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Advances in the Zoology of Tapeworms, 1950-1970

Robert A. Wardle
James A. McLeod
Sydney Radinovsky
Copyright Date: 1974
Edition: NED - New edition
Pages: 300
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  • Book Info
    Advances in the Zoology of Tapeworms, 1950-1970
    Book Description:

    This volume is a sequel to the comprehensive study by Professors Robert A. Wardle and James A. McLeod, The Zoology of Tapeworms, published by the University of Minnesota Press in 1952. The new book is based on research and publications which have become available since the earlier volume was published. While much of the information in the earlier book was devoted to the identification, description, and classification of families, genera, and species, research efforts in the last two decades have been focused in new directions. Although some researchers have been engaged in revising the original classification in the light of new findings, others have been exploring specificity, serology, and genetics, and have undertaken studies of host-parasite relationships, pathogenesis, and therapeutics in the treatment of tapeworm infestation. These investigations have been facilitated by laboratory techniques which were not available for earlier studies. Following introductory chapters on the recent expansion of tapeworm research and the phylogeny of tapeworms, the authors devote a chapter each to 21 orders of tapeworms. The material is based on a survey of the literature including more than 2,000 papers on tapeworm zoology published since 1950. Chapters on laboratory propagation and on therapeutics complete the text, and there is an extensive list of references. Many drawings illustrate the text._x000B_

    eISBN: 978-0-8166-6485-6
    Subjects: Zoology

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Acknowledgments
    (pp. vii-viii)
    Robert A. Wardle, James A. McLeod and Sydney Radinovsky
  3. Table of Contents
    (pp. ix-ix)
  4. Illustrations
    (pp. x-xiii)
  5. System of Classification Used in This Book
    (pp. xiv-2)
  6. CHAPTER 1 The Recent Expansion of Tapeworm Research
    (pp. 3-9)

    The scientific literature which records research findings on the zoology of tapeworms during the period 1950-1970 reveals a significant expansion of interest in the field of helminthology. This is reflected in the quantity, quality, and variety of research reports which have originated in laboratories and research institutions throughout the world during the period. In this chapter we shall comment on these and other aspects of recent research, and we shall discuss briefly the scientists who have been the most active contributors in the field of tapeworm zoology.

    When the bibliography forThe Zoology of Tapeworms(Wardle and McLeod, 1952) was...

  7. CHAPTER 2 The Phylogeny of Tapeworms
    (pp. 10-22)

    There was a time when there were three plausible hypotheses to explain the origin of tapeworms: (1) Claus, Odhner, and Nybelin proposed that they were derived from Trematoda; (2) Spengel argued for evolution from Monogenea; (3) Loennberg suggested that they developed from Turbellaria. Today, the first of the three hypotheses has been rejected, the second has been revived by the Russian helminthologist Bychowsky and is strongly supported in North America by Price and in Great Britain by Llewellyn. The third theory, perhaps the most widely accepted, has been strongly supported by Stunkard and Voge. However, questions regarding the raison d’être...

  8. CHAPTER 3 Order Gyrocotylidea Poche, 1926
    (pp. 23-24)

    Of the class Cotyloda. Small, thick, aberrant tapeworms, monozoic and unsegmented, found only in the large intestine of chimaeroid fishes (Chimaera, Callorhynchus, Hydrolagus), an ancient group but still not uncommon in the Pacific inshore waters of North America, the Atlantic inshore waters of northern Europe, and the southern inshore waters of Australia and New Zealand. With one family, Gyrocotylidae Benham, 1901.

    Only one pair of gravid gyrocotylids is found in an infected chimaeroid. Presumably twin survivors of a mass infestation are an example of the common biological phenomenon of mass equilibrium which keeps a population within the limits of the...

