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Health, Program Evaluation, and Demography

Health, Program Evaluation, and Demography: Research Instruments in Social Gerontology, Volume 3

David J. Mangen
Warren A. Peterson
Toshi Kii
Robert Sanders
Copyright Date: 1984
Edition: NED - New edition
Pages: 480
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  • Book Info
    Health, Program Evaluation, and Demography
    Book Description:

    Research Instruments in Social Gerontology, Volume 3: Health, Program Evaluation, and Demography was first published in 1984. The increasing number of older people in the United States has served to focus attention upon the processes of aging and the effectiveness of social programs for the elderly. In order to plan effective programs, accurate social measures are necessary. Now, more than ever before, researchers need conceptually explicit instruments designed to assess individual and social behaviors, attitudes, and traits in the elderly population. This three-volume work is designed to serve the needs of researchers, evaluators, and clinicians in assessing the instruments used in the field of aging. The third and final volume of Research Instruments in Social Gerontology reviews measurement in the areas of health, program evaluation, and demography. The twelve chapters address substantive areas such as the functional capacity of the elderly, their utilization of health services, the effectiveness of long-term care, evaluating costs of service, and geographic mobility. As in the earlier volumes, most chapters are composed of three parts: a narrative review of the major theoretical concerns within that particular research area; a collection of abstracts with information about samples, reliability, validity, and scaling properties; and, whenever possible, the instruments themselves. Volume 3 also contains several chapters that focus on conceptual issues such as cost analysis and demographic trends.

    eISBN: 978-0-8166-5530-4
    Subjects: Psychology

Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-vi)
  3. Preface
    (pp. vii-xii)
    David J. Mangen and Warren A. Peterson
  4. How to Use These Volumes
    (pp. xiii-xiv)
  5. Contributors to Volume 3
    (pp. xv-2)
  6. Chapter 1 Introduction
    (pp. 3-8)
    David J. Mangen

    Research instruments can be found in a surprisingly large number of publications in every field, and certainly gerontology is no exception. Since many journals, books, dissertations, and unpublished manuscripts contain empirical instruments, the task of reviewing the measurement literature can be difficult. Few scholars have access to all the relevant literature, and the limited time frames of funded research may preclude the exchange of information necessary for developing cumulative research strategies. As a result, researchers often devise their own instruments, and knowledge becomes progressively more fragmented.

    The fragmentation of knowledge has important theoretical and empirical consequences for any area of...

  7. Chapter 2 Functional Capacity
    (pp. 9-84)
    Marvin Ernst and Nora Sue Ernst

    Gerontologists frequently lament the fact that chronological age is at best a poor indicator of the actual capacity of an individual. Chronological age tends to mask individual differences, and it constitutes a broad categorical description of persons whose only common trait is that they happen to have been born on the same date, in the same year, or during the same time period. Cohort analysts are quick to tell us that, though a particular cohort may have certain similarities because its members were born and socialized during the same period of time, individual variance within the cohort cluster must still...

  8. Chapter 3 Health
    (pp. 85-116)
    Sidney M. Stahl

    The concept of health is both mercurial and illusive. Its definition has changed over time and tends to vary among individuals and groups. In addition, the concept of health differs among cultures and age gradations within the same social system. So inconsistent is its definition that it has been suggested that health is a “mirage” (Dubos, 1959). Attempts at definition and operationalization of the concept frequently result in the conclusion that health is characterized by a lack of illness or disease. This negative definition is considered problematic because it implies that health exists only in the absence of illness or...

  9. Chapter 4 Utilization of Health Services
    (pp. 117-136)
    Rodney M. Coe

    The search for variables linked with health status has included analyses of data on the utilization of the components of the health-care system.Utilizationin this context refers to some contact with a health-care provider. The discussion in this chapter will be limited to the utilization of professional services in the formal health-care system, although it should be recognized that nonprofessional parts of the system are also used (Levin and Idler, 1981). Most often, the use of professional services involves personal contacts such as visiting the office of a physician or a dentist, receiving counseling or other services from a nurse...

  10. Chapter 5 Individual Needs and Community Resources
    (pp. 137-174)
    Betty Havens

    Assessing individual needs and developing community resource data bases have become increasingly important concerns for gerontologists, planners, and funders, as well as for the elderly. Virtually every level of public jurisdiction requires some formulation of the needs of the aged population in order to make resource allocations. These formulations have been couched in the terminology of area plans, state proposals, utilization and demand criteria, community planning cycles, agency reviews, and so on. In response to these demands, the field of gerontology has become involved in the development of instruments that measure needs and resources. Obviously, some instruments have been better,...

