing the nutrient content of a class of food products. Originally proposed in 1971, NQG’s were envisioned as a replacement for the traditional, more cumbersome procedure of setting standards of identity for individual food products. It is a new approach, which offers guidelines rather than fixed standards for, to date, six different classes of food.

    Although the NQG is a voluntary program (as long as no claim of using an NQG is made), any processor who meets the standard may state on the label of the food product...

  16. I Standards of Identity for Foods
    (pp. 265-292)
  17. II Categories of Additive Functions as Used in the Regulation of Food Ingredients
    (pp. 293-295)
  18. III 101 Varieties of Food Additives
    (pp. 296-309)
  19. IV Food Categories Used in the Regulation of Food Ingredients
    (pp. 310-312)
  20. V A Listing of Some Natural and Artificial Flavoring Compounds
    (pp. 313-328)
  21. VI Some Commonly Used Chemical Preservatives
    (pp. 329-331)
  22. VII Cyclamates: A Chronology of Confusion
    (pp. 332-336)
  23. Glossary of Terms
    (pp. 337-342)
  24. Select Bibliography
    (pp. 345-350)
  25. Index
    (pp. 353-359)