  9. CHAPTER 4 Order Amphilinidea Poche, 1922
    (pp. 25-25)

    Of the class Cotyloda. Forms with the body flat, oval, more or less elongated, monozoic, and unsegmented. Found in the body cavities of Acipenseridae (sturgeons) in Europe and North America, siluroid fishes in India, and in the tortoiseChelodina longicollisin Australia. Anterior end provided with a boring mechanism, enabling it to push through the body wall of the host; lacks holdfast organs. Posterior end rounded or slightly concave. From the dorsal surface—the surface farthest from the ovary—the vagina appears to lie behind the ovary and on the left side of the sperm duct. It opens on the...

  10. CHAPTER 5 Order Caryophyllidea Beneden (in Olsson, 1893)
    (pp. 26-42)

    Of the class Cotyloda. There are 30 to 35 genera and 70 to 80 species of typical Cotyloda, characteristically small and unsegmented, lacking true holdfast structures, each having only one set of reproductive organs. Zoological consensus regards them as prematurely reproductive procercoid larvae of protocestode ancestral stocks.

    Endosymbiotic (a term suggested by Voge in 1963c to replace "parasitic" or "commensal"), occurring as immature or gravid pseudoadults in the alimentary tract of certain families of freshwater fishes: Cyprinidae and Gobiidae in Europe; Cyprinidae and Catostomidae in North America; Siluridae in Asia, Africa, and Australia. Unrecorded from fishes in South America. Procercoid...

  11. CHAPTER 6 Order Spathebothridea Wardle and McLeod, 1952 (Spathebothrididea Ronald, 1958; Spathebothriidea Yamaguti, 1959)
    (pp. 43-45)

    Of the class Cotyloda. Three families of aberrant tapeworms suspected to be precocious juveniles whose original hosts have dwindled or disappeared.

    1. With holdfast organs lacking .................... Spathebothriidae

    2. With terminal cuplike holdfast organ ............ Cyathocephalidae

    3. With two spherical bothria ....................... Diplocotylidae

    The name is derived from the Greekspathe, sword. Small forms with a bluntly tapering anterior end and a sharply tapering posterior end, with the anterior end completely lacking holdfast structures. Parenchymal muscles lacking. Genital pores alternating irregularly from one flat surface to the other. Vaginal pore behind cirrus aperture. Uterine aperture at same level as vaginal pore but lateral...

  12. CHAPTER 7 Order Pseudophyllidea Carus, 1863
    (pp. 46-63)

    Of the class Cotyloda. A group of seven families comprising twenty-five genera that may be referred to as either dibothriate or difossate. Majority opinion classifies them as precociously sexual juveniles of former tapeworms whose vertebrate hosts have declined or disappeared. Since the families have differences in such features as holdfast structure, segmentation, location of genital pores, uterine structure, and nature of egg and embryo, it is difficult to arrive at a description that would apply to the order as a whole. Because of this, each family will be treated separately.

    Since 1863, when Carus coined the name Pseudophyllidea (implying false...

  13. CHAPTER 8 Order Diphyllidea, new order
    (pp. 64-96)

    Of the class Cotyloda. A new order for which we are reviving the obsolete name formerly used by Mola (1921). The order Diphyllidea, to which Braun assigned the original seven species recognized by Carus, was rejected by Lühe (1910), as was Mola’s classification in which it was revived. It is now anomen oblitum; since it is not presently occupied, however, the name can be used for a new order of diphyllobothriids. Diphyllobothriidae Lühe, 1910, a family whose controversial history and wealth of descriptive literature merits separate taxonomic treatment, is the only one placed under this order.

    Medium to large...

  14. CHAPTER 9 Order Proteocephalidea Mola, 1928
    (pp. 97-103)

    Of the class Eucestoda. About 25 to 30 genera of small tetrafossate tapeworms with neither bothria nor bothridia on the holdfast but with four suckers flush with its surface and sometimes a fifth sucker that is apically situated. The name (derived from the Greekprotos, first, andkephale, head) reflects the early belief that these were the first suckered true tapeworms. The name of the order may charitably be credited to Mola (1928), but the credit for identifying the features of this order and establishing its classification must go to La Rue, with his knowledge of the parasites of freshwater...