  11. Chapter 6 Social Program Tracking and Evaluation
    (pp. 175-216)
    Raymond M. Steinberg

    In the United States, attention to the design, administration, and evaluation of human service programs during the last two decades has increasingly called for the involvement of social scientists and the use of scientific methods. One-third of the federal budget is dedicated to income-maintenance programs and a wide variety of health, welfare, and educational services. The mass media, prodded by organized social movements, have broadened community consciousness of the plight of the nation’s poor, sick, and disabled, the discriminated-against minorities, and the elderly.

    As the awareness of the needs of the disadvantaged and the costs associated with programs to serve...

  12. Chapter 7 The Effectiveness of Long-term Care
    (pp. 217-316)
    Nancy N. Eustis and Sharon K. Patten

    This chapter is concerned with measures for evaluating the long-term care of chronically ill older persons. The termlong-term careincludes several different types of care settings, such as institutional care (homes for the aged or nursing homes), adult day care, comprehensive home care programs, and sheltered housing. There has been extensive research on long-term-care institutions, and so this chapter is, to some degree, limited in its reporting of measures developed for use in home care or adult day care settings or measures that are applicable in several settings. However, research on the feasibility, cost, and effectiveness of home care...

  13. Chapter 8 Evaluating the Cost of Services
    (pp. 317-348)
    Jay N. Greenberg

    We begin by observing that the economic resources of any given society that are available to the elderly are limited and have alternative uses for society with varying degrees of value (benefit). Thus, if planners and decision makers are to make the best use of these resources, they must allocate them in such a way as to maximize the benefits or values of the outcomes for any given amounts of resources available to them. Cast in these terms, it becomes clear that any analysis of the efficacy of a particular program or service to the elderly that does not consider...

  14. Chapter 9 Organizational Properties
    (pp. 349-390)
    John O’Brien and Greg Chaille

    This chapter describes general measurement problems and examples of instruments that assess the properties of formal organizations. It is unlike most chapters in this series, which concentrate on instruments that measure the properties of individuals. At both levels of analysis, a tremendous variety of empirical work has been undertaken. Obviously, there is no way that a single chapter on organizational measurement can do justice to this broad, expansive field. For that reason, what is included here is not a comprehensive catalog of instruments. Instead, the introductory text and the short sample of specific instruments are intended to serve as a...

  15. Chapter 10 Indexes for the Aging of Populations
    (pp. 391-398)
    Toshi Kii

    Demographers have known for some time that the populations of industrialized societies have been aging, or that the proportion of older people has been increasing. In the United States, the population has aged consistently from a 4.1% older population (65 years and over) at the turn of the century to 10.5% in 1975. It is expected to age further over the next few decades.

    The aging of a population is often attributed to the increasing longevity of human beings. This is not the principal cause, however. Certainly, longevity contributes to the aging of populations, but the major causal factor in...

  16. Chapter 11 Demographic Characteristics
    (pp. 399-416)
    Toshi Kii

    This chapter, using the most recent data available, presents various descriptive accounts of the demographic, social, and economic characteristics of the older population in the United States. Some indexes relevant to measuring certain aspects of the older population have not been used extensively with older populations but are included in this chapter because they are conceptually interesting and hold some promise for future use. Three general areas are covered in this chapter: individual aging, or longevity; geographic distribution; and social and economic characteristics.

    The best demographic indicator of individual aging can be expressed in terms of life expectancy and the...

  17. Chapter 12 Geographic Mobility
    (pp. 417-436)
    Toshi Kii

    It is a well-documented fact that older persons are less mobile than younger persons (Bogue, 1959; Shryock, 1964). Although higher mobility for young people has been associated with such “pull” factors as economic opportunity, mobility among the older population has been associated with retirement migration and “push” factors such as dissatisfaction with current housing and neighborhood (Burgess, Hoyt, and Manley, 1965; Goldscheider, 1966; Goldstein, 1967).

    This chapter addresses two conceptually different approaches to assessing the migration of the older population. The first deals with demographic mobility rates, both long- and short-distance, and the second includes selected scales that measure the...

  18. Indexes
    (pp. 439-455)
  19. Back Matter
    (pp. 456-456)