  15. CHAPTER 10 Order Tetraphyllidea Carus, 1863
    (pp. 104-113)

    Of the class Eucestoda. About twenty genera of small to medium-sized, very muscular, active tapeworms that are found in elasmobranch fishes (sharks, dogfishes, and rays) either clinging to the spiral valve (a fold of gut mucosa) or moving along it antiperistaltically with the help of fourstalked or semisessile projections from the holdfast known as bothridia. The stalked forms are trumpet-shaped; the sessile forms are earlike, compartmented, and crumpled.

    The tetrabothridial shark tapeworms were introduced to zoology by the Belgian zoologist P. J. van Beneden in 1849 astetraphyllides. By 1863 they had been designated by Carus as one of the...

  16. CHAPTER 11 Order Litobothridea Dailey, 1969
    (pp. 114-116)

    Of the class Eucestoda. Holdfast with a single apical sucker; anterior proglottides modified, cruciform in transverse section; neck lacking; body dorsoventrally flattened with numerous segments; genitalia single, medullary; segments laciniated and craspedote, apolytic or anapolytic; testes numerous, medullary, preovarian; genital pores lateral; ovary twolobed or four-lobed, posterior; yolk glands follicular, encircling medullary parenchyma; eggs not embryonated while in uterus. Adult in spiral valve of elasmobranchs.

    One family,Litobothridae, with the characteristics of the order. Type genus,Litobothrium, with the characteristics of the family; genotype,alopiasDailey, 1969, with the characteristics of the genus.Alopiasand the additional speciesconiformisare...

  17. CHAPTER 12 Order Lecanicephalidea Baylis, 1920
    (pp. 117-118)

    Of the class Eucestoda. The name of this order is derived from the Geeklekane, pot or dish, andkephale, head. Small or medium-sized forms, with holdfasts lacking bothridia but subdivided by a horizontal groove into an anterior region—dome-shaped, or anteroposteriorly flattened, or represented by a deep, cuplike sucker or by retractile tentacles—and a posterior region which commonly is cushionlike with four suckers or which again may be like a collar or represented by tentacles. The adult worms are parasites of elasmobranchs.

    These worms were placed within Tetraphyllidea by Braun (1894-1900) as a family Lecanicephalidae (a renaming of...

  18. CHAPTER 13 Order Trypanorhyncha Diesing, 1863
    (pp. 119-125)

    Of the class Eucestoda. Small to medium-sized tapeworms from elasmobranchs; readily recognizable by two to four bothridia and four threadlike tentacles armed with hooks and withdrawable into the body of the holdfast.

    The name Trypanorhyncha (Greektrypanos, borer, andrhynchos, snout) was coined by Diesing (1863) for three genera of tapeworms from selachians:RhynchobothriumBlainville, 1828;SyndesmobothriumDiesing, 1854; andTetrarhynchobothriumDiesing, 1854. All of these had sessile bothridia and protrusible armed tentacles. However, even at this date, a number of larval trypanorhynchans had been recorded, described, and assigned to hypothetical genera. The problem of devising a scheme of classification...

  19. CHAPTER 14 Order Mesocestoididea, new order
    (pp. 126-129)

    Of the class Eucestoda. Small to medium-sized tapeworms of mammals and birds; four suckers and no rostellum; genital pores on the dorsal segment surfaces; eggs enclosed by membranes, passing wormlike embryos into a paruterine organ at the side of the uterus. First larval stage unknown but suspected to be a short-lived form within a dung-breeding scarabaeid beetle; second larval stage a tetrathyridium in a snake or other reptile. Adults parasitic in reptile-eating mammals or commonly in charadriiform birds. Type genus,MesocestoidesVaillant, 1863; additional genus,MesogynaVoge, 1952.

    Using Vaillant’s genus, which was called an intermediate cestoid because of its...

  20. CHAPTER 15 Order Tetrabothriidea Baer, 1954 (as Tetrabothridea)
    (pp. 130-134)

    Of the class Eucestoda. Holdfast provided with four muscular bothridia; yolk gland single, in ventral region of each segment anterior to the ovary; uterus dorsal to the ovary, opening sometimes on the dorsal surface of the segment. Adults in homeothermic marine vertebrates. (Emended from Baer, 1954.) Type family,TetrabothriidaeBraun, 1900 (Stiles and Hassall, 1912; Linton, 1891).

    Holdfast lacking rostellum or hooks, rectangular in shape; suckers usually large, oval, commonly with muscular outgrowths from their margins, identical structurally with the suckers; in exceptional cases, suckers lacking completely; genital pores unilateral on left margin of body; genital atria deep and muscular;...

  21. CHAPTER 16 Order Nematotaeniidea, new order
    (pp. 135-138)

    Of the class Eucestoda. A family of Cyclophyllidea but regarded here as justifying removal and promotion to independent ordinal rank. Adults are found commonly in frogs and toads. With one family, Nematotaeniidae Lüne, 1910.

    The type genusNematotaeniawas named by Lüne (1899) for a Linnaean species,Taenia dispar, recorded by Goeze (1782) from a toad in Europe. It remained anomen nudumuntil Lühe described it in 1910 and placed it as the type genus of his new family, Nematotaeniidae. Meanwhile, Fuhrmann (1908) and Ransom (1909) independently placed the genus withinParuterina(Hymenolepididae). The most recent writers have adopted...

  22. CHAPTER 17 Order Taeniidea, new order
    (pp. 139-166)

    Of the class Eucestoda. Promotion of the cyclophyllidean family Taeniidae to ordinal status. Medium-sized to large tapeworms, markedly segmented, with gravid segments longer than broad; holdfast with four typical suckers and a permanent rostellum with a double circle of hooks; genital pore marginal and irregularly alternating; osmoregulatory canals conspicuous, the dorsal ones thick-walled and sinuous, the ventral ones thin-walled and straight; prominent transverse canal in each segment; testes numerous; sperm duct sinuous and without external or internal seminal vesicles; ovary bilobed with vagina curved and yolk gland single, compact, postovarian; gravid uterus with a median stem and lateral branches or...

  23. CHAPTER 18 Order Davaineidea, new order
    (pp. 167-172)

    Of the class Eucestoda. A new order established by the promotion of the cyclophyllidean family Davaineidae to ordinal rank. A davaineidean tapeworm may be readily identified by the features of its holdfast, mature segment, and gravid segment and by the life cycle. Since these features are uniform throughout the order, we can use the family analysis by Fuhrmann (1907) and qualify it with the descriptions of his three subfamilies that we consider to be families. The davaineideans are small to medium-sized tapeworms; the holdfast has a protrusible, retractable rostellum, armed with one or more circles of hammer-shaped hooks, and the...

  24. CHAPTER 19 Order Anoplocephalidea, new order
    (pp. 173-187)

    Of the class Eucestoda. A new order created by promoting to ordinal status the unwieldy cyclophyllidean family Anoplocephalidae Cholodkovsky, 1902. This order comprises small, medium-sized, or large tapeworms found mainly in rodents, lagomorphs, and ungulates, with one or two genera in primates, four genera in reptiles, and the remainder in birds. Thus, the order is equivalent to Skrjabin’s suborder Anoplocephalata of Cyclophyllidea, 1933. The name is derived from the Greekanoplos, unarmed, andkephale, head, which may be roughly translated as "bald heads." Type genus,AnoplocephalaBlanchard, 1848.

    Anoplocephalids are readily recognized by certain features of the holdfast, the mature...

  25. CHAPTER 20 Order Hymenolepididea, new order
    (pp. 188-200)

    Of the class Eucestoda. A new order created by raising to ordinal rank the cyclophyllidean family Hymenolepididae of Railliet and Henry (1909). The name of the order is derived from the Greekhymen, membrane, andlepis, shell, and refers to the delicate membranes that enclose the egg. The membrane-shelled tapeworms have been found only in birds and mammals. They are small to medium-sized forms with four unarmed suckers and a retractable rostellum with a single circle of characteristic hooks (Figures 76, 101). There is only one set of reproductive organs per mature segment (Figure 102). The genital pores are unilateral;...

  26. CHAPTER 21 Order Dilepididea, new order
    (pp. 201-212)

    Of the class Eucestoda. A new order created by raising to ordinal status the cyclophyllidean family Dilepididae of Railliet and Henry, 1909. The name is derived from the Greekdi, double, andlepis, shell, referring to the two delicate membranes which enclose the embryo. With the characters of the parent family, as emended by Lincicome, 1939. Small to medium-sized tapeworms with four suckers which may or may not be armed with marginal spines and a retractable rostellum (the rostellum may be lacking, degenerate, or unarmed, but commonly it has one, two, or several crowns—that is, circles of rosethorn hooks);...

  27. CHAPTER 22 Order Cyclophyllidea Braun, 1900
    (pp. 213-220)

    Of the class Eucestoda. The order as previously accepted had as many genera as the other orders put together. The traditional explanation for its origin is that the order was borrowed from Beneden or from Carus, but there is no evidence for this suggestion. Braun intended the order for four-suckered tapeworms found in birds and mammals. Before the most recent revision, the order Cyclophyllidea contained fourteen families. This enormous quarry of tapeworm information has now been reduced to the six reasonably small families distinguished in the following key after the removal and promotion to ordinal rank of the families Anoplocephalidae,...

  28. CHAPTER 23 Order Aporia, new order
    (pp. 221-222)

    Of the class Eucestoda. The name of the order was derived from the Greek for "doubtful boundaries." Established for two aberrant and unrelated families of tapeworms which cannot be fitted into any of the tapeworm orders that are presently recognized.

    Small forms; large holdfast has four deep, cuplike bothridia; large rostellum armed with very small and numerous hooks arranged as an undulating circle; body cylindrical, unsegmented externally and internally, with a deep groove running full length of the left-hand margin; testes medullary throughout the body; ovaries follicular and cortical as a sleeve around the testes; ovaries lacking from some forms...

  29. CHAPTER 24 Laboratory Propagation
    (pp. 223-236)

    Laboratory propagation is the maintenance of organisms isolated from their usual environment and reared within laboratory glassware (a condition calledin vitrocultivation) or within laboratory or other animals in a controlled environment (such as fishes in aquaria and tanks). It is a practice used by researchers in the fields of bacteriology, mycology, protozoology, and entomology and by gamekeepers, breeders of tropical fish, and keepers of zoological gardens. Wardle and McLeod (1952, pp. 92-141) surveyed the attempts to treat tapeworms in this manner—from Frisch (1734) to the Irish zoologist Smyth (1947-1950). Smyth has summarized his research in two monographs,...

  30. CHAPTER 25 Therapeutics
    (pp. 237-240)

    When applied to animal parasites, the wordtherapeuticscovers not only the removal of the parasitic organism concerned but also the removal of potential carriers of reinfection. Although we have extensive therapeutic campaigns against malaria, yellow fever, Rocky Mountain tick fever, African tick fevers of cattle, ancylostomiasis, louse-borne typhus, human hydatidosis in Alaska and Europe, livestock hydatidoses in Africa, clonorchid liver fluke in China, and diphyllobothriasis in Scandinavia and Russia, it is only recently that the possibility of similar campaigns against pandemic helminth infestations has begun to attract attention.

    More than a hundred anthelmintics have been brought to our attention...

  31. References
    (pp. 241-260)
  32. Index
    (pp. 261-274)
  33. Back Matter
    (pp. 275-